/* National OER policies */
* [http://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/7868/pdf/DBS_2013_OER.pdf Outline of OER in Germany ("Freie Bildungsmedien (OER)"):] The first siurvey covered the fields of action, actors, development options in Germany in an international perspective.
* [http://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/8008/pdf/Kreutzer_2013_OER_Recht.pdf Judicial matters ("Open-Content und Urheberrecht")]: The second survey tried to solve some questiona concerning open-content and copyright law.
* [http://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/8024/pdf/TIB_2013_Metadaten_OER.pdf OER and Metadata ("Metadaten für Open Educational Resources (OER)")]: The third survey is about metadata and how these can help to find, produce and distribute OER in
your own country and internationally.
They question whether a lack of digital content prevents learning, particularly in the case of people with low qualifications, and whether well-educated people will benefit the most from OER. Furthermore, they ask if there are any sustainable business models for OER and suggest that there are questions of standards, quality, technical interoperability, and legal questions concerning copyright that have not yet been solved. The issue of copyright is widely discussed in Germany in reference to the ongoing Open Access debate. Germany was the only country who responded that the OER issue is not expected to become a policy priority in the near future. They also stated that they do not consider a lack of learning material in digital format (especially in English) to be one of the major problems in education; therefore, the potential benefit of OER in Germany is not highly rated.
The initiatives in Germany about OER are mainly from institutions, non-profit teachers and staff from universities, there are not very many national OER initiatves. Some are funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, but most of the initiatives are led by non-profit organisations. Since there are hardly any national policies by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany, the initiatives arise from teachers itself or non-profit organisations who believe in free OER material for schools in Germany (see section "Institutional OER initiatives). Another reason for the lack of national OER initiatives is the fact that Germany is a Federal Republic. Each of the 16 federal states have nearly full control of the education system including universities. Therefore the state cannot normally fund national projects for education in schools and universities in the states.