/* National OER policies */
=== National OER policies ===
Even though Germany had raised a number of fundamental objections to the idea of OER in the OECD Country Questionnaire in 2011 (2), the attitude in
genral has changed since then and some national policies have taken place. In 11/2013, OER was even a topic in the CDU/CSU - SPD coalition agreement:„Free digital teaching material must be strengthened by the state and the federal states. The basis for this is an educational and research friendly copyright law and and open-access-policy. The access to textbooks for schools and teaching materials for universities should be – as much as possible – free and the usage of free licences and formats should be strengthened.“ So, despite the fact that OER was not seen as an issue which was expected to become a policy priority in the near future, some actions in that field have occured. Because of pressure from teachers, other educational institutions and non-profit organisations, a hearing took place in 11/2012 between the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Standing Committee of the German Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs (KMK) about the issues of OER and especially the copyright problems of digitalising parts of textbooks for the classroom. In the end, an agreement was found between KMK, the publishers of educational media (Verband Bildungsmedien) and the collecting societies on rules for the digitalization and photo copying of content from textbooks for the classroom ([http://www.schulbuchkopie.de "Digitale Schulbücher, einscannen und kopieren in der Schule"]). Teachers and schools were not very happy with the agreement since it did not solve all the problems of OER and copyright law.
Therefore the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) launched in 8/2013 three surveys to determine their policy in the different aspects concerning OER:
* [http://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/7868/pdf/DBS_2013_OER.pdf Outline of OER in Germany ("Freie Bildungsmedien (OER)"):] The first
siurvey covered the fields of action, actors , development options in Germany in an international perspective.* [http://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/8008/pdf/Kreutzer_2013_OER_Recht.pdf Judicial matters ("Open-Content und Urheberrecht")]: The second survey tried to solve some questiona concerning open-content and copyright law.* [http://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/8024/pdf/TIB_2013_Metadaten_OER.pdf OER and Metadata ("Metadaten für Open Educational Resources (OER)")]: The third survey is about metadata and how these can help to find, produce and distribute OER in Germany and and internationally.
Another policy of the BMBF is finding scenarios for the usage of copyright protected material in education and research till 2020 [http://www.bmbf.de/pubRD/Abschlussbericht_strategischer_Dialog_wissfreundl_Urheberrecht.pdf: "Ein wissenschafts- und innovationsfreundliches Urheberrecht für die digitale Wissensgesellschaft."]
. It is still not clear which scenario will be implemented in the end. If copyright protected material should be free for everybody is still widely discussed in Germany. A desirable perspective in the furture is to have open access with a CC-By-licence to all scientific literature. A free access to everything in the web would be even better, but the question is how this can be financed.
insitutions have therefore declared to develop free OER material, e.g.:* The [http://werkstatt.bpb.de/themen/open-educational-resources/ Federal Centre for Political Education] in Bonn has declared to develop free OER material for certain historical topics fro schools. They are free for everybody.
A European project [http://www.olcos.org "OLCOS"] financed by the EU in which Germany participated built an online information and observation centre for promoting the concept, production, distribution, and usage of OER. One of the final products is a “Roadmap 2012” with suggestions and recommendations for a higher production, sharing, distribution and usage of OER in education.