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''by lead author [[Alexandra Haché]]''<br><br>''minor edits by [[Paul Bacsich]]<br><br>''table of initiatives by [[Nick Kearney]] - [[Media:Open Education Initiatives in Spain.pdf]]''<br><br>''For an update for Adult Education, see the April 2015 report [[Adult Education and OER in Spain]] by [[Giles Pepler]]''<br><br>''For entities in Spain see [[:Category:Spain]]''
== Overview ==
Spain is a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy and has been a member of the European Union since 1986, and NATO since 1982.
=== OER in Spain: Map ===
 
Total number of Open Education Initiatives in {{PAGENAME}} on {{CURRENTDAYNAME}}, {{CURRENTDAY}} {{CURRENTMONTHNAME}} {{CURRENTYEAR}} at {{CURRENTTIME}} =
'''[[Has initiative-count::{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:{{PAGENAME}}]] |format=count| limit=1000 }} ]]''', of which:
* [[Has MOOC initiative-count::{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:MOOC]] [[Category:{{PAGENAME}}]] |format=count| limit=1000 }} ]] are MOOC
* [[Has OER initiative-count::{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:OER]] [[Category:{{PAGENAME}}]] |format=count| limit=1000 }} ]] are OER
 
''Initiatives per million'' = [[Has initiatives-per-mill::{{#expr: ( ( {{#show:Spain|?Has initiative-count#}} * 1000000 ) / {{#show:Spain|?Has population#}} ) round 2 }}]]
 
[[Category:Countries for OEI tracking]]
 
{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:Spain]] |?Has coordinates|format=googlemaps |centre=40.5,-3.7 | limit = 300}}
 
'''Additional information'''
 
''For additional open education initiatives in Spain not yet integrated into the main database, see the report [[Media:Open Education Initiatives in Spain.pdf]] by [[Nick Kearney]].''
 
'''''Recent information post POERUP'''''
 
''See the April 2015 report [[Media:ADOERUP_Annex_Spain.pdf]] by [[Giles Pepler]]''
=== Further information ===
The Spanish language is the official language in every autonomous commmunity but six autonomous communities have also other official languages:
# [[Catalonia]] ([[Catalan ]] and [[Occitan]])# [[Valencian Community ]] ([[Catalan]], also called [[Valencian ]] there)# [[Balearic Islands]] ([[Catalan]])# [[Galicia]] ([[Galician]])# [[BasqueCountry]] Country ([[Basque]])# [[Navarre]] ([[Basque]], but only in the north)
List of the autonomous communities, with their Capital capital city (the place where the government has its offices):
# [[Andalusia ]] (its capital is Sevilla)# [[Aragon ]] (its capital is Zaragoza)# [[Asturias ]] (its capital is Oviedo)# [[Balearic Islands ]] (its capital is Palma de Mallorca)# [[Basque Country ]] (its capital is Vitoria)# [[Canary Islands ]] (they have two capitals - Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife)# [[Cantabria ]] (its capital is Santander)# Castile[[Castilla-La Mancha ]] (its capital is Toledo)# [[Castile and León Leon]] (its capital is Valladolid)# [[Catalonia ]] (its capital is Barcelona)# [[Extremadura ]] (its capital is Mérida)# [[Galicia ]] (its capital is Santiago de Compostela)# [[La Rioja ]] (its capital is Logroño)# [[Madrid Community]](its capital is Madrid)# [[Murcia Region]] (its capital is Murcia)# [[Navarre ]] (its capital is Pamplona)# [[Valencian Community ]] (its capital is Valencia)
Spain also has two cities on the north coast of Africa: [[Ceuta]] and [[Melilla]]. They are called "autonomous cities" and have simultaneously the majority of the power of an autonomous community and also power of provinces and power of municipalities.
==== Examinations in {{PAGENAME}} ====
The Spanish '''Bachillerato''' is the post-16 stage of education, comparable to the [[A Levels]]/[[Higher (ScottishEngland) or Highers (Scotland)]] in the [[UK]], the [[French Baccalaureate]] in [[France]] or the [[International Baccalaureate]].
There are two parts, a core curriculum with the compulsory subjects, and a specialist part with a few pre-selected branches to choose from.
**Plastic Graphic Expression Techniques (second year and optional)
**Information and communication technologies. (Optional)
 
*Nature and Health Sciences:
**Biology
**Chemistry
**Physics or [[Earth Sciences]]
**Mathematics
*Sciences & Engineering:
**Physics,**Maths,**Chemistry,
**Technical Drawing
*Social Sciences:
**Applied Maths,**Economics,**Geography,**History of the Contemporany Contemporary World (only 1st year)
*Humanities:
**Latin,**Greek,
**History of Art/World Literature
**History of the Contemporany Contemporary World (only 1st year)
''The existence of the Bachillerato implies that there could be economies of scale if a national or autonomous region government funded the development of OER content.''
 
=== e-learning ===
initiatives have raised awareness and increased the access, uptake and use of ICT by teachers, educators, students and life long learners. The complete picture can be found in the [http://www.slideshare.net/catedrastelefonica/las-tic-y-la-educacin following report developed by Telefonica] in 2009. Some of those initiatives are detailed below:
* ==== National Level====
The Spanish Ministry of Education still coordinates some initiatives at a national level in collaboration with autonomous communities, like the [http://www.ite.educacion.es/escuela-20 ESCUELA 2.0].
In relation to private organisations, [http://encuentro.educared.org/ EducaRed] is the Telefónica Foundation program to promote the educational use of ICT in teaching, benefiting teachers, students, parents. It us currently being implemented in seven countries: Spain, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Peru. Founded in Spain in 1998, EducaRed has two main objectives: improving the quality of education and promoting equal opportunities through new technologies. It is also worth mentioning that Telefonica and the Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI) published in 2009 a report "La integración de las TIC en la escuela, indicadores cualitativos y metodología de investigación" [2] in order to evaluate and measure the integration of ICT inside education organisations highlighting main methodological and research challenges and how to best address those.
* ==== [[Andalusia]] ====
In Andalusia, the department of education made in 2003 the use of open source software for all ICT equipments in public schools compulsory and developed a specific educational distribution entitled [http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/educacion/cga/portal/info/guadalinex-edu Gualalinex Edu]. The global scope of the project involves 120.000 teachers and 1.800.000 students and cost-saving derivative from not using privative software have been estimated to be around 27 and 36 millions euros per year. The program has been increasingly enlarged and is currently being developed through the [http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/educacion/nav/contenido.jsp?pag=/Contenidos/TemasFuerza/nuevosTF/300909_EscuelaTIC20/texto_tic Escuela TIC 2.0 for Andalucia] translating into providing 173.500 students of primary school with laptops installed with guadalinex.edu. The technical advice and support delivered towards teachers and students, and the administration of servers and software development is achieved by the [http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/educacion/cga/portal/ Centro de Gestión Avanzado].
* ==== [[Catalonia]] ====
The [http://www.xtec.cat/web/guest/home Educational Telematic Network of Catalonia (XTEC)] was created in 1988 by the Catalan Department of Education. Its aims are to provide Internet access to schools inasmuch as educational services dependent on the department and also to the entire educational community of Catalonia (at the exception of Higher Education organisations) a wide range of content, proposals and specific services. Besides, the portal [http://www.edu365.cat/ Edu365.cat] was created in 2001 to help structuring the educational use of the Internet by students and providing those with specific content and services such as multimedia self-learning and teaching support, mainly for the curriculum areas of Elementary, primary and secondary Education.
* ==== [[Extremadura]] ====
Extremadura launched a pioneer plan back into 2001 when evaluating the expenses of operative systems for its intranet: “After calculating the expenses for each, it was determined that the cost of MS Windows licenses surpassed 20,000,000 Euros. And that figure did not include educational and administrative applications; those applications would have to be developed or bought and adapted to the local infrastructure. After an analysis of cost and adaptability, the government decided to develop a customized and regionalized version of GNU/Linux. It would be called LinEx. The installation of LinEx was gradual until it finally reached all of the high schools in Extremadura under the form of [http://linexedu.educarex.es/web/guest;jsessionid=1771F68118E494EA7695EDF5FA6896AB.liferay1 Linex edu]". In 2011, its development was abandoned and legate to a national organization for the maintenance of the software. Even tough the migration towards open source solutions from institutional organizations has been kept in the agenda.
== OER Initiatives in {{PAGENAME}} ==
OER in Spain 1. === Introduction=== 
As an introductory note, according to the OECD latest survey entitled “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, respondents for Spain estimated that 90% of all publicly produced or financed learning materials were available in a digital format [3]. It also states that OER activities in Spain were mostly created for young children (ISCED sectors 1 to 3). However, the panorama is more diverse. An analysis of the OpenCourseWare consortium partners, one of the most widespread Open education initiatives in Higher Education, reveals that in relation to EU27 member States there is a strong presence of Spanish universities, followed respectively by the UK and France. In relation to the results of this survey results, it should be noted that the report does not clarify whether there was a shared understanding and common definition of what stood as OER initiatives among the civil servants targeted by the above mentioned survey.
 
This is a common issue in the Spanish context. Though there is a wide range of initiatives, there is no common understanding of the nature of open and/or free licenses which leads to a confusion of Open Access initiatives with OER. This is partly due to the lack of leadership at policy level. Despite the number of initiatives at different educational levels and across the different autonomous communities, there is currently no legislation that covers this area or provides a common definition.
 An illustration of the degree of confusion can be seen by looking at the results of a search of the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) using the category “Spain”. DOAJ is a directory of Open Access Journals that aims to increase the visibility and ease of use of open access scientific and scholarly journals thereby promoting their increased usage and impact. According to their definition, Open Access journals refer to journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access. The BOAI definition of "open access" refers to the right of users to "read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles" as mandatory for a journal to be included in the directory. However, DOAJ also listed repositories of digitized contents put at disposition by public institutions and Higher Education universities. The search identified 78 Open Access initiatives in Spain: List of 78 OA initiatives identified . 
Starting out from the idea that OER are defined as content released under an open or free license, these initiatives can be divided into:
* Open Access initiatives which basically make content available online but retain all authors rights under strict copyright policies (e.g. most of the digitized contents repositories offered by public institutions fall into this category) * Mixed OA and OER, which are the ones that enable either the use of copyright, either the use of Creative Commons licenses (generally BY-No Commercial – No derivative) and which generally relate to Phd, thesis and academic repositories piloted by Higher Education organizations * OER initiatives using only Creative Commons licenses which are divided between the ones that promote open licenses (BY-No Commercial – No derivative) and the ones that strictly promote free licenses (for instance CC BY-Share Alike or GPL- Gnu Public Licenses).
In general, information regarding authors rights was available either in a specific section on the home page, either in the “legal disclaimer” or in the “frequently Asked Questions” section. It should be noted that many of the reviewed initiatives did not state their Authors Rights policies clearly and were therefore categorized as “unclear” initiatives. In the sample, 19 initiatives used strict copyright, 20 had unclear policies, 28 offered the possibility to license either under strict copyright using either an open or free Creative Commons licenses, 10 allowed Creative Commons licenses and only one initiative had its contents released under the GPL free license. As a result among the 78 OA identified initiatives, just under half (39 initiatives) could be also labeled as OER.
 Finally, it is interesting to see that most of those initiatives used online platforms based on free software (mostly Dspace and Moodle) and many of them also mentioned the use of open standards such as metadata for categorizing contents and easing their discoverability and retrieval. 2. === International/national OER initiatives === 
Regarding OpenCourseWare initiatives delivered by Higher Education organisations some of the most known initiatives are listed below. It should be noted that because of Spanish is used in most central and latin american countries, several initiatives are based among partnerships between Spanish and Higher Educations organizations located overseas.
 '''[[Universia ]]''' started in 2000 as an Internet initiative in the Higher Education sector. It is promoted by a group of Spanish universities with the support of the Spanish University Rectors' Board (CRUE), the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and sponsored by the Santander Group. It is coordinated by the Foundation Universia and its OpenCourseWare courses are licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.5 ES. The network is composed by 1.1000 Universities located in 15 countries: Andorra, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Spain, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela. The initiative counts with 12 websites, one for each country, and another global site which offers information and contents from across the network. Universia reach out 10.1 million students, 8 million users and 850,000 university teaching staff .  
The OCW from UOC (Universitat Oberta de Catalunya) was launched in 2008 and offers over 100 courses licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. The OCW from the EHU (Universidad del País Vasco) was also launched in 2008 and its contents are licensed under CC BY NC SA 2.5 ES. The OCW from the UPM (Universidia Politecnica de Madrid) offers over 80 courses under a various range of Creative Commons license.
 Other Spanish universities providing OpenCourseWare are the: # Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (English,Spanish); # Universidad de Alicante (Spanish); # Universidad de Cadiz (Spanish); Universidad de Cantabria (Spanish); # Universidad de Murcia (English,Spanish); # Universidad de Navarra (Spanish); # Universidad de Oviedo (Spanish); Universidad de Sevilla (Spanish); # Universidad de Zaragoza (Spanish); # Universidad Internacional de Andalucía (Spanish); # Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (Spanish); # Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena (Spanish); # Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spanish); # Universidad Politecnica Madrid (Spanish); # Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Galician,Spanish); # Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spanish, Catalan); # Universitat de Girona (Spanish, Catalan); # Universitat Jaume I (Spanish, Catalan). 3. === MOOC=== 
The strong involvement in OCW is also reflected in the take up of MOOCs in Spain. In June 2014 the European MOOC scoreboard lists 203 Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC). Spain is the country in Europe with most MOOCS. The first steps were taken by the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid which launched in 2012 a virtual course on cryptography Crypt4you.
31 different Higher Education institutions currently offer MOOCs in Spain, which is more than a third of the universities in the country. Interestingly, though the Universidad Nacional Española a Distancia (UNED) is the lead provider, more traditional universities than distance or open universities are offering these courses and this is the case of the two other lead universities, the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and the Universidad de Cantabria, which together with UNED make up half the number of courses (according to the Catedra Telefonica report of Dec 2013).
The following table lists the universities that currently offer MOOCs in Spain and the platforms they use.
University Platform# EHU - University del Pais Vasco - EHUSfera# IE Business School - Coursera# Universidad de Alicante - Miriada X# Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona - Coursera# Universidad de Alcalá - Miriada X# Universidad Autónoma de Madrid - Iversity# Universidad de Cantabria - Miriada X# Universidad Carlos III de Madrid - Miriada X# Universidad Cardenal Herrera (CEU) - Miriada X# Universidad Complutense de Madrid - Miriada X# Universitat de Girona - Miriada X# Universidad de Granada - Abierta GR# Universidad de Huelva - Miriada X# Universidad de Murcia - Miriada X# IESE Universidad de Navarra - Coursera# Universidad de Navarra - Coursesites# Universidad Nacional Española a Distancia - Miriada X/UNED Coma# Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena - Miriada X# Universidad Pompeu Fabra - Miriada X# Universidad Politécnica de Madrid - Miriada X# Universidad Politécnica de Valencia - Miriada X/UPV(X)# Universidad Rey Juan Carlos - Miriada X# Universidad de Salamanca - Miriada X# Universidad San Pablo (CEU) - Miriada X# Universidad Europea - Miriada X# Universidad de Castilla La Mancha - Miriada X# Universidad de Málaga - Miriada X# Universidad Católica de Murcia - Miriada X/Unidad MOOC# Universidad de Zaragoza - Miriada X# Universitat Abat Oliba (CEU) - Miriada X As can be seen from this table the majority of the institutions use Miriada X, few use the most well-known platforms such as Coursera. In some cases after beginning with Miriada X the university is migrating to its own platform, this is the case of the UNED, the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and the Universidad Católica de Murcia, while a couple of others, Universidad del País Vasco and Universidad de Granada use their own. As previously mentioned, there universities make up around 50% of the course offered, UNED, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, and Universidad de Cantabria. The others offer between 1 and 5 courses each.  The MOOC sector continues to grow at present and the number of courses offered has doubled since the beginning of 2014 from 111 to 206 in June 2014 (European MOOC Scoreboard)4.  === Other national OER initiatives=== 
A range of other OER initiatives exist at national level in Spain, targeting diverse audiences such as teachers in primary and secondary schools, young students, families and lifelong learners:
 
The INTEF (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologías Educativas y de Formación del Profesorado) Recursos Educativos portal. This offers over one thousand educational resources oriented towards teachers, kids, young adults and parents. All its resources are licensed under Creative Commons BY – NC – SA 3.0. They are organized according to aims and in some cases around specific projects. For instance, WikiDidacTICa is a repository of best educational practices developed by teachers through collaborative processes. Its main goal is to build a useful space facilitating the gradual incorporation for all educational levels of digital tools as teaching resources. The resources are licensed under Creative Commons BY – NC – SA 3.0 and there is also a repository of images and sounds under Creative Commons BY-NC-SA.
 
CEDEC (National Centre for Curriculum Development in Non-Propietary Systems) was founded in 2009 as an agency of the Ministry of Education managed by INTEF and the Junta of Extremadura. Its aim is to design, promote and develop digital educational materials through the use of free software and make them available to the entire educational community.
The Virtual School for Parents is a web portal for parents, aimed at supporting them in their role, through the provision of useful documentary resources and spaces for dialogue around the issues of child education and related problems. The portal include a specific session called “Escuela Virtual”, where materials can be downloaded and a forum is available.
 
The Agrega project is a federation of learning Digital repositories used by 19 educational authorities in Spain. Each one of them has its own repository loaded with curricular learning objects with a clear focus towards integration and interoperability between Agrega learning repositories and other repositories located worldwide thanks to the use of generic GPL licensing. Regarding the curricular contents, those are being developed under Creative Commons licensing schemes, and can be used directly from a web site, offline or through a Learning Management System. Contents and applications are available in Spanish, Euskera, Catalan, Valencian, Gallego and English.
 
WikimediaEducativa was launched in 2010 by a group of post-graduate students at the private Universidad Camilo José Cela (UCJC). It aims at offering a repository of educational contents for teachers and students in primary schools. Contents are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0.
 
Wikisaber was launched in 2007 by the foundation Wikisaber in partnership with various organisations (London Grid for Learning, Universidad de Salamanca, Fundación Pastor de Estudios Clásicos and the Fundación Germán Sánchez Ruipérez) and has been financed as a European Fund for Regional Development project.
 
Red Educa was an initiative launched by an individual, Laura Soulié, between 2005-2008 and which aimed at providing educational contents under Creative Commons to all teachers and educators dealing with ICT use into their classrooms. Another OER initiative launched in 2007 by an individual, Marifé Lara Romero, also targets teachers in primary and secondary schools.
 
EducaRed was launched between 2008-2012 by the Telefonica Foundation and aimed at offering resources and methodologies to introduce the use of ICT and Internet inside educational organisations.
 
Edukateka was created by the Gabriel Piedrahita Uribe Foundation (FGPU) and aims to provide free quality materials to teachers, school managers and trainers. It also offers virtual training in order to help them enrich their use of ICT inside their school environments. It also designs and implements interactive online spaces with useful and valuable resource for teachers (Classroom Project Manager, Collaborative Project Planner, Interactive Curriculum 2.0).
 
The Observatory for CyberSociety is an interdisciplinary space for debate and reflection, where digital technologies are assessed and analyzed from several perspectives, considering their value and social impact. It has been in existence for ten years and all its contents are licensed under Creative Commons BY 3.0.
 
As can be seen there are many initiatives at national level, but the bulk of institutional OER initiatives have a more regional focus as they are run by specific Higher Education organisations or public administrations at this level. These initiatives are listed below in the next section.
5For '''additional initiatives''' see the report [[Media:Open Education Initiatives in Spain. pdf]] by [[Nick Kearney]].  === Regional OER initiatives === These initiatives are largely instututional institutional repositories. DOAR list 114 for Spain, not all all have an explicitly educational focus, and for this reason some have been left out.An alternative-format layout is on the wiki page [[List of 95 OA initiatives identified]]. For clarity of layout and future automated processing the following data is listed in "nowiki" fixed-spacing format. <nowiki>
ABACUS. Repositorio de Producción Científica
Organisation: Universidad Europea, Spain
 
Description: This repository provides open access to the work of staff and students of Universidad Europea. the interface is in Spanish and English.
OAI-PMH: http://abacus.universidadeuropea.es/oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 2790 items (2014-06-13)
Subjects: Multidisciplinary
Content: Articles; Theses
Academica-e
Organisation: Universidad Pública de Navarra, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://academica-e.unavarra.es/oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 3942 items (2014-06-13)
Archivo Abierto Institucional de la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos
Organisation: Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain
 
Description: This site is an institutional repository which provides open access to the publications produced by the members of the University, mainly theses. The whole site interface is in Spanish only. Registered users can set up email alerts in order to notify them new added materials. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.
OAI-PMH: http://eciencia.urjc.es/dspace-oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 5535 items (2014-06-13)
Subjects: Multidisciplinary
Content: Articles; Theses; Unpublished; Books
ADDI (Archivo Digital para la Docencia y la Investigación)
Organisation: Universidad del País Vasco (Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea / University of the Basque Country), Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in Spanish, English and Basque.
OAI-PMH: http://addi.ehu.es/oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 3006 items (2014-06-13)
Subjects: Multidisciplinary
Content: Articles
Archivo Digital UPM
Organisation: Universidad Politecnica de Madrid. Biblioteca, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain
 
Description: This is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institution. Primarily contains thesis.
OAI-PMH: http://oa.upm.es/cgi/oai2
 
Software: EPrints
Size: 16788 items (2014-06-13)
Subjects: Multidisciplinary
Content: Articles; Theses; Books; Patents
Archivo gráfico institucional de la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC)
Organisation: Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to multi-media content collected by the institution. The interface is available in Spanish and English.
Software: CONTENTdm
Size: 344 items (2014-06-13)
Subjects: Multidisciplinary
Content: Multimedia
Arias Montano (Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Huelva)
Organisation: Biblioteca Universitaria, Universidad de Huelva, Spain
 
Description: This site is an institutional repository which provides open access to the publications produced by the members of the University. The interface is in Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://rabida.uhu.es/dspace-oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 7607 items (2014-06-13)
Biblioteca Digital Científica de les Illes Balears
Organisation: Universitat de les Illes Balears (University of Balearic Islands), Spain
 
Description: This repository is a gateway to scientific and scholarly information produced in the University of Balearic Islands and in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The interface is in Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://ibdigital.uib.es/greenstone/cgi-bin/oaiserver.cgi
 
Software: Greenstone
Size: 12574 items (2014-06-13)
Biblioteca Digital de Castilla y León (BDCYL)
Organisation: Junta de Castilla y León, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the digitised collections of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. Its purpose is to provide access to the most significant literary and scientific works about the history, the art and the culture of this Spanish region and to disseminate the Castilian and Leonese bibliographical heritage. The BDCYL devotes special attention to the classical regional authors. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.
OAI-PMH: http://bibliotecadigital.jcyl.es/i18n/oai/oai.cmd
 
Software: Digibib
Size: 15922 items (2014-05-19)
Biblioteca Digital de la Comunidad de Madrid
Organisation: Comunidad de Madrid, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the digitised collections of the Community of Madrid from the 12th to 16th Centuries. The interface is available in Spanish. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content.
OAI-PMH: http://www.bibliotecavirtualmadrid.org/bvmadrid_publicacion/i18n/oai/oai.cmd
 
Software: Digibib
Size: 3303 items (2014-05-19)
Biblioteca Digital de la Universidad de Alcalá
Organisation: Universidad de Alcalá, Spain
 
Description: This is an institutional repository for the Universidad de Alacalá, giving access to the publication output of the university. The site interface is in Spanish and includes RSS feeds to alert users to new content.
OAI-PMH: http://dspace.uah.es/oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 8506 items (2014-06-13)
Description: This site provides access to the digitised collections of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content.
OAI-PMH: http://bibliotecadigital.educarm.es/bidimur/i18n/oai/oai.cmd
 
Software: Digibib
Size: 299 items (2014-05-19)
Biblioteca Digital Hispánica
Organisation: Biblioteca Nacional de España (BNE), Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to digitised versions of the institutions collections. Some may be fee-based for the full texts. The interface is available in Spanish, English, French, Euskera and Galician.
OAI-PMH: http://bibliotecadigitalhispanica.bne.es/OAI-PUB
 
Software: DigiTool
Subjects: Multidisciplinary
Biblioteca Digital Real Academia de la Historia
Organisation: Real Academia de la Historia, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the digitised collections of historical manuscripts of the institution. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://bibliotecadigital.rah.es/dgbrah/i18n/oai/oai.cmd
 
Software: Digibib
Size: 21959 items (2014-05-19)
Biblioteca Valenciana Digital
Organisation: Biblioteca Valenciana, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to digitised copies of the collections of the institution. The interface is in Spanish, Portuguese and English.
Software: Digibib
Biblioteca Virtual de Andalucía
Organisation: JUNTA DE ANDALUCÍA, Consejería de Educación, Cultura y Deporte., Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to digitised items of the institutions collection, relating to Andalusian heritage. The interface is in Spanish.
Software: Digibib
Languages: Spanish
Policies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
 
Biblioteca Virtual de Aragón
Organisation Gobierno de Aragón, Gobierno de Aragón, Spain
 
Description: This repository is is a digital library that gives access to the digitised full text images of historical books and documents belonging to the libraries of Aragon
OAI-PMH: http://bibliotecavirtual.aragon.es/bva/i18n/oai/oai_bibliotecavirtual.aragon.es.cmd
 
Software: Digibib
Size: 8539 items (2014-05-19)
Biblioteca Virtual de la Provincia de Málaga
Organisation: Diputación de Málaga, Spain
 
Description: This is a virtual library which allows open access to digitised copies of ancient and historic books and documents related to the province of Malaga. the interface in in Spanish, but the documents are in a number of different languages
OAI-PMH: http://bibliotecavirtual.malaga.es/i18n/oai/oai_bibliotecavirtual.malaga.es.cmd
 
Software: Digibib
Size: 13223 items (2014-05-19)
Biblioteca Virtual de Prensa Histórica (Virtual Library of Historical Newspapers)
Organisation: Ministerio de Cultura, Spain
 
Description: This site is an institutional repository providing access to digitised historical publications, including magazines, journals, in the collections of the Spanish State Public Libraries. The site interface is in Castellano (Castillian Spanish), Català (Catalan), Euskera (Basque), Galego (Galician), Valencià (Valencian), and English. Some items are not available via Open Access and are only available as metadata (bibliographic record) entries.
OAI-PMH: http://prensahistorica.mcu.es/i18n/oai/oai.cmd
 
Software: Digibib
Size: 1086800 items (2014-05-19)
Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
Organisation: Fundación Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes, Spain
 
Description: This repository provides access to items of interest to the Hispanic culture. The site also provides a portal to information held elsewhere.the interface is in Spanish and includes RSS feeds to alert users to new content.
Size: 42135 items (2014-02-10)
CEACS Repository
Organisation: Center for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences (CEACS), Fundación Juan March, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish or English. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.
OAI-PMH: http://digital.march.es/ceacs-ir/oai2
 
Size: 2132 items (2014-06-13)
Subjects: Social Sciences General
CEU Repositorio Institucional
Organisation: Universidad San Pablo CEU, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://dspace.ceu.es/oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 4505 items (2014-06-13)
citaREA Repositorio Electrónico Agroalimentario
Organisation: Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA), Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in English and Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://citarea.cita-aragon.es/oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 2098 items (2014-06-13)
OpenDOAR ID: 2582, Last reviewed: 2012-11-06, Suggest an update for this record, Missing data is needed for: Policies
Link to this record: http://opendoar.org/id/2582/
 
Dehesa (Dehesa. Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Extremadura)
Organisation: Universidad de Extremadura (UNEX), Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the research students output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish, Portuguese and English.
OAI-PMH: http://dehesa.unex.es:8080/oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 995 items (2014-05-13)
DADUN (Depósito Académico Digital de la Universidad de Navarra)
Organisation: Universidad de Navarra, Spain
 
Description: This is an institutional repository for the University of Navarra. Collections include journals related to the University. Some items are only available to registered users.
Software: DSpace
DIALNET
Organisation: Universidad de La Rioja, Spain
 
Description: This is an aggregating repository providing access to articles produced by several Hispanic institutions.This site gives little supporting information and some items are only available as abstracts. DIALNET includes an alerting service allowing users to be updated on scientific articles in the Spanish language.
OAI-PMH: http://dialnet.unirioja.es/oai/OAIHandler
 
Size: 4033687 items (2013-10-30)
Subjects: Multidisciplinary
Zaguan (Digital Repository of University of Zaragoza)
Organisation: University of Zaragoza, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish of English. Some items are not available as full-text.
Software: invenio
Digital.CSIC
Organisation: Unidad de Coordinación de la Red de Bibliotecas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Spanish National Research Council) (CSIC), Spain
 
Description: This is the institutional repository of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) that provides access to the scientific output produced by CSIC researchers. the interface may be read in English or Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://digital.csic.es/dspace-oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 90078 items (2014-06-13)
Dipòsit Digital de Documents de la UAB
Organisation: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain
 
Description: this site provides access to the research and learning output of the institution. The interface is available in English, Catalan and Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://ddd.uab.cat/oai2d
 
Software: invenio
Size: 101072 items (2013-11-20)
Diposit Digital de la Universitat de Barcelona
Organisation: Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Spain
 
Description: It is a university repository providing access to the digital output of the faculty and staff at the University of Barcelona. All material is made available under Creative Commons licenses. The interface is available in Catalan, English and Spanish. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.
OAI-PMH: http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace-oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 17057 items (2014-06-13)
ACCEDA (Documentacion cientifica de la ULPGC en abierto)
Organisation: Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the output of the institution. The interface is in Spanish.
Software: DSpace
DSpace Redined
Organisation: Ministerio de Cultura, Spain
 
Description: REDINED is an information network on education that provides research documents, innovation projects and educational resources produced in Spain. It is a collaborative project of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, and the councils or departments of education of the autonomous communities. REDINED offers thousands of bibliographic and full-text documents to the educational community. the interface is in English, Spanish, Catalan, Basque and Galician.
OAI-PMH: http://redined.mecd.gob.es/oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 86810 items (2014-06-13)
Content: Articles; Books; Learning Objects
Languages: Spanish; English
DUGiDocs – Universitat de Girona
Organisation: Universitat de Girona, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to teaching and learning output of the institution. An RSS feed is available to keep users up to date with newly added materials.
OAI-PMH: http://dugi-doc.udg.edu/dspace-oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 7808 items (2014-05-12)
Description: This site provides access to special collections deposited in the Library of the University of Girona. The interface is in a mixture of Spanish and English. An RSS feed is available to keep users up to date with newly added materials. Some items are not available as full-text.
OAI-PMH: http://dugifonsespecials.udg.edu/dspace-oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 10415 items (2014-06-13)
Description: This site is a university repository providing access to the publication output of the institution. The site interface is available in English or Spanish. Users may set up an Atom or RSS feed to be alerted to new content.
OAI-PMH: http://eprints.ucm.es/cgi/oai2
 
Software: EPrints
Size: 20795 items (2014-06-13)
FHL Virtual Libraries (Bibliotecas Virtuales FHL)
Organisation: Fundación Ignacio Larramendi, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to a collection of Spanish, Hispano-American, Brazilian and Portuguese scholars from various time periods and other ancient works. This site is available in Spanish or English and contains an RSS feed to alert users to new items. Some content is held on external websites.
OAI-PMH: http://www.larramendi.es/i18n/oai/oai_larramendi.es.cmd
 
Software: Digibib
Size: 174409 items (2014-06-13)
Fotografía Sobre España en el Siglo XIX (PHoSXIX)
Organisation: Universidad de Navarra, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to still image data about Spain in the Nineteenth Century. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://coleccionfff.unav.es/bvunav/i18n/oai/oai.cmd
 
Software: Digibib
Size: 4079 items (2014-05-19)
GREDOS
Organisation: Universidad de Salamanca, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the research output and collections of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish, Portuguese or English.
Software: DSpace
GUNI OPen Contents Repository
Organisation: Global University Network for Innovation (GUNI), Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the output of the institution. The interface is available in English and Castellano. Users must select event, then section of event and then item before being bale to download.
Subjects: Education
IFAPA - Servifapa (SERVIFAPA)
Organisation: Research and Training Institute for Agriculture and Fisheries of Andalusia (IFAPA), Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the whole IFAPA personnel production of scientific and technical information (open access initiatives), in the form of scientific publications for journals or conferences, books, technical reports, training material, dissertations, patents and plant varieties. A wide collection of photographs will complement this information. The interface is in Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/agriculturaypesca/ifapa/oai
 
Software: ALFRESCO + WebScripts
Subjects: Agriculture, Food and Veterinary
Minerva, Repositorio Institucional da Universidade de Santiago de Compostela
Organisation: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in Spanish, English and Galician.
OAI-PMH: http://dspace.usc.es/oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 9867 items (2014-06-13)
Portal de Revistas Científicas Complutenses
Organisation: Universidad Complutense Madrid (UCM), Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the journal and research output of the institution. The interface is in Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://revistas.ucm.es/index.php/oai/oai/
 
Software: OJS
Size: 35236 items (2014-06-13)
RediUMH
Organisation: Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Spain
 
Description: REDIUMH is the Digital Repository of the University Miguel Hernández. Its purpose is to collect, organize, disseminate and preserve digital documents of scientific, educational and institutional produced by the university. The interface is available as Spanish and English and contains RSS feeds to alert users to new content.
Software: DSpace
Roderic (Repositori d'Objectes Digitals per a l'Ensenyament la Recerca i la Cultura)
Organisation: Universitat de Valencia, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to digitised collections including manuscripts and books, as well as research outputs of the institution. The interface is available in Valencià and Castellano Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://roderic.uv.es/oai/request
 
Size: 18527 items (2014-06-13)
Subjects: Multidisciplinary
Repositori UJI (Repositori Institucional de la Universitat Jaume I)
Organisation: Universitat Jaume I, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to teaching, learning and institutional output of the institution. Also, this site provides access to Biblioteca Digital de Castellon, with materials which authors are from Castellon or they are relating to Castellon's province. The interface is available in Catalan, English, Spanish and German.
OAI-PMH: http://repositori.uji.es/oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 15372 items (2014-06-13)
Repositori Obert UdL
Organisation: Universitat de Lleida, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in English, Spanish or Catalan. Some items are held on external websites.
OAI-PMH: http://repositori.udl.cat/oaiextended/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 5363 items (2014-06-13)
Repositorio da Universidade da Coruña (RUC)
Organisation: Universidade da Coruña, Spain
 
Description: The interface is available in Spanish, Galician and English. This site replaces Universidade da Coruña UDCDspace. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content.
OAI-PMH: http://ruc.udc.es/oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 8762 items (2014-06-13)
Languages: Spanish
Policies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
 
Repositorio de la UNED
Organisation: UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia), Spain
 
Description: This site is a university repository providing open access to the publication output of the Institution.
OAI-PMH: http://62.204.194.45:8080/oaiprovider/
 
Software: Fez
Size: 16998 items (2014-06-13)
Repositorio de la UNIA
Organisation: Universidad Internacional de Andalucía (UNIA), Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the research and teaching outputs of the institution. Collections include historical collections: on relations Spain & Latin America (nineteenth and twentieth centuries); History of Andalusia (Southern Spain). The interface is available in Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://dspace.unia.es/oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 2535 items (2014-06-13)
RODIN (Repositorio de Objetos de Docencia e Investigación de la Universidad de Cádiz)
Organisation: Universidad de Cádiz, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is in Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://rodin.uca.es/oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 8560 items (2014-06-13)
Repositorio Digital de la Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (Repositorio Digital UPCT)
Organisation: Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UCPT), Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://repositorio.bib.upct.es/dspace-oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 3728 items (2014-05-12)
Repositorio Digital RIBEI
Organisation: Red Iberoamericana de Estudios Internacionales, Spain
 
Description: This site is a multi institutional repository containing information on international studies. Users may set up Atom and RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in english, spanish and portuguese.
OAI-PMH: http://biblioteca.ribei.org/cgi/oai2
 
Software: EPrints
Size: 2155 items (2014-06-13)
Repositorio Documental de la Universidad de Valladolid (UVADOC)
Organisation: Universidad de Valladolid, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the theses output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://uvadoc.uva.es/oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 3990 items (2014-06-13)
E-Archivo (Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)
Organisation: Biblioteca, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain
 
Description: This site is an institutional repository providing access to materials produced by the members of the university. The site is supported with background information on Open Access in general, and publisher copyright issues in particular. Registered users on the site can set up email alerts, to notify them of newly added relevant content. The interface is available in Spanish and English.
OAI-PMH: http://e-archivo.uc3m.es/dspace-oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 15875 items (2014-06-13)
Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Alicante (RUA)
Organisation: University of Alicante, Spain
 
Description: This site is an institutional repository providing access to publications produced by the members of the university. The site interface is available partially in Spanish and partly in English. An RSS feed is available to keep users up to date with newly added materials. The site is well supported with guidance information, in Spanish only.
OAI-PMH: http://rua.ua.es/dspace-oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 27491 items (2014-06-13)
Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Almería (Spain)
Organisation: Universidad de Almería, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the research output of the Institution. Interface available in Spanish and English. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.
OAI-PMH: http://repositorio.ual.es/oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 2126 items (2014-06-13)
OpenDOAR ID: 2382, Last reviewed: 2012-08-20, Suggest an update for this record, Missing data is needed for: Policies
Link to this record: http://opendoar.org/id/2382/
 
Research Repository of Catalonia (RECERCAT)
Organisation: Consorci de Biblioteques Universitàries de Catalunya (CBUC), Spain
 
Description: RECERCAT is a cooperative repository of digital documents that includes grey literature of the universities and research centres of Catalonia. While the interface is available in Spanish only, a large portion of the papers provided are written in English. Managed by the Consortium of University Libraries of Catalonia (CBUC) and the Supercomputing Centre of Catalonia (CESCA), and includes a regularly updated news page.
OAI-PMH: http://oai.recercat.net/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 72610 items (2014-06-13)
RACO (Revistes Catalanes amb Accés Obert)
Organisation: Consorci de Biblioteques Universitàries de Catalunya (CBUC), Spain
 
Description: RACO (Catalan Journal in Open Access) is a deposit where can be consulted, in open access, the full-text from articles of scientific, cultural and erudite Catalan journals. The main purpose of RACO is to increase the visibility and consults of the journals included and to spread the scientific and academic production published in Catalan journals. The site interface is available in English, Català, and Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://www.raco.cat/index.php/index/oai/
 
Software: OJS
Size: 154922 items (2013-11-27)
RiuNet
Organisation: Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain
 
Description: This site is an institutional repository which provides access to the digital output of the members of the University. The interface is in Spanish. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content.
OAI-PMH: http://riunet.upv.es/oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 32222 items (2014-06-13)
RIUVic
Organisation: Universitat de Vic - Universitat Central de Catalunya, Spain
 
Description: This is the institutional repository of Universitat de Vic - Universitat Central de Catalunya. It provides access to the work of staff and students and the interface is available in Catalan, Spanish and English.
OAI-PMH: http://repositori.uvic.cat/oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 1344 items (2014-06-13)
SUMMA. Repositorio Documental UPSA
Organisation: Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca, Spain
 
Description: This is the institutional repository of the Pontifical University of Salamanca which contains the work of staff and students. Some items are metadata only, however there are a number of thesis and pamphlets digitised in full text. The interface is in Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://summa.upsa.es/oai.vm
 
Software: Pandora
Size: 9846 items (2014-06-13)
Tesis Doctorals en Xarxa (TDX)
Organisation: Consorci de Biblioteques Universitàries de Catalunya (CBUC), Spain
 
Description: Online Doctoral Thesis Server (TDX) is a digital collection of doctoral theses presented at some Spanish universities. The participating universities are: Universitat de Barcelona, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat de Girona, Universitat de Lleida, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Universitat Ramon Llull, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Universitat de València, Universitat Jaume I, Universidad de Cantabria, Universidad de Murcia. TDX allows for remote consultation of the complete text of theses over the Internet, additionally allowing the user to construct searches by author, title, knowledge area, university of publication, etc.
OAI-PMH: http://tdx.cat/oai/request
O2 (The Oberta in open access)
Organisation: UOC Library, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC), Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish, Catalan languages and English. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. Some items are not available as full text.
OAI-PMH: http://openaccess.uoc.edu/webapps/dspace_rei_oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 5304 items (2014-06-13)
UCrea
Organisation: Universidad de Cantabria, Spain
 
Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content.
OAI-PMH: http://repositorio.unican.es/oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 4119 items (2014-06-13)
UPCommons - E-prints UPC
Organisation: Universitat Politènica de Catalunya (UPC), Spain
 
Description: This site is a university repository providing access to the publication output of the institution. The contents of the repository reflect the interests of the institution and are heavily weighted towards applied sciences and technologies. The site offers in addition to the standard searching options, a concept search construction tool. The site interface is in Spanish only. Registered users can set up email alerts to notify them of newly added relevant content. A certain level of encryption and security is embedded in the site which may cause some users accessibility problems.
OAI-PMH: http://eprints.upc.es:8080/dspace-oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 18587 items (2014-06-13)
Languages: English; Spanish
Policies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies not stated
UPCommons - Revistes i congressos UPC
Organisation: Universitat Politènica de Catalunya (UPC), Spain
 
Description: This is an institutional repository that provides access to journals published by the institutions and presentations given at workshops and congresses. The interface can be viewed in English, Catalan and Spanish.
OAI-PMH: http://eprints.upc.es:8080/revistes-oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 11647 items (2014-06-13)
UPCommons - Treballs acadèmics UPC
Organisation: Universitat Politènica de Catalunya (UPC), Spain
 
Description: This institutional repository is for student projects and contains final scientific research projects and student theses. The interface is available in Catalan, Castillian Spanish and English. Its substitute the "Projectes Final de Carrera, Treballs Final de Carrera i Tesines digitals (PFC, TFC i Tesines)" repository
OAI-PMH: http://eprints.upc.es:8080/pfc-oai/request
 
Software: DSpace
Size: 18173 items (2014-06-03)
Languages: Catalan
Policies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies not stated
</nowiki>
6. === Conclusions ===
Wrapping up, the analysis of previous Spanish OER and OA initiatives shows there is a need to increase awareness, understanding and training to what are open and free content licenses and to improve the use and reuse of existing OER. It should be noted that choosing a free/open license does not automatically translate into becoming a "truly" OER. Other required aspects are availability, accessibility and responsiveness.
Of particular importance is the lack of clear policy definitions around OER. Though a wide range of initiatives exist, indeed more than in other European countries, the new Law of Education (LOMCE) does not address the issue, and this is also the case in the regions in which education is run by the regional government. If this situation were to be addressed, it would provide a framework for further development and shared understanding, and would make it easier to address the other considerations covered in the next paragraphs.
Finally, another important elements impeding further mainstreaming of Spanish OER initiatives relates to the issue of their discoverability and room for adaptation. Indeed the use of licenses allowing modifications by third parties and open formats enabling to change, modify and adapt contents to new targets, contexts and pedagogical objectives appear as missing assignments for most of the reviewed spanish OER initiatives. Last but not least, OER need to be accessible in the sense that they require to be found to be useful. This last element deal with deeper problems linked to Internet development and the indexing, storage and retrieval of resources. In relation to this dimension, OER initiatives need to go more in-depth in using open linked data and semantics in order to improve their visibility and thus overall usefulness,
In conclusion, Spain counts on many Open Access initiatives and offers huge potential for boosting OER and Open Education consequently, either by convincing already digitized repositories to go for open/free licenses, either by systematizing links between HE platforms offering OpenCourseWare courses. However, more sensitization towards open standards and the use of open licenses enabling remix of contents and free licenses enabling commercial uses by third parties should also be promoted.
 
References
[1] Banco de España, Specific ICT indicators. Spain, EU and United States, 2011. [Consult. 2012-01-19] Available in WWW: <URL: www.bde.es/webbde/es/estadis/infoest/si_1_5e.pdf
[2] Padilha, Marcia, Aguirre, Solange, La integración de las TIC en la escuela. Indicadores cualitativos y metodología de investigación, 2011. [Consult. 2012-01-19] Available in WWW: <URL: http://www.oei.es/noticias/spip.php?article9607
[3] Hylén, Jaan. et al, Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing, 2012, [Consult. 2012-01-19] Available in WWW: <URL: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/open-educational-resources_5k990rjhvtlv-en