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/* National OER initiatives */
* [http://www.bildungsserver.de%20 Deutscher Bildungsserver] (German Education Server/[http://www.eduserver.de/%20 eduserver])is a meta-server referring to web resources, e.g. from the federal government and the Länder (states), the European Union, universities, schools, state institutes, research and service institutions and scholarly information centres. It is funded by the federal government (Bund) and the federal states (Länder). It covers all subjects for Pre-Primary education, Primary School, High School, vocational training and universities. Most German federal states have now similar and linked eduacational servers, e.g. Bavaria, Lower Saxony, Baden-Württemberg, Hessen, Niedersachsen and North-Rhine Westfalia etc. (see Regional OER Initiatives).
 
* The [http://www.virtuelle-schule.de/home.html%20 Virtuelle Schule] (Virtual School) is an initiative of the non-profit association Virtual School e. V. and includes three internet platforms: [http://www.virtuelle-schule.de/home.html%20 Virtuelle Schule for pupils in grades 5 and 12]; [http://www.uebergaengegestalten.d Ubergänge gestalten], specifically focused on the passage between different school levels; and [http://www.virtuellegrundschule.de%20 Virtuelle Grundschule], for Primary School (pupils in grades 1-4). They address mainly teachers (by providing relevant material and content for their lessons and teaching practice), but there is also space for access and participation on the part of students and parents. The internet platfom generates from a previous initiative (end of the 90s) at the Clavius-Gymnasium in Bamberg and is now led by the non-profit association Virtuelle Schule e.V. (1)
 
* [http://schulbuch-o-mat.de/index.html Schulbuch O-Mat] is a national initiative by OER-Schul-E-Books to create collaborative free OER textbooks for schools which are according to curriculum standards. The money for the textbooks is raised by crowd-funding. Teachers, experts from university work and graphi designer work together to produce the textbooks. They are free of charge for everynody. Since they are according to the curriculum of the particular federal state, the textbooks themselves are regional projects. The initiaures of Schulbuch O-Mat werde mainly from universities. The project is also accompanied by an evaluation. So far two textbooks have been produced by OER-Schul-E-Books:<br />
 
# [http://biologie.oncampus.de/loop/BIOLOGIE_1 OER Schul-E-Book Biologie 1] is a textbook for Biology for grades 7/8 of High Schools according to the curriculum of Berlin. It started in 2012 and the idea was to finish the textbook till the end of July 2013. The capital money was raised by crowd-funding till January 2013. The book itself was written by voluntary biology teachers and professionals graphic designers. The textbook is consistent with the curriculum (from 2006/2007) of Berlin for High Schools (Gymnasium) grades 7/8. It is the first free digital textbook in Germany under OER and CC. A lot of teachers participated, but in the end they had to translate some of the missing texts from courses from the Khan Academy in order to finish in time. The textbook itself is available as a webpage, and can be downloaded as pdf, ePub and iBook. Up to now there were 20.000 downloads. An accompanying report explains the difficulties in producing the book, e.g. in finding voluntary teachers. The textbook consists of multimedia courses with quizzes and exercises. Form and content is similar to a printed textbook, but it also includes interactive exercises, videos and pictures. A glossary contains the explanation of 327 technical terms. Topics are cells, living environment, nutrition, respiration, blood, addiction, puberty and sexuality. The textbook is created with LOOP (Learning Object Online Platform), an authoring software by the University Lübeck.
# [http://politik-wirtschaft.oncampus.de/loop/Hauptseite%20 OER Schul-E-Book Politik/Wirtschaft] is a collaboratively written textbook for grades 5/6 and 7 to 9 in Secondary Schools for politics and economy according to curriculum in North Rhine-Westphalia. The title of teh first booklet is "Securing and enhancing democracy". There will be two leves for different types of schools available. The textbook consists of multimedia courses with exercises. Form and content is similar to a printed textbook, but it also includes interactive exercises, videos, pictures, a glossary and an index. The last chapter is about different methods used in the subject like interviews, analysing texts, pictures and cartoons, researching in the internet, designing a poster etc. It is an on-going process with the first booklet being finished in June 2014. Each booklet will be an independent e-book. The content is under the CC By-SA licence. The textbook is created with LOOP (Learning Object Online Platform), an authoring software by the University Lübeck. So far it is available as a webiste and PDF and ePub as download.
 
* The [http://www.segu-geschichte.de/ Seguhistory] website is led by the University of Cologne (History Department). It consists of self-regulated lessons for history for teachers and students. The material is organized in open modules and students can arrange their own lessons from learning modules, method modules and research modules. Some are bilingual. The modules are arranged in two ways: chronological from early times up to the 20th century ("Zeiten") and according to themes and topics ("Einblicke). Up to now, about 60 % of the plannes modules are already available. The different modules are like parts of a big puzzle with which the students can make up their own picture of history. They decide when, how and what they would like to learn. That way they can "make history" too. Students chose the modules in which they are interested in and can download them as pdf or text files and print them. Most of the time, the exercises can be solved offline with the help of the history textbook or other material. All modules should be kept in a folder. For the video-modules on youtube, a computer is necessary and somtimes the internet for research. Besides the modules, quizzes, online exercises and a segu_planer is available. In the segu_planer teachers can chose a specific topic and certain modules for the students to work with. The students can do the exercises in the order they like to or they can make their own plan with the segu-planer. A time line in pdf and an interactive time line helps students to get an overview of history. Different tutorials explain the use of segu.<br />
 
* Teachers have their own [http://segu-blog.de/ portal]. They get help for their lesson plans and an introduction to the idea of an open and self-directed history classroom. Self-directed learning in the history classroom is not used very often in Germany because it is very time consuming in the preparation. The segu portal can help with that and shorten the preparation time. The material can also be used with laptop classes and ipads etc. Solutions to the exercises are also presented on the teachers' portal. But some exercises are open and have no specific solution. Besides that, teachers also find a newsletter, can ask questions and find partner schools.<br />
:Segu is an OER learning platform. All modules and learning material is under the CC licence. They can be copied and used again in digital form as long as segu is named as author. The textfiles can also be modified.
 
* [http://wikis.zum.de/zum/Hauptseite%20 ZUM-Wiki] is led by the non-profit association „Zentrale für Unterrichtsmedien im Internet e. V.“ ZUM-Wiki is an open platform for teaching material covering all subjects and types of schools from Primary to Secondary School. The material consists of digital assets, e.g. modules, picture, texts, links and animation. The platform is for the exchange of material, information, experiences and ideas concerning teaching and school in all German speaking countries. It is also for German as a foreign language. The Wiki is also meant for workgroups in schools to train resonsible writing and communication in the internet. Discussions about concepts, methods and the material is welcome. All material can be changed and updated all the time by the users.
: ZUM started as a website in 1995 by Margit Fischer. The non-profit association was founded in 1997 and has since then collected material for teachers and students. You will not only find material for the classroom, but also information about interdisciplinary activites. Articles for teachers, students and parents are also collected. The original idea was to launch a platform from teachers for teachers in order to use the internet as a data and information base for teaching. The participation is voluntary. All material is provided by teachers free of charge for the schools. ZUM-Wiki is financed by donations, grants, partnerships and advertisement. <br />
 
* Besides the ZUM-Wiki there is a special portal for Primary Schools - the [http://grundschulwiki.zum.de/wiki/Hauptseite%20 ZUM-Grundschulwiki]. It is also led by the non-profit association Zentrale für Unterrichtsmedien im Internet e. V. and is an open platform from primary-school pupils for primary-school pupils. The pupils are helped by the teachers in writing the texts. The idea is to five primary-school pupils the space to write their own texts and assemble material for other pupils. It is also licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 DE. The portal also contains a mailing system, a Web Quest and a search for Primary Schools in Germany.<br />
* [http://www.rpi-virtuell.net/%20 Rpi virtuell] is led by the Comenius-Institut in Münster and financed by the Protestant Church in Germany (EKD). It is an open platform for RE (religious education) where students can create their material collaboratively. The material is for Pe-Primary education, Primary Schools, High Schools and Adult Education. The thematic sites contain digital assets with pictures, texts and link-lists. Students can also upload their own material.<br />
 
* [http://l3t.eu/homepage/%20 L3T]is a collaboratively written e-textbook on learning and teaching technologies for university students and teachers. It is led by the non-profit association "Bims gem.e.V." The authors are mainly scientists from the field of technology. The free material should help to study and teach modern technologies.
 
* [http://www.serlo.org%20 Serlo] is led by the non-profit asscociation "Gesellschaft für freie Bildung". It is an open platform for free material for mathematics mainly for students in High Schools and Vocational Training. Students can upload their own videos or pictures. There are also German translations of videos from the Khan Academy. New subjects besides Mathematics are in planning.
 
* [http://de.wikiversity.org/wiki/Hauptseite%20 Wikiversity] is a project initiated by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is an open Platform to create OER for Universities, Schools and Adult Education. There is also a section in Germany for German schools.
 
* [http://www.lizzynet.de%20 LizzyNet] is a portal and community with information, communications and learning tools especially developed for girls. The information on the platforms is open for everybody, but the communities of LizzyNet are made available only on request. You have to register in order to get an e-mail address, instant-messanger, own profile and contact, homepage and free webspace, forums, clubs, chat and e-cards. The main topics on the portal are ones for girls like body and health, politics, culture, education and research and multimedia. It consists of articles, quizzes, recipes and games. In both communities the creation of national groups from other countries is welcome. Also groups for international exchange can be created. The portal and community is led by the closed corporation LizzyNet GmbH. The articles and information are supervised by pedagogues.(1)
* [http://www.exil-club.de%20 Exil-Club] is an online learning environment that engages with the subjects of exile, migration and intercultural education. The content as well as the working platform of the Exil-Club can be used by European school projects dealing with topics from the Exil-Club. The platform also stresses the topic of media literacy and media competence. It is led by the foundation Else-Lasker-Schüler-Stiftung and Schulen ans Netz e.V. From 2001 till 2005 it was funded by the German Bundeministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)/German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. (1)
 
* [http://www.deutsche-fernschule.de/ Deutsche Fernschule] (sub-site in English at http://www.deutsche-fernschule.de/en/home/) is an important correpondance school for German children (4 to 10) in Pre-Primary education and Primary School whose parents live abroad for a while. It has traditionally avoided the use of internet, given also the very young age of the target group, buut now there are some online courses available. A pilot project has however been recently launched, and might deserve some further investigation. Info retrieved from http://www.expatica.com/es/family/kids/The-virtual-classroom_16680.html Deutsche Fernschule is both an advisory agency for Germans working abroad and concerned about their children's schooling, and a provider of various sorts of supplementary schooling services to these. Most courses have to be paid for and are printed material, but some courses are now online and free of charge. Deutsche Fernschule assures children the highest possible level of education and provide each child with the opportunity to retain its cultural roots and still have plenty of time and enthusiasm to explore and experience the foreign environment. It has 40 years of experience and over 10,000 German pupils in 139 countries of the world.
 
* [https://openlearnware.tu-darmstadt.de%20/ OpenLearnWare] is a web-portal with lectures and courses from the Technical University in Darmstadt. You can find the material as courses or the single material. All digital material which is created for teaching at the University can be uploaded. The courses are for E-Learning, Pedagogy, PE, IT, Philosophy, Mechanical Engineering, Physics, Maths, Law and Economy.
 
* [https://openlearnware.tu-darmstahttp://electures.informatik.uni-freiburg.ddt.de%20 Electures-Portal] is a web-portal with lectures and courses from the University in Freiburg. The video lectures are only for IT. There is also a Wiki. The Electure-Portal is used at the Faculty of Applied Sciences to distribute lecture material. You have to open an account, but everybody can use it.
 
* [http://www.video.uni-erlangen.de%20 FAU Videoportal] is a videoportal from the university of Nürnberg-Erlangen.It offers university courses for Health and Medicine, Languages, Sciences, Psychology and Social Studies, Engineering, Humanities, Communication and Media, History, Society, Learning and Teaching Maths, Law and Politics, and Economy. Some of the videos are even broadcasted on TV.
 
* [http://www.j3l7h.de/videos.html Jörn Loviscach Videos] is a videoportal for Maths and IT of lectures, scripts and execises. It is led by Prof. Dr. Jörn Loviscach from the University Bielefeld.
 
* [https://lecture2go.uni-hamburg.de%20%20%20 Lecture2go] is a videoportal of lectures and other material from the University HAmburg. You can see the lecturer and his presentation at the same time. The lectures are for Law, Economy and Social Studies, Medicine, Psychology. Pedagogy, RE, Humnaities, Sciences, Maths, IT and Media.
 
* [http://lernfunk.de/portal-ui/user-interface/%20%20 LERNFUNK.DE] is a media protal with videos and podcastst of courses from the University in Osnabrück. It also contains a databank wirh all digial material from the courses. The courses are from all subjects of the University.
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/user/oncampusFHL oncampus] is led by the Oncampus GmbH which belomgs to the Virtual University of Applied Sciences Lübeck. It contains educational videos on youtube for IT, Economy and Sofz Skills.
 
* [http://www.podcampus.de%20 podcampus] is led by Multimedia Kontor Hamburg which is run by all the universities in Hamburg. It is a podcasting-platform with lectures from universities and research institutes in Germany, Austria and Switerland. The subjects are: Medicine, Languages, Sciences, Psychology, Philosophy, History, Engineering, IT, Art and Design, Music, Media, Maths, Law, Politics, PE and Economy.
 
* [http://timms.uni-tuebingen.de timms] is a multimedia server with video, audio material and texts from the university Tübingen. It was funded by the federal stat of Baden-Württemberg in 2000. The courses are for Law, economy, medicine, philosophy and history, Social Studies, Philology, Cultural Studies, Maths and Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geographyand IT.
 
* [http://mitschau.edu.lmu.de/ VideoOnline] is led by the LMU University Munich. It is run by the Department of Pedagogy and Rehabilitation and is a service for all members of the university. It presents lectures from the LMU Munich, mainly from Psychology, Pedagogy, Chemistry, Maths and Economy.
=== Regional OER initiatives ===
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