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''lead author [[Susanne Friz]], based on initial work by [[James Kay]] and [[Paul Bacsich]]''<br>
''Table [[File:Open Education Initiatives in Germany.pdf]] by [[Susanne Friz]]''
 
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== Overview ==
system in these areas is almost exclusively a matter for the Länder.
=== OER initiatives in Germany ===
 
Total number of Open Education Initiatives in {{PAGENAME}} on {{CURRENTDAYNAME}}, {{CURRENTDAY}} {{CURRENTMONTHNAME}} {{CURRENTYEAR}} at {{CURRENTTIME}} =
'''[[Has initiative-count::{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:{{PAGENAME}}]] |format=count| limit=1000 }} ]]''', of which:
* [[Has MOOC initiative-count::{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:MOOC]] [[Category:{{PAGENAME}}]] |format=count| limit=1000 }} ]] are MOOC
* [[Has OER initiative-count::{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:OER]] [[Category:{{PAGENAME}}]] |format=count| limit=1000 }} ]] are OER
 
''Initiatives per million'' = [[Has initiatives-per-mill::{{#expr: ( ( {{#show:Germany|?Has initiative-count#}} * 1000000 ) / {{#show:Germany|?Has population#}} ) round 2 }}]]
 
[[Category:Countries for OEI tracking]]
 
{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:Germany]] |?Has coordinates|format=googlemaps |centre=51.2,10.4 | limit = 200}}
 
'''''Recent information'''''
 
For additional open education initiatives in Germany not yet integrated into the main database but all geocoded and with full regional information, see the report [[File:Open Education Initiatives in Germany.pdf]].
 
(For the original summary table of OER entities in Germany see [[Media:Germany OER entities.pdf]])
=== Further information ===
Those states in bold have at least 5 million people (and of these, four have 10-20 million) - in other words, they are larger than many European countries.
 
== Education in {{PAGENAME}} ==
<!-- some initiatives in the VISCED/Re.ViCa wiki may be OER initiatives -->
 
''For a summary table of OER entities in Germany see [[Media:Germany OER entities.pdf]] by [[Susanne Friz]]''
Germany has raised a number of fundamental objections to the idea of OER. They question whether a lack of digital content prevents learning, particularly in the case of people with low qualifications, and whether well-educated people will benefit the most from OER. Furthermore, they ask if there are any sustainable business models for OER and suggest that there are questions of standards, quality, technical interoperability, and legal questions concerning copyright that have not yet been solved. The issue of copyright is widely discussed in Germany in reference to the ongoing Open Access debate. Germany was the only country which in its response to the OECD questionnaire reported that the OER issue is not expected to become a policy priority in the near future. They also stated that they do not consider a lack of learning material in digital format (especially in English) to be one of the major problems in education; therefore, the potential benefit of OER in Germany is not highly rated. (2)
* The [http://www.virtuelle-schule.de/home.html Virtuelle Schule] (Virtual School) is an initiative of the non-profit association Virtual School e. V. and includes three internet platforms: [http://www.virtuelle-schule.de/home.html Virtuelle Schule for pupils in grades 5 and 12]; [http://www.uebergaengegestalten.d Ubergänge gestalten], specifically focused on the passage between different school levels; and [http://www.virtuellegrundschule.de Virtuelle Grundschule], for Primary School (pupils in grades 1-4). They address mainly teachers (by providing relevant material and content for their lessons and teaching practice), but there is also space for access and participation on the part of students and parents. The internet platform generates from a previous initiative (end of the 90s) at the Clavius-Gymnasium in Bamberg and is now led by the non-profit association Virtuelle Schule e.V. (1)
* [http://schulbuch-o-mat.de/index.html Schulbuch -O-Mat] is a national wide initiative by OER-Schul-E-Books to create collaborative free OER textbooks for schools which are according to curriculum standards. The money for the textbooks is raised by crowd-funding. Teachers, experts from university and graphic designer work together to produce the textbooks. They are free of charge for everybody. Since they are according to the curriculum of the particular federal state, the textbooks themselves are regional projects. The initiatures initiators of Schulbuch -O-Mat were mainly from universities. The project is also accompanied by an evaluation. So far two textbooks have been produced by OER-Schul-E-Books:<br />
# [http://biologie.oncampus.de/loop/BIOLOGIE_1 OER Schul-E-Book Biologie 1] is a textbook for Biology for grades 7/8 of High Schools according to the curriculum of Berlin. It started in 2012 and the idea was to finish the textbook till the end of July 2013. The capital money was raised by crowd-funding till January 2013. The book itself was written by voluntary biology teachers and professionals graphic designers. The textbook is consistent with the curriculum (from 2006/2007) of Berlin for High Schools (Gymnasium) grades 7/8. It is the first free digital textbook in Germany under OER and CC. A lot of teachers participated, but in the end they had to translate some of the missing texts from courses from the Khan Academy in order to finish in time. The textbook itself is available as a webpage, and can be downloaded as pdf, ePub and iBook. Up to now there were 20.000 downloads. An accompanying report explains the difficulties in producing the book, e.g. in finding voluntary teachers. The textbook consists of multimedia courses with quizzes and exercises. Form and content is similar to a printed textbook, but it also includes interactive exercises, videos and pictures. A glossary contains the explanation of 327 technical terms. Topics are cells, living environment, nutrition, respiration, blood, addiction, puberty and sexuality. The textbook is created with LOOP (Learning Object Online Platform), an authoring software by the University Lübeck.
* [http://mitschau.edu.lmu.de/ VideoOnline] is led by the LMU University Munich. It is run by the Department of Pedagogy and Rehabilitation and is a service for all members of the university. It presents lectures from the LMU Munich, mainly from Psychology, Pedagogy, Chemistry, Maths and Economy.
 
=== Updates in June 2014 ===
 
For additional open education initiatives in Germany not yet integrated into the main database, see the report [[Media:Open Education Initiatives in Germany.pdf]] by [[Susanne Friz]].
 
== OER Policies in {{PAGENAME}} ==
=== National OER policies ===
Even though Germany had raised a number of fundamental objections to the idea of OER in the OECD Country Questionnaire in 2011 (2), the attitude in genral general has changed since then and some national policies have taken place. In 11/2013, OER was even a topic in the CDU/CSU - SPD coalition agreement:„Free digital teaching material must be strengthened by the state and the federal states. The basis for this is an educational and research friendly copyright law and and an open-access-policy. The access to textbooks for schools and teaching materials for universities should be – as much as possible – free and the usage of free licences and formats should be strengthened.“ So, despite the fact that OER was not seen as an issue which was expected to become a policy priority in the near future, some actions in that field have occuredoccurred. Because of pressure from teachers, other educational institutions and non-profit organisations, a hearing took place in 11/2012 between the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Standing Committee of the German Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs (KMK) about the issues of OER and especially the copyright problems of digitalising parts of textbooks for the classroom. In the end, an agreement was found between KMK, the publishers of educational media (Verband Bildungsmedien) and the collecting societies on rules for the digitalization and photo copying of content from textbooks for the classroom ([http://www.schulbuchkopie.de "Digitale Schulbücher, einscannen und kopieren in der Schule"]). Teachers and schools were not very happy with the agreement since it did not solve all the problems of OER and copyright law.
Therefore the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) launched in 8/2013 three surveys to determine their policy in the different aspects concerning OER:
* [http://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/7868/pdf/DBS_2013_OER.pdf Outline of OER in Germany ("Freie Bildungsmedien (OER)"):] The first siurvey survey covered the fields of action, actors, and development options in Germany in an international perspective.* [http://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/8008/pdf/Kreutzer_2013_OER_Recht.pdf Judicial matters ("Open-Content und Urheberrecht")]: The second survey tried to solve some questiona questions concerning open-content and copyright law.* [http://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/8024/pdf/TIB_2013_Metadaten_OER.pdf OER and Metadata ("Metadaten für Open Educational Resources (OER)")]: The third survey is about metadata and how these can help to find, produce and distribute OER in Germany and and internationally.
Another policy of the BMBF is finding scenarios for the usage of copyright protected material in education and research till 2020 [http://www.bmbf.de/pubRD/Abschlussbericht_strategischer_Dialog_wissfreundl_Urheberrecht.pdf: "Ein wissenschafts- und innovationsfreundliches Urheberrecht für die digitale Wissensgesellschaft."]. It is still not clear which scenario will be implemented in the end. If copyright protected material should be free for everybody is still widely discussed in Germany. A desirable perspective in the furture future is to have open access with a CC-By-licence to all scientific literature. A free access to everything in the web would be even better, but the question is how this can be financed.
Some national insitutions institutions have therefore declared to develop free OER material, e.g.:* The [http://werkstatt.bpb.de/themen/open-educational-resources/ Federal Centre for Political Education] in Bonn has declared to develop free OER material for certain historical topics fro for schools. They are free for everybody.
A European project [http://www.olcos.org "OLCOS"] financed by the EU in which Germany participated built an online information and observation centre for promoting the concept, production, distribution, and usage of OER. One of the final products is a “Roadmap 2012” with suggestions and recommendations for a higher production, sharing, distribution and usage of OER in education.
One of the reasons for the lack of very many national OER initiatives is also the fact that Germany is a Federal Republic. Each of the 16 federal states have has nearly full control of the education system including universities. Therefore the state cannot normally fund national projects for education in schools and universities in the states. But recently the KMK („Standing Committee of the German Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany”) has established in 9/2013 a '''working committee''' in order to develop '''a commentary to OER in Germany''' till autumn 2014 .
=== Regional OER policies (in the Länder) ===
The initiatives in Germany about OER are mainly from institutions, non-profit teachers and staff from universities, there are not very many regional OER initiatvesinitiatives.
North-Rhine Westphalia was the only federal state that had a [http://www.gew-online.de/dms_extern/download.php?id=231833 hearing] about supporting free learning and teaching material in Düsseldorf in 2013 in the Landtag. The pressure again came from the teachers and schools. The result was to support free teaching and learning material by the state. There are no policies in other German federal states ("Länder").
=== Institutional OER policies ===
Most German universities have no policies relating to OER, but there are some policies now of universities that work together in order to offer quality OER teaching material on the web (see "Institutional OER initiatives" for a list of universitites universities with OER):
* Some universities in Germany work together in order to offer quality OER teaching material on the web. The University of Darmstadt provides a platform OLW [http://www.e-learning.tu-darmstadt.de/openlearnware/lehrmaterial_anderer_unis/index.de.jsp (OpenLearnWear)] as an open source software for other universities to publish their OER material as well. While doing this, these universities contribute to the idea of free education on the internet. Darmstadt also provides a website with the different URLs of other OER platforms from universities to make it easier to find the other initiatives.
* The [http://openaccess.mpg.de/Berlin-Declaration "Berlin Declarationon Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities"] of the Max Planck Gesellschaft declared that research results and cultural heritage shall be freely accessible and usable for scientists and the public. A lot of [http://openaccess.mpg.de/319790/Signatories other educational institutions and universities] joined this declaration.
* '''Further German Open Access Initiatives are:''' [http://www.dfg.de/dfg_magazin/forschungspolitik_standpunkte_perspektiven/open_access/ Open Access und Forschungsförderung durch die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft], [http://www.allianzinitiative.de/de/start/handlungsfelder/open_access/ Schwerpunktinitiative "Digitale Information" der Allianz der deutschen Wissenschaftsorganisationen], [http://oa.helmholtz.de/ Open Access in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft], [http://www.fraunhofer.de/content/dam/zv/de/publikationen/Fraunhofer_OpenAccessPolicy.pdf Open Access Policy der Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft], [http://www.leibniz-gemeinschaft.de/infrastrukturen/open-access/ Open Access in der Leibniz-Gemeinschaft] and [http://www.dini.de/ag/e-pub/ Deutsche Initiative für Netzwerkinformation e. V. (DINI) - Arbeitsgruppe Elektronisches Publizieren].
* In the EU project [http://www.oer-quality.org OPAL], funded by the EU Commission un der under The Long Life Learning Program, some European universities under the leadership of the University of Duisburg-Essen focused on the provision of innovative Open Educational Practices in higher and adult education for all subjects.
One institutional OER policy for the school sector is [http://schulbuch-o-mat.de/index.html "Schulbuch -O-MAT"] (see also Institutional OER policies). The idea is to create collaborative free OER textbooks for schools for all subjects which are according to curriculum standards. The money for the textbooks is raised by crowd-funding. Teachers, experts from university and graphic designer work together to produce the textbooks. They are free of charge for everybody. Since they are according to the curriculum of the particular federal state, the textbooks themselves are regional projects. The initiatures initiators of "Schulbuch -O-Mat" were mainly from universities. So far two textbooks have been produced by "Schulbuch -O-Mat": for biology Biology and politicsPolitics/economyEconomy.
== References ==
1. * ReVica/VISCED page for Germany (http://virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/Germany) 
=== Reports ===
<!-- in something approaching author/date referencing# Blees, APA style --> 2. Hylén, JI. et al. (20122013), “Open "Freie Bildungsmedien (OER). Dossier: Offene Bildungsressourcen / Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”– Handlungsfelder, OECD Education Working PapersAkteure, NoEntwicklungsoptionen in internationaler Perspektive" http://www. 76, OECD Publishingpedocs. de/volltexte/2013/7868/pdf/DBS_2013_OER.pdf# BMBF (2002), Fachhochschulen in Germany", http://oerwww.unescochair-oubmbf.nlde/?wpfb_dl=38 3pub/fachhochschulen_in_germany. pdf# Bretschneider, M. et al. (2012), “Open Educational Resources (OER) für Schulen in Deutschland”, Whitepaper, Internet & Gesellschaft Co:llaboratory.http://www.collaboratory.de/w/Open_Educational_Resources_f%C3%BCr_Schulen_in_Deutschland_-_Whitepaper 4. Blees# Hylén, IJ. et al. (20132012), "Freie Bildungsmedien (OER). Dossier: Offene Bildungsressourcen / Open “Open Educational Resources – Handlungsfelder: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, AkteureOECD Education Working Papers, Entwicklungsoptionen in internationaler Perspektive" No. 76, OECD Publishing. http://wwwoer.pedocsunescochair-ou.denl/volltexte/2013/7868/pdf/DBS_2013_OER.pdf ?wpfb_dl=38 5. # Kreutzer, Till (2013), "Open Educational Resources (OER), Open-Content und Urheberrecht" http://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/8008/pdf/Kreutzer_2013_OER_Recht.pdf 6# Lepori, B. and Succi, C. (2004), "eLearning in the Universities of Applied Sciences Country Report on Germany", https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242216460_eLearning_in_the_Universities_of_Applied_Sciences_Country_Report_on_Germany# Ziedorn, Frauke et al. (2013), "Metadaten für Open Educational Resources (OER). Eine Handreichung für die öffentliche Hand, erstellt von der Technischen Informationsbibliothek (TIB)2013, 27" http://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/8024/pdf/TIB_2013_Metadaten_OER.pdf 
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> [[Countries]]