Changes

Jump to: navigation, search

Spain

30,023 bytes added, 13:23, 1 October 2016
1 revision imported: Import categories France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal
''lead author [[Alexandra Haché]]''<br><br>
''minor edits by [[Paul Bacsich]]<br><br>
''table of initiatives by [[Nick Kearney]] - [[Media:Open Education Initiatives in Spain.pdf]]''<br><br>
''For an update for Adult Education, see the April 2015 report [[Adult Education and OER in Spain]] by [[Giles Pepler]]''<br><br>
''For entities in Spain see [[:Category:Spain]]''
 
== Overview ==
Spain is a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy and has been a member of the European Union since 1986, and NATO since 1982.
=== OER in Spain: Map ===
 
Total number of Open Education Initiatives in {{PAGENAME}} on {{CURRENTDAYNAME}}, {{CURRENTDAY}} {{CURRENTMONTHNAME}} {{CURRENTYEAR}} at {{CURRENTTIME}} =
'''[[Has initiative-count::{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:{{PAGENAME}}]] |format=count| limit=1000 }} ]]''', of which:
* [[Has MOOC initiative-count::{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:MOOC]] [[Category:{{PAGENAME}}]] |format=count| limit=1000 }} ]] are MOOC
* [[Has OER initiative-count::{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:OER]] [[Category:{{PAGENAME}}]] |format=count| limit=1000 }} ]] are OER
 
''Initiatives per million'' = [[Has initiatives-per-mill::{{#expr: ( ( {{#show:Spain|?Has initiative-count#}} * 1000000 ) / {{#show:Spain|?Has population#}} ) round 2 }}]]
 
[[Category:Countries for OEI tracking]]
 
{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:Spain]] |?Has coordinates|format=googlemaps |centre=40.5,-3.7 | limit = 300}}
 
'''Additional information'''
 
''For additional open education initiatives in Spain not yet integrated into the main database, see the report [[Media:Open Education Initiatives in Spain.pdf]] by [[Nick Kearney]].''
 
'''''Recent information post POERUP'''''
 
''See the April 2015 report [[Media:ADOERUP_Annex_Spain.pdf]] by [[Giles Pepler]]''
=== Further information ===
The Spanish language is the official language in every autonomous commmunity but six autonomous communities have also other official languages:
# [[Catalonia]] ([[Catalan ]] and [[Occitan]])# [[Valencian Community ]] ([[Catalan]], also called [[Valencian ]] there)# [[Balearic Islands]] ([[Catalan]])# [[Galicia]] ([[Galician]])# [[BasqueCountry]] Country ([[Basque]])# [[Navarre]] ([[Basque]], but only in the north)
List of the autonomous communities, with their Capital capital city (the place where the government has its offices):
# [[Andalusia ]] (its capital is Sevilla)# [[Aragon ]] (its capital is Zaragoza)# [[Asturias ]] (its capital is Oviedo)# [[Balearic Islands ]] (its capital is Palma de Mallorca)# [[Basque Country ]] (its capital is Vitoria)# [[Canary Islands ]] (they have two capitals - Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife)# [[Cantabria ]] (its capital is Santander)# Castile[[Castilla-La Mancha ]] (its capital is Toledo)# [[Castile and León Leon]] (its capital is Valladolid)# [[Catalonia ]] (its capital is Barcelona)# [[Extremadura ]] (its capital is Mérida)# [[Galicia ]] (its capital is Santiago de Compostela)# [[La Rioja ]] (its capital is Logroño)# [[Madrid Community]](its capital is Madrid)# [[Murcia Region]] (its capital is Murcia)# [[Navarre ]] (its capital is Pamplona)# [[Valencian Community ]] (its capital is Valencia)
Spain also has two cities on the north coast of Africa: [[Ceuta]] and [[Melilla]]. They are called "autonomous cities" and have simultaneously the majority of the power of an autonomous community and also power of provinces and power of municipalities.
==== Examinations in {{PAGENAME}} ====
The Spanish '''Bachillerato''' is the post-16 stage of education, comparable to the [[A Levels]]/[[Higher (ScottishEngland) or Highers (Scotland)]] in the [[UK]], the [[French Baccalaureate]] in [[France]] or the [[International Baccalaureate]].
There are two parts, a core curriculum with the compulsory subjects, and a specialist part with a few pre-selected branches to choose from.
**Plastic Graphic Expression Techniques (second year and optional)
**Information and communication technologies. (Optional)
 
*Nature and Health Sciences:
**Biology
**Chemistry
**Physics or [[Earth Sciences]]
**Mathematics
*Sciences & Engineering:
**Physics,**Maths,**Chemistry,
**Technical Drawing
*Social Sciences:
**Applied Maths,**Economics,**Geography,**History of the Contemporany Contemporary World (only 1st year)
*Humanities:
**Latin,**Greek,
**History of Art/World Literature
**History of the Contemporany Contemporary World (only 1st year)
''The existence of the Bachillerato implies that there could be economies of scale if a national or autonomous region government funded the development of OER content.''
 
=== e-learning ===
initiatives have raised awareness and increased the access, uptake and use of ICT by teachers, educators, students and life long learners. The complete picture can be found in the [http://www.slideshare.net/catedrastelefonica/las-tic-y-la-educacin following report developed by Telefonica] in 2009. Some of those initiatives are detailed below:
* ==== National Level====
The Spanish Ministry of Education still coordinates some initiatives at a national level in collaboration with autonomous communities, like the [http://www.ite.educacion.es/escuela-20 ESCUELA 2.0].
In relation to private organisations, [http://encuentro.educared.org/ EducaRed] is the Telefónica Foundation program to promote the educational use of ICT in teaching, benefiting teachers, students, parents. It us currently being implemented in seven countries: Spain, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Peru. Founded in Spain in 1998, EducaRed has two main objectives: improving the quality of education and promoting equal opportunities through new technologies. It is also worth mentioning that Telefonica and the Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI) published in 2009 a report "La integración de las TIC en la escuela, indicadores cualitativos y metodología de investigación" [2] in order to evaluate and measure the integration of ICT inside education organisations highlighting main methodological and research challenges and how to best address those.
* ==== [[Andalusia]] ====
In Andalusia, the department of education made in 2003 the use of open source software for all ICT equipments in public schools compulsory and developed a specific educational distribution entitled [http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/educacion/cga/portal/info/guadalinex-edu Gualalinex Edu]. The global scope of the project involves 120.000 teachers and 1.800.000 students and cost-saving derivative from not using privative software have been estimated to be around 27 and 36 millions euros per year. The program has been increasingly enlarged and is currently being developed through the [http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/educacion/nav/contenido.jsp?pag=/Contenidos/TemasFuerza/nuevosTF/300909_EscuelaTIC20/texto_tic Escuela TIC 2.0 for Andalucia] translating into providing 173.500 students of primary school with laptops installed with guadalinex.edu. The technical advice and support delivered towards teachers and students, and the administration of servers and software development is achieved by the [http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/educacion/cga/portal/ Centro de Gestión Avanzado].
* ==== [[Catalonia]] ====
The [http://www.xtec.cat/web/guest/home Educational Telematic Network of Catalonia (XTEC)] was created in 1988 by the Catalan Department of Education. Its aims are to provide Internet access to schools inasmuch as educational services dependent on the department and also to the entire educational community of Catalonia (at the exception of Higher Education organisations) a wide range of content, proposals and specific services. Besides, the portal [http://www.edu365.cat/ Edu365.cat] was created in 2001 to help structuring the educational use of the Internet by students and providing those with specific content and services such as multimedia self-learning and teaching support, mainly for the curriculum areas of Elementary, primary and secondary Education.
* ==== [[Extremadura]] ====
Extremadura launched a pioneer plan back into 2001 when evaluating the expenses of operative systems for its intranet: “After calculating the expenses for each, it was determined that the cost of MS Windows licenses surpassed 20,000,000 Euros. And that figure did not include educational and administrative applications; those applications would have to be developed or bought and adapted to the local infrastructure. After an analysis of cost and adaptability, the government decided to develop a customized and regionalized version of GNU/Linux. It would be called LinEx. The installation of LinEx was gradual until it finally reached all of the high schools in Extremadura under the form of [http://linexedu.educarex.es/web/guest;jsessionid=1771F68118E494EA7695EDF5FA6896AB.liferay1 Linex edu]". In 2011, its development was abandoned and legate to a national organization for the maintenance of the software. Even tough the migration towards open source solutions from institutional organizations has been kept in the agenda.
== OER Initiatives in {{PAGENAME}} ==
As an introductory note, according to the OECD latest survey entitled “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, respondents for Spain estimated that 90% of all publicly produced or financed learning materials were available in a digital format [3]. Besides they stated that OER activities in Spain were mostly focused towards young children (ISCED sectors 1 to 3) and . However, the analysis of the [http://www.ocwconsortium.org/en/members OpenCourseWare consortium partners], one of the most widespread initiative of Open education for Higher Education organizations, reveals that in relation to EU27 member States there is a strong over-representation of Spanish universities, followed respectively by the UK and France. In relation to above survey results, it it should be noted that is not clear whether there was a shared understanding and common definition of what stood as OER initiatives among the civil servants targeted by the above mentioned survey. === Introduction ===
IndeedAs an introductory note, as according to the detail OECD latest survey entitled “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of initiatives below will show there is a general misunderstanding Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, respondents for Spain estimated that 90% of what are open and/all publicly produced or free licenses driving financed learning materials were available in a digital format [3]. It also states that OER activities in Spain were mostly created for young children (ISCED sectors 1 to confuse OER initiatives with Open Access ones3). In order to identify Open Access initiatives our research started from extracting from However, the [http://wwwpanorama is more diverse.doaj.org Directory An analysis of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)] the ones falling under OpenCourseWare consortium partners, one of the category “Spain”. DOAJ aims at being a directory of most widespread Open Access Journals education initiatives in order Higher Education, reveals that in relation to increase EU27 member States there is a strong presence of Spanish universities, followed respectively by the visibility UK and ease of use of open access scientific and scholarly journals thereby promoting their increased usage and impactFrance. According In relation to their definitionthe results of this survey results, Open Access journals refer to journals that use a funding model it should be noted that the report does not charge readers or their institutions for access. The [http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/boaifaq.htm#openaccess BOAI clarify whether there was a shared understanding and common definition] of "open access" refers to the right of users to "read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles" what stood as mandatory for a journal to be included in OER initiatives among the directory. However, DOAJ also listed repositories of digitized contents put at disposition civil servants targeted by public institutions and Higher Education universitiesthe above mentioned survey.
This is a common issue in the Spanish context. Though there is a wide range of initiatives, there is no common understanding of the nature of open and/or free licenses which leads to a confusion of Open Access initiatives in Spain: [[List with OER. This is partly due to the lack of leadership at policy level. Despite the number of 78 OA initiatives identified]]at different educational levels and across the different autonomous communities, there is currently no legislation that covers this area or provides a common definition.
Departing from An illustration of the idea that OER are defined by contents released under an open or free license, initiatives degree of confusion can be divided among: * Open Access initiatives which basically put seen by looking at disposal contents on the Internet retaining all authors rights under strict copyright policies (e.g. most results of a search of the digitized contents repositories offered by public institutions fall into this categoryDirectory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)* Mixed OA and OER, which are using the ones category “Spain”. DOAJ is a directory of Open Access Journals that enable either aims to increase the visibility and ease of use of copyrightopen access scientific and scholarly journals thereby promoting their increased usage and impact. According to their definition, either the Open Access journals refer to journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access. The BOAI definition of Creative Commons licenses (generally BY-No Commercial – No derivative) and which generally relate "open access" refers to Phdthe right of users to "read, thesis and academic download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles " as mandatory for a journal to be included in the directory. However, DOAJ also listed repositories piloted of digitized contents put at disposition by public institutions and Higher Education organizations* OER universities. The search identified 78 Open Access initiatives using only Creative Commons license which are divided between the ones that promote open licenses (BY-No Commercial – No derivative) and the ones that strictly promote free licenses (for instance CC BY-Share Alike or GPL- Gnu Public Licenses)in Spain.
In general, information regarding authors rights was available either in a specific section Starting out from the home page, either in the “legal disclaimer” or in the “frequently Asked Questions” section. It should be noted idea that among the reviewed initiatives many of them did not display clearly their Authors Rights policies driving us to categorize them OER are defined as “unclear” initiatives. Regarding our sample, 19 initiatives used strict copyright, 20 had unclear policies, 28 offered the possibility to license either content released under strict copyright either using an open or free Creative Commons licenses, 10 allowed Creative Commons licenses and only one initiative had its contents released under the GPL free license. As a result among the 78 OA identified initiatives, almost the half (39 these initiatives) could can be also labeled as OER. divided into:
Finally, it is interesting to see that most of those * Open Access initiatives used which basically make content available online platforms based on free software but retain all authors rights under strict copyright policies (mostly [http://wwwe.dspaceg.org/introducing Dspace] and [https://moodle.org/ Moodle]most of the digitized contents repositories offered by public institutions fall into this category) * Mixed OA and many OER, which are the ones that enable either the use of them also stated to copyright, either the use of Creative Commons licenses (generally BY-No Commercial – No derivative) and which generally relate to Phd, thesis and academic repositories piloted by Higher Education organizations * OER initiatives using only Creative Commons licenses which are divided between the ones that promote open standards such as metadata for categorizing contents licenses (BY-No Commercial – No derivative) and easing the ones that strictly promote free licenses (for instance CC BY-Share Alike or GPL- Gnu Public Licenses). In general, information regarding authors rights was available either in a specific section on the home page, either in the “legal disclaimer” or in the “frequently Asked Questions” section. It should be noted that many of the reviewed initiatives did not state their discoverability Authors Rights policies clearly and retrievalwere therefore categorized as “unclear” initiatives. In the sample, 19 initiatives used strict copyright, 20 had unclear policies, 28 offered the possibility to license either under strict copyright using either an open or free Creative Commons licenses, 10 allowed Creative Commons licenses and only one initiative had its contents released under the GPL free license. As a result among the 78 OA identified initiatives, just under half (39 initiatives) could be also labeled as OER.
=== International and national OER Finally, it is interesting to see that most of those initiatives ===used online platforms based on free software (mostly Dspace and Moodle) and many of them also mentioned the use of open standards such as metadata for categorizing contents and easing their discoverability and retrieval.
Regarding OpenCourseWare === International/national OER initiatives delivered by Higher Education organisations some of the most known initiatives are listed below. It should be noted that because of Spanish is used in most central and latin american countries, several initiatives are based among partnerships between Spanish and Higher Educations organizations located overseas. ===
[http://ocw.innova.uned.es/ocwuniversia Universia] started in 2000 as an Internet initiative in the Regarding OpenCourseWare initiatives delivered by Higher Education sectororganisations some of the most known initiatives are listed below. It is promoted by a group should be noted that because of Spanish universities with the support of the Spanish University Rectors' Board (CRUE), the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and sponsored by the Santander Group. It is coordinated by the Foundation Universia used in most central and its OpenCourseWare courses are licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.5 ES. The network is composed by 1.1000 Universities located in 15 latin american countries: Andorra, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Spain, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Uruguay several initiatives are based among partnerships between Spanish and Venezuela. The initiative counts with 12 websites, one for each country, and another global site which offers information and contents from across the network. Universia reach out 10.1 million students, 8 million users and 850,000 university teaching staff Higher Educations organizations located overseas.
The OCW from '''[http://ocw.uoc.edu/ UOC (Universitat Oberta de Catalunya)[Universia] was launched ]''' started in 2008 and offers over 100 courses licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 32000 as an Internet initiative in the Higher Education sector.0. The OCW from It is promoted by a group of Spanish universities with the [http://ocw.ehu.es/ EHU support of the Spanish University Rectors' Board (Universidad del País VascoCRUE), the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)] was also launched in 2008 and sponsored by the Santander Group. It is coordinated by the Foundation Universia and its contents OpenCourseWare courses are licensed under CC BY -NC SA -ND 2.5 ES. The OCW network is composed by 1.1000 Universities located in 15 countries: Andorra, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Spain, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela. The initiative counts with 12 websites, one for each country, and another global site which offers information and contents from across the [http://ocwnetwork.upmUniversia reach out 10.es/ UPM (Universidia Politecnica de Madrid)] offers over 80 courses under a various range of Creative Commons license1 million students, 8 million users and 850,000 university teaching staff.
Other Spanish universities providing OpenCourseWare are the: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid The OCW from UOC (English,Spanish); Universidad Universitat Oberta de Alicante (SpanishCatalunya); Universidad de Cadiz was launched in 2008 and offers over 100 courses licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. The OCW from the EHU (Spanish); Universidad de Cantabria (Spanishdel País Vasco); Universidad de Murcia was also launched in 2008 and its contents are licensed under CC BY NC SA 2.5 ES. The OCW from the UPM (English,Spanish); Universidad de Navarra (Spanish); Universidad de Oviedo (Spanish); Universidad de Sevilla (Spanish); Universidad de Zaragoza (Spanish); Universidad Internacional de Andalucía (Spanish); Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (Spanish); Universidad Universidia Politecnica de Cartagena (Spanish); Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spanish); Universidad Politecnica Madrid (Spanish); Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Galician,Spanish); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spanish, Catalan); Universitat de Girona (Spanish, Catalan); Universitat Jaume I (Spanish, Catalan)offers over 80 courses under a various range of Creative Commons license.
Regarding Massive Open Online Courses Other Spanish universities providing OpenCourseWare are the: # Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (MOOCEnglish,Spanish); # Universidad de Alicante (Spanish); # Universidad de Cadiz (Spanish); Universidad de Cantabria (Spanish); # Universidad de Murcia (English, the first steps were taken by the Spanish); # Universidad Politecnica de Madrid which launched in 2012 a virtual course on cryptography [http://www.crypt4you.com/ Crypt4you]. Currently the Navarra (Spanish); # Universidad de Oviedo (Spanish); Universidad de Sevilla (Spanish); # Universidad de Zaragoza (Spanish); # Universidad Internacional de Andalucía (Spanish); # Universidad Nacional Española de Educacion a Distancia (UNEDSpanish), in collaboration with the Massachusetts Institute Technology ; # Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena (MITSpanish); # Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spanish); # Universidad Politecnica Madrid (Spanish); # Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Galician, is launching the [http://www.redunx.org UnX platform] in order to ease the provision of open contents and virtual training developed by the UNED and the MIT OpenCourseWare. UnX is therefore the Spanish equivalence for [https://www.edx.org/ EdX] created two years ago by the MIT and Harvard universities. UNED will provide formal certification through its [http://www.csev.org/ CSEV ); # Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Centro superior para la Enseñanza virtualSpanish, Catalan); # Universitat de Girona (Spanish, Catalan); # Universitat Jaume I (Spanish, Catalan)] in partnership with Telefonica and Universia. The First virtual training courses will focus in the development of phone applications for the Android mobile operative system.
Regarding other OER national initiatives targeting teachers of primary and secondary, young students, families and life long learners we found the following initiatives:=== MOOC ===
The portal strong involvement in OCW is also reflected in the take up of [http://wwwMOOCs in Spain.iteIn June 2014 the European MOOC scoreboard lists 203 Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC).educacionSpain is the country in Europe with most MOOCS.es/es/recursos Recursos Educativos] put up The first steps were taken by the INTEF (Instituto Nacional Universidad Politecnica de Tecnologías Educativas y de Formación del Profesorado) offers over one thousand educational resources oriented towards teachers, kids, young adults and parents. All its resources are licensed under Creative Commons BY – NC – SA 3Madrid which launched in 2012 a virtual course on cryptography Crypt4you.0. They are organized around 31 different targets and projects. For instanceHigher Education institutions currently offer MOOCs in Spain, [http://recursostic.educacion.es/apls/informacion_didactica/1441 WikiDidacTICa] which is more than a repository third of best educational practices developed by teachers through collaborative processesthe universities in the country. Its main goal Interestingly, though the Universidad Nacional Española a Distancia (UNED) is the lead provider, more traditional universities than distance or open universities are offering these courses and this is the case of the two other lead universities, the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and the Universidad de Cantabria, which together with UNED make up half the number of courses (according to build a useful space facilitating the gradual incorporation for all educational levels Catedra Telefonica report of digital tools as Dec 2013). teaching resources. Those are licensed under Creative Commons BY – NC – SA 3.0 andthey also The following table lists the universities that currently offer a [http://recursostic.educacion.es/bancoimagenes/web/ repository of images MOOCs in Spain and sounds] under Creative Commons BY-NC-SAthe platforms they use.
The [http:# EHU - University del Pais Vasco - EHUSfera# IE Business School - Coursera# Universidad de Alicante- Miriada X# Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona - Coursera# Universidad de Alcalá - Miriada X# Universidad Autónoma de Madrid - Iversity# Universidad de Cantabria - Miriada X# Universidad Carlos III de Madrid - Miriada X# Universidad Cardenal Herrera (CEU) - Miriada X# Universidad Complutense de Madrid - Miriada X# Universitat de Girona - Miriada X# Universidad de Granada - Abierta GR# Universidad de Huelva - Miriada X# Universidad de Murcia - Miriada X# IESE Universidad de Navarra - Coursera# Universidad de Navarra - Coursesites# Universidad Nacional Española a Distancia - Miriada X/UNED Coma# Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena - Miriada X# Universidad Pompeu Fabra - Miriada X# Universidad Politécnica de Madrid - Miriada X# Universidad Politécnica de Valencia - Miriada X/cedec.ite.educacion.esUPV(X)# Universidad Rey Juan Carlos - Miriada X# Universidad de Salamanca - Miriada X# Universidad San Pablo (CEU) - Miriada X# Universidad Europea - Miriada X# Universidad de Castilla La Mancha - Miriada X# Universidad de Málaga - Miriada X# Universidad Católica de Murcia - Miriada X/ CEDEC Unidad MOOC# Universidad de Zaragoza - Miriada X# Universitat Abat Oliba (National Centre for Curriculum Development in Non privative operative systemsCEU)] was founded in 2009 as an agency of the Ministry of Education through the Institute of Educational Technology and the Junta of Extremadura. Its aim is to design, promote and develop digital educational materials through the use of free software and made them available to the entire educational community.- Miriada X
[http://www.webAs can be seen from this table the majority of the institutions use Miriada X, few use the most well-familiasknown platforms such as Coursera.com/princip.html The Virtual school of Parents] In some cases after beginning with Miriada X the university is migrating to its own platform, this is the case of the UNED, the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and the Universidad Católica de Murcia, while a web portal for parentscouple of others, aimed at supporting them in their role through useful documents Universidad del País Vasco and spaces for dialogue Universidad de Granada use their own. As previously mentioned, there universities make up around the issues 50% of children education the course offered, UNED, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, and related problemsUniversidad de Cantabria. The portal include a specific session called “Escuela Virtual”, where materials can be downloaded others offer between 1 and a forum is available5 courses each.
[www.proyectoagrega.e The Agrega project] is a federation MOOC sector continues to grow at present and the number of learning Digital repositories used by 19 educational authorities in Spain. Each one of them courses offered has its own repository loaded with curricular learning objects with a clear focus towards integration and interoperability between Agrega learning repositories and other repositories located worldwide thanks to doubled since the use beginning of generic GPL licensing. Regarding the curricular contents, those are being developed under Creative Commons licensing schemes, and can be experimented directly 2014 from a web site, offline or through a Learning Management System. Contents and applications are available 111 to 206 in Spanish, Euskera, Catalan, Valencian, Gallego and EnglishJune 2014 (European MOOC Scoreboard).
[http://wikimediaeducativa.wikispaces.com/home WikimediaEducativa] was launched in 2010 by some master’s students of the private university Camilo José Cela (UCJC). It aims at offering a repository of educational contents for teachers and students from primary schools. Contents are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0.=== Other national OER initiatives ===
[http://www.wikisaber.es Wikisaber] was launched A range of other OER initiatives exist at national level in 2007 by the foundation Wikisaber Spain, targeting diverse audiences such as teachers in partnership with various organisations (London Grid for Learningprimary and secondary schools, Universidad de Salamancayoung students, Fundación Pastor de Estudios Clásicos families and the Fundación Germán Sánchez Ruipérez) and has been financed under a European fund for regional development. lifelong learners:
[http://rededucaThe INTEF (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologías Educativas y de Formación del Profesorado) Recursos Educativos portal.wikispaces.com/ Red Educa] is an initiative launched by an individualThis offers over one thousand educational resources oriented towards teachers, Laura Souliékids, between 2005-2008 young adults and which aimed at providing educational contents parents. All its resources are licensed under Creative Commons BY – NC – SA 3.0. They are organized according to all teachers aims and educators dealing with ICT use into their classroomsin some cases around specific projects. Another [http://marifeFor instance, WikiDidacTICa is a repository of best educational practices developed by teachers through collaborative processes.wordpressIts main goal is to build a useful space facilitating the gradual incorporation for all educational levels of digital tools as teaching resources.com/ OER initiative] launched in 2007 by an individual, Marifé Lara Romero, The resources are licensed under Creative Commons BY – NC – SA 3.0 and there is also targets teachers in primary a repository of images and secondary schoolssounds under Creative Commons BY-NC-SA.
=== Institutional OER initiatives ===CEDEC (National Centre for Curriculum Development in Non-Propietary Systems) was founded in 2009 as an agency of the Ministry of Education managed by INTEF and the Junta of Extremadura. Its aim is to design, promote and develop digital educational materials through the use of free software and make them available to the entire educational community. The Virtual School for Parents is a web portal for parents, aimed at supporting them in their role, through the provision of useful documentary resources and spaces for dialogue around the issues of child education and related problems. The portal include a specific session called “Escuela Virtual”, where materials can be downloaded and a forum is available.
The [http://www.educaredAgrega project is a federation of learning Digital repositories used by 19 educational authorities in Spain.org/ EducaRed] initiative was launched Each one of them has its own repository loaded with curricular learning objects with a clear focus towards integration and interoperability between 2008-2012 by the foundation Telefonica Agrega learning repositories and aimed at offering resources and methodologies other repositories located worldwide thanks to introduce the use of ICT generic GPL licensing. Regarding the curricular contents, those are being developed under Creative Commons licensing schemes, and Internet inside educational organisationscan be used directly from a web site, offline or through a Learning Management System. Contents and applications are available in Spanish, Euskera, Catalan, Valencian, Gallego and English.
[http://www.eduteka.org/OER.php Edukateka] is delivered WikimediaEducativa was launched in 2010 by a group of post-graduate students at the Foundation Gabriel Piedrahita Uribe private Universidad Camilo José Cela (FGPUUCJC) and . It aims at providing offering a repository of educational contents for free quality materials to teachers, school managers and trainers. It also offers virtual trainings students in order to help them enrich their use of ICT inside their school environmentsprimary schools. It also designs and implements interactive online spaces with useful and valuable resource for teachers (Classroom Project Manager, Collaborative Project Planner, Interactive Curriculum 2Contents are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0).
[http://www.cibersociedad.net/ The Observatory Wikisaber was launched in 2007 by the foundation Wikisaber in partnership with various organisations (London Grid for CyberSociety] is an interdisciplinary space for debate and reflectionLearning, where digital technologies are assessed and analyzed from several perspectivesUniversidad de Salamanca, considering their value Fundación Pastor de Estudios Clásicos and the Fundación Germán Sánchez Ruipérez) and social impact. It has just recently reached ten years and all its contents are licensed under [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ Creative Commons BY 3.0]been financed as a European Fund for Regional Development project.
[http://goteo.org/ Goteo] is a social network for crowdfunding Red Educa was an initiative launched by an individual, Laura Soulié, between 2005-2008 and distributed collaboration for encouraging the independent development of creative and innovative initiatives that contribute which aimed at providing educational contents under Creative Commons to the common good, free knowledge all teachers and open source software developmenteducators dealing with ICT use into their classrooms. It is a platform for investing Another OER initiative launched in "feeder capital" that supports projects with social2007 by an individual, culturalMarifé Lara Romero, scientific, educational, technological, or ecological objectives that generate new opportunities for the improvement of society also targets teachers in primary and the enrichment of communities. All projects funded through Goteo reverts into the Commons by sharing its contents, design and ideas under open or free licensessecondary schools.
In general, it should be noted that EducaRed was launched between 2008-2012 by the main bulk Telefonica Foundation and aimed at offering resources and methodologies to introduce the use of institutional OER initiatives have a regional scope as they are being promoted by specific Higher Education ICT and Internet inside educational organisations or public administrations with a regional scope. All the initiatives identified under those criteria are listed below:
=== Regional OER initiatives ===Edukateka was created by the Gabriel Piedrahita Uribe Foundation (FGPU) and aims to provide free quality materials to teachers, school managers and trainers. It also offers virtual training in order to help them enrich their use of ICT inside their school environments. It also designs and implements interactive online spaces with useful and valuable resource for teachers (Classroom Project Manager, Collaborative Project Planner, Interactive Curriculum 2.0).
The Observatory for CyberSociety is an interdisciplinary space for debate and reflection, where digital technologies are assessed and analyzed from several perspectives, considering their value and social impact. It should also be noted that most of the OER initiatives listed below have has been extracted from the Open Access initiatives identified here: [List of 78 OA initiatives identified]in existence for ten years and all its contents are licensed under Creative Commons BY 3.0.
[http://academica-eAs can be seen there are many initiatives at national level, but the bulk of institutional OER initiatives have a more regional focus as they are run by specific Higher Education organisations or public administrations at this level.unavarraThese initiatives are listed below in the next section.es/ Academica-e]
Organisation:Universidad Pública de Navarra, SpainDescription:This site provides access to For '''additional initiatives''' see the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish.OAI-PMH:http://academica-e.unavarra.es/oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:2438 items (2012-09-21)Subjects:Agriculture, Food and Veterinary; Technology General; Computers and ITContent:References; ThesesLanguages:Spanish; EnglishPolicies:report [http[Media://academica-e.unavarra.es/xmlui/themes/unavarra-hasi/lib/derechos_autor_acceso_abierto_upnaOpen Education Initiatives in Spain.pdf License of distribution / Creative Commons]] by [[Nick Kearney]].
[http://eciencia.urjc.es/dspace/ Archivo Abierto Institucional de la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos]
Organisation:Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, SpainDescription:This site is an institutional repository which provides open access to the publications produced by the members of our University, mainly theses. The whole site interface is in Spanish only. Registered users can set up email alerts in order to notify them new added materials. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH:http://eciencia.urjc.es/dspace-oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:5305 items (2012-09-21)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; Theses; Unpublished; BooksLanguages:SpanishPolicies:[http://eciencia.urjc.es/dspace/help/derechosautor.html Copyright / Creative Commons]=== Regional OER initiatives ===
[http://oaThese initiatives are largely institutional repositories.upmDOAR list 114 for Spain, not all all have an explicitly educational focus, and for this reason some have been left out.es/ Archivo Digital UPMAn alternative-format layout is on the wiki page [[List of 95 OA initiatives identified]].
For clarity of layout and future automated processing the following data is listed in "nowiki" fixed-spacing format. <nowiki>ABACUS. Repositorio de Producción Científica Organisation:Universidad Politecnica de Madrid. Biblioteca, Universidad Politecnica de MadridEuropea, SpainDescription:This is an institutional repository providing provides open access to the research output work of staff and students of Universidad Europea. the institution. Primarily contains thesisinterface is in Spanish and English.OAI-PMH:http://oaabacus.upmuniversidadeuropea.es/cgioai/oai2requestSoftware:EPrintsDSpaceSize:9688 2790 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; Theses; Books; PatentsLanguages:SpanishPolicies:[http://oa.upm.es/publicar.html Copyright / Creative Commons]Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies unknown
[Academica-e Organisation: Universidad Pública de Navarra, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish.OAI-PMH: http://rabidaacademica-e.uhuunavarra.es/dspaceoai/ Arias Montano requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 3942 items (Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Huelva2014-06-13)]Subjects: Agriculture, Food and Veterinary; Technology General; Computers and ITContent: References; ThesesLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Archivo Abierto Institucional de la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos Organisation:Biblioteca Universitaria, Universidad de HuelvaRey Juan Carlos, SpainDescription:This site is an institutional repository which provides open access to the publications produced by the members of the University, mainly theses. The whole site interface is in Spanishonly. Registered users can set up email alerts in order to notify them new added materials. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH:http://rabidaeciencia.uhuurjc.es/dspace-oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:5433 5535 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; Theses; Unpublished; BooksLanguages:SpanishPolicies:[http://www.uhu.es/biblioteca/RepositorioDspace/Dspace_preguntas_mas_frecuentes.pdf Copyright / Creative Commons]Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies unknown
[ADDI (Archivo Digital para la Docencia y la Investigación) Organisation: Universidad del País Vasco (Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea / University of the Basque Country), SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in Spanish, English and Basque.OAI-PMH: http://dspaceaddi.uahehu.es/dspaceoai/ e_buah requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 3006 items (Biblioteca Digital de la Universidad de Alcalá2014-06-13)]Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: ArticlesLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Archivo Digital UPM Organisation:Universidad Politecnica de Madrid. Biblioteca, Universidad Politecnica de AlcaláMadrid, SpainDescription:This is an institutional repository for the Universidad de Alacalá, giving providing access to the publication research output of the universityinstitution. The site interface is in SpanishPrimarily contains thesis.OAI-PMH:http://dspaceoa.uahupm.es/oaicgi/requestoai2Software:DSpaceEPrintsSize:7451 16788 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; Conferences; Theses; SpecialBooks; PatentsLanguages:SpanishPolicies:[http://creativecommons.org/licenses/byMetadata re-nc-nd/3.0/deed.es Creative Commons BY-NC-ND]use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[httpArchivo gráfico institucional de la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC) Organisation://infodigital.opandalucia.es/bvial/ Biblioteca virtual Universidad de obras públicas Las Palmas de Andalucía Gran Canaria (BviaLULPGC)], SpainDescription: This site provides access to multi-media content collected by the institution. The interface is available in Spanish and English.Software: CONTENTdmSize: 344 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: MultimediaLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata policies unknown; Re-use of full data items permitted for not-for-profit purposes; Content policies unknown; Submission policies unknown; Preservation policies unknown
Organisation:Agencia de Obra Pública Arias Montano (Repositorio Institucional de la Junta Universidad de Huelva) Organisation: Biblioteca Universitaria, Universidad de AndalucíaHuelva, SpainDescription:This site is an institutional repository which provides open access to the research output publications produced by the members of the institutionUniversity. The interface is available in Spanish and English.SoftwareOAI-PMH:http://rabida.uhu.es/dspace-oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize:1009 7607 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:Law and Politics; Management and PlanningMultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; References; Conferences; UnpublishedTheses; Books; Multimedia; SpecialLanguages:SpanishPolicies:[http://infodigital.opandalucia.es/bvial/# Creative Copmmons BYMetadata re-ND-NC]use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[Biblioteca Digital Científica de les Illes Balears Organisation: Universitat de les Illes Balears (University of Balearic Islands), SpainDescription: This repository is a gateway to scientific and scholarly information produced in the University of Balearic Islands and in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The interface is in Spanish.OAI-PMH: http://digitool-uamibdigital.greendatauib.es/R Biblosgreenstone/cgi-bin/oaiserver.cgiSoftware: GreenstoneSize: 12574 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: Science GeneralContent: Articles; ThesesLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-e Archivo]use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Biblioteca Digital de Castilla y León (BDCYL) Organisation:Universidad Autonoma Junta de MadridCastilla y León, SpainDescription:This site is an institutional repository providing provides access to the research output digitised collections of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. Its purpose is to provide access to the most significant literary and scientific works about the history, the art and the culture of this Spanish region and to disseminate the Castilian and Leonese bibliographical heritage. The BDCYL devotes special attention to the classical regional authors. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH:http://digitool-uambibliotecadigital.greendatajcyl.es/OAI-PUBi18n/oai/oai.cmdSoftware:DigiToolDigibibSize:6662 15922 items (20122014-0905-2119)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryScience General; Arts and Humanities General; History and ArchaeologyContent:ThesesArticles; BooksLanguages:SpanishPolicies:[http://biblioteca.uam.es/sc/biblose_archivo_derechos.html Copyright / Creative Commons BYMetadata re-NC-ND]use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[Biblioteca Digital de la Comunidad de Madrid Organisation: Comunidad de Madrid, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the digitised collections of the Community of Madrid from the 12th to 16th Centuries. The interface is available in Spanish. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH: http://dspacewww.ceubibliotecavirtualmadrid.esorg/ CEU Repositorio Institucional]bvmadrid_publicacion/i18n/oai/oai.cmdSoftware: DigibibSize: 3303 items (2014-05-19)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Books; SpecialLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Biblioteca Digital de la Universidad de AlcaláOrganisation:Universidad San Pablo CEUde Alcalá, SpainDescription:This site provides is an institutional repository for the Universidad de Alacalá, giving access to the research publication output of the institutionuniversity. The site interface is available in Spanishand includes RSS feeds to alert users to new content.OAI-PMH:http://dspace.ceuuah.es/oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:3552 8506 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; ReferencesConferences; Theses; SpecialLanguages:Spanish; EnglishPolicies:[http://creativecommons.org/licenses/byMetadata re-nc-nd/3.0/deed.es Creative Commons BY-NC_NC 3.0]use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[httpBiblioteca Digital Educativa de la Región de Murcia Organisation://www2.cita-aragon.es/citarea/ citaREA Repositorio Electrónico Agroalimentario]Consejería de Educación, Formación y Empleo, Comunidad Autónoma de la Región de Murcia, Spain
Organisation:Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA), SpainDescription:This site provides access to the research output digitised collections of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. Users may set up an RSS feeds feed to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in Spanish.OAI-PMH:http://www2bibliotecadigital.cita-aragoneducarm.es/bidimur/i18n/oai/requestoai.cmdSoftware:DSpaceDigibibSize:1554 299 items (20122014-0905-2119)Subjects:Agriculture, Food History and VeterinaryArchaeology; Business and Economics; EducationContent:Articles; Theses; Books; MultimediaLanguages:SpanishPolicies:[http://creativecommons.org/licenses/byMetadata re-nc-nd/3.0/es/ Creative Commons BY-NC_NC 3.0]use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[Biblioteca Digital Hispánica Organisation: Biblioteca Nacional de España (BNE), SpainDescription: This site provides access to digitised versions of the institutions collections. Some may be fee-based for the full texts. The interface is available in Spanish, English, French, Euskera and Galician.OAI-PMH: http://dehesabibliotecadigitalhispanica.unexbne.es:8080/xmlui Dehesa (Dehesa. Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Extremadura)]OAI-PUBSoftware: DigiToolSubjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Books; SpecialLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Biblioteca Digital Real Academia de la Historia Organisation:Universidad Real Academia de Extremadura (UNEX)la Historia, SpainDescription:This site provides access to the research students output digitised collections of historical manuscripts of the institution. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in Spanish, Portuguese and English.OAI-PMH:http://dehesabibliotecadigital.unexrah.es:8080/dgbrah/i18n/oai/requestoai.cmdSoftware:DSpaceDigibibSize:16 21959 items (20122014-1005-19)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:ArticlesSpecialLanguages:SpanishPolicies:[http://dehesa.unex.es:8080/static/ourcontent/faq_es.pdf Copyright / Creative Commons]Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[httpBiblioteca Valenciana Digital Organisation://digitalBiblioteca Valenciana, SpainDescription: This site provides access to digitised copies of the collections of the institution.csicThe interface is in Spanish, Portuguese and English.es/ DigitalSoftware: DigibibSize: 5335 items (2014-05-19)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Books; Multimedia; SpecialLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefinedRemarks: Special items include maps, ephemera, engravings and postcards.CSIC]
Biblioteca Virtual de Andalucía Organisation:Unidad JUNTA DE ANDALUCÍA, Consejería de Coordinación de la Red de BibliotecasEducación, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Spanish National Research Council) (CSIC)Cultura y Deporte., SpainDescription:This is the institutional repository of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) that site provides access to digitised items of the scientific output produced by CSIC researchersinstitutions collection, relating to Andalusian heritage.OAI-PMH:http://digitalThe interface is in Spanish.csic.es/dspace-oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceDigibibSize:52898 10737 items (20122014-0906-2110)Subjects:Multidisciplinary; Science General; Agriculture, Food Mathematics and VeterinaryStatistics; Biology Arts and BiochemistryHumanities General; Chemistry Fine and Chemical TechnologyPerforming Arts; Ecology Philosophy and Environment; Physics and Astronomy; Mechanical Engineering and Materials; Arts and Humanities GeneralReligion; Social Sciences GeneralContent:Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Datasets; Learning Objects; Multimedia; PatentsSpecialLanguages:Spanish; EnglishPolicies:Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined[Biblioteca Virtual de Aragón Organisation Gobierno de Aragón, Gobierno de Aragón, SpainDescription: This repository is is a digital library that gives access to the digitised full text images of historical books and documents belonging to the libraries of AragonOAI-PMH: http://digitalbibliotecavirtual.csicaragon.es/copyrightbva/ Copyright i18n/ Creative Commons]oai/oai_bibliotecavirtual.aragon.es.cmdSoftware: DigibibSize: 8539 items (2014-05-19)Subjects: History and ArchaeologyContent: Books; SpecialLanguages: Spanish
[Biblioteca Virtual de la Provincia de Málaga Organisation: Diputación de Málaga, SpainDescription: This is a virtual library which allows open access to digitised copies of ancient and historic books and documents related to the province of Malaga. the interface in in Spanish, but the documents are in a number of different languagesOAI-PMH: http://dddbibliotecavirtual.uabmalaga.cates/ Dipòsit Digital i18n/oai/oai_bibliotecavirtual.malaga.es.cmdSoftware: DigibibSize: 13223 items (2014-05-19)Subjects: Geography and Regional Studies; History and Archaeology; Language and LiteratureContent: Books; SpecialLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata policies unknown; Full data item policies unknown; Content policies unknown; Submission policies unknown; Preservation policies unknown Biblioteca Virtual de Documents Prensa Histórica (Virtual Library of Historical Newspapers) Organisation: Ministerio de la UAB]Cultura, SpainDescription: This site is an institutional repository providing access to digitised historical publications, including magazines, journals, in the collections of the Spanish State Public Libraries. The site interface is in Castellano (Castillian Spanish), Català (Catalan), Euskera (Basque), Galego (Galician), Valencià (Valencian), and English. Some items are not available via Open Access and are only available as metadata (bibliographic record) entries.OAI-PMH: http://prensahistorica.mcu.es/i18n/oai/oai.cmdSoftware: DigibibSize: 1086800 items (2014-05-19)Subjects: History and ArchaeologyContent: References; Books; Multimedia; SpecialLanguages: Spanish; Catalan; French; RussianPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies not stated
Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes Organisation:Universitat Autònoma Fundación Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de BarcelonaCervantes, SpainDescription:This repository provides access to items of interest to the Hispanic culture. The site also provides a portal to information held elsewhere.the interface is in Spanish and includes RSS feeds to alert users to new content.this Size: 42135 items (2014-02-10)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Theses; Unpublished; Books; MultimediaLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata policies not stated; Full data item policies not stated; Content policies not stated; Submission policies not stated; Preservation policies not stated CEACS Repository Organisation: Center for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences (CEACS), Fundación Juan March, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research and learning output of the institution. The interface is available in English, Catalan and Spanishor English. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH:http://ddddigital.uabmarch.cates/oai2dSoftware:invenioceacs-ir/oai2Size:81930 2132 items (20122014-0806-2013)Subjects:MultidisciplinarySocial Sciences GeneralContent:Articles; References; Theses; Unpublished; Books; Learning Objects; MultimediaLanguages:Spanish; Catalan; EnglishPolicies:[http://serveis.uab.cat/ddd/content/normativa Copyright / Creative Commons]Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[CEU Repositorio Institucional Organisation: Universidad San Pablo CEU, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish.OAI-PMH: http://dipositdspace.ubceu.edues/dspaceoai/ Diposit Digital de la Universitat de Barcelona]requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 4505 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; References; ThesesLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
citaREA Repositorio Electrónico Agroalimentario Organisation:Universitat Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Barcelona Aragón (UBCITA), SpainDescription:It is a university repository providing This site provides access to the digital research output of the faculty and staff at the University of Barcelona. All material is made available under Creative Commons licenses. The interface is available in Catalan, English and Spanishinstitution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in English and Spanish.OAI-PMH:http://dipositcitarea.ubcita-aragon.edues/dspace-oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:7669 2098 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:Business and Economics; Management Agriculture, Food and PlanningVeterinaryContent:Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Learning Objects; SpecialLanguages:Spanish; EnglishCatalanPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefinedOpenDOAR ID: 2582, Last reviewed: 2012-11-06, Suggest an update for this record, Missing data is needed for: PoliciesLink to this record:[http://wwwopendoar.bib.ub.eduorg/fileadminid/arxius/diposits/UB_OA_politica.pdf Copyright 2582/ Creative Commons]
[Dehesa (Dehesa. Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Extremadura) Organisation: Universidad de Extremadura (UNEX), SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research students output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish, Portuguese and English.OAI-PMH: http://accedadehesa.ulpgcunex.es:8080/ ACCEDA oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 995 items (2014-05-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: ArticlesLanguages: SpanishPolicies: [Not yet analysed] DADUN (Documentacion cientifica Depósito Académico Digital de la ULPGC en abiertoUniversidad de Navarra)]Organisation: Universidad de Navarra, SpainDescription: This is an institutional repository for the University of Navarra. Collections include journals related to the University. Some items are only available to registered users.Software: DSpaceSize: 28331 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Learning ObjectsLanguages: English; SpanishPolicies: Metadata policies not stated; Full data item policies not stated; Content policies not stated; Submission policies not stated; Preservation policies not stated Digitum (Depósito de la Universidad de Murcia) Organisation: Universidad de Murcia, Spain
Description: This site provides access to the output of the institution. The interface is in Spanish.Software: DSpaceSize: 23992 items (2014-06-03)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Theses; Books; SpecialLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined DIALNET Organisation: Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria La Rioja, SpainDescription: This is an aggregating repository providing access to articles produced by several Hispanic institutions.This site gives little supporting information and some items are only available as abstracts. DIALNET includes an alerting service allowing users to be updated on scientific articles in the Spanish language.OAI-PMH: http://dialnet.unirioja.es/oai/OAIHandlerSize: 4033687 items (ULPGC2013-10-30)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; References; ThesesLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies not stated Zaguan (Digital Repository of University of Zaragoza) Organisation: University of Zaragoza, Spain Description: This site provides access to the output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanishof English. Some items are not available as full-text. Software: DSpace invenioSize: 5719 12062 items (20122014-0906-2113) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Learning Objects Languages: Spanish; English Policies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined OpenDOAR ID Digital.CSIC Organisation: 1641 Unidad de Coordinación de la Red de Bibliotecas, Suggest an update for this recordConsejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Spanish National Research Council) (CSIC), Missing data is needed forSpainDescription: This is the institutional repository of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) that provides access to the scientific output produced by CSIC researchers. the interface may be read in English or Spanish.OAI-PMH & Policies: [http://accedadigital.ulpgccsic.es/popupdspace-oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 90078 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: Multidisciplinary; Science General; Agriculture, Food and Veterinary; Biology and Biochemistry; Chemistry and Chemical Technology; Ecology and Environment; Physics and Astronomy; Mechanical Engineering and Materials; Arts and Humanities General; Social Sciences GeneralContent: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Datasets; Learning Objects; Multimedia; PatentsLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use permitted for not-for-profit purposes; Harvesting full data items by robots prohibited; Content policies defined; Submission policies defined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined Dipòsit Digital de Documents de la UAB Organisation: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, SpainDescription: this site provides access to the research and learning output of the institution.jsp?id=aviso_legal Copyright The interface is available in English, Catalan and Spanish.OAI-PMH: http:/ Creative Commons]/ddd.uab.cat/oai2dSoftware: invenioSize: 101072 items (2013-11-20)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; References; Unpublished; Books; Learning Objects; MultimediaLanguages: Spanish; Catalan; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use permitted for not-for-profit purposes; Harvesting full data items by robots prohibited; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies defined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[Diposit Digital de la Universitat de Barcelona Organisation: Universitat de Barcelona (UB), SpainDescription: It is a university repository providing access to the digital output of the faculty and staff at the University of Barcelona. All material is made available under Creative Commons licenses. The interface is available in Catalan, English and Spanish. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH: http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace-oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 17057 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: Business and Economics; Management and PlanningContent: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Learning Objects; SpecialLanguages: CatalanPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefinedRemarks: Special items include: institution documents ACCEDA (Documentacion cientifica de la ULPGC en abierto) Organisation: Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), SpainDescription: This site provides access to the output of the institution. The interface is in Spanish.Software: DSpaceSize: 7939 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Learning ObjectsLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined DSpace Redined Organisation: Ministerio de Cultura, SpainDescription: REDINED is an information network on education that provides research documents, innovation projects and educational resources produced in Spain. It is a collaborative project of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, and the councils or departments of education of the autonomous communities. REDINED offers thousands of bibliographic and full-text documents to the educational community. the interface is in English, Spanish, Catalan, Basque and Galician.OAI-PMH: http://redined.mecd.gob.es/oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 86810 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: EducationContent: Articles; Books; Learning ObjectsLanguages: Spanish; English DUGiDocs – Universitat de Girona Organisation: Universitat de Girona, SpainDescription: This site provides access to teaching and learning output of the institution. An RSS feed is available to keep users up to date with newly added materials.OAI-PMH: http://dugi-doc.udg.edu/ DUGiDocs – dspace-oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 7808 items (2014-05-12)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Theses; Unpublished; Books; Learning ObjectsLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined DUGiFonsEspecials - Universitat de Girona Organisation: Universitat de Girona], Spain
Organisation:Universitat de Girona, SpainDescription:This site provides access to teaching and learning output special collections deposited in the Library of the institutionUniversity of Girona. The interface is in a mixture of Spanish and English. An RSS feed is available to keep users up to date with newly added materials. Some items are not available as full-text.OAI-PMH:http://dugi-docdugifonsespecials.udg.edu/dspace-oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:5970 10415 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; ThesesSpecialLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; UnpublishedFull data item policies explicitly undefined; BooksContent policies explicitly undefined; Learning ObjectsSubmission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefinedLanguages EPrints Complutense (E-PrintsUCM) Organisation:Biblioteca de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Universidad Complutense Madrid (UCM), SpainSpanish; Description: This site is a university repository providing access to the publication output of the institution. The site interface is available in Englishor Spanish. Users may set up an Atom or RSS feed to be alerted to new content.PoliciesOAI-PMH:[http://dugi-doceprints.udgucm.edues/pagecgi/disclaimer Copyright / Creative Commons]oai2Software: EPrintsSize: 20795 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished; Books; Learning Objects; MultimediaLanguages: English; SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies not stated
[FHL Virtual Libraries (Bibliotecas Virtuales FHL) Organisation: Fundación Ignacio Larramendi, SpainDescription: This site provides access to a collection of Spanish, Hispano-American, Brazilian and Portuguese scholars from various time periods and other ancient works. This site is available in Spanish or English and contains an RSS feed to alert users to new items. Some content is held on external websites.OAI-PMH: http://dugifonsespecialswww.udglarramendi.edues/ DUGiFonsEspecials i18n/oai/oai_larramendi.es.cmdSoftware: DigibibSize: 174409 items (2014- Universitat 06-13)Subjects: Science General; History and Archaeology; Philosophy and ReligionContent: Articles; References; Unpublished; BooksLanguages: Spanish; PortuguesePolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined Fotografía Sobre España en el Siglo XIX (PHoSXIX) Organisation: Universidad de Girona]Navarra, SpainDescription: This site provides access to still image data about Spain in the Nineteenth Century. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in Spanish.OAI-PMH: http://coleccionfff.unav.es/bvunav/i18n/oai/oai.cmdSoftware: DigibibSize: 4079 items (2014-05-19)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: MultimediaLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined GREDOS Organisation: Universidad de Salamanca, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research output and collections of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish, Portuguese or English.Software: DSpaceSize: 98095 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Learning Objects; MultimediaLanguages: Spanish; Portuguese; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
GUNI OPen Contents Repository Organisation:Universitat de GironaGlobal University Network for Innovation (GUNI), SpainDescription:This site provides access to special collections deposited in the Library output of the University of Gironainstitution. The interface is available in a mixture English and Castellano. Users must select event, then section of Spanish event and English. An RSS feed is available then item before being bale to keep users up to date with newly added materialsdownload. Some items are not available as fullSubjects: EducationContent: Conferences; MultimediaLanguages: EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-textuse policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefinedIFAPA - Servifapa (SERVIFAPA) Organisation: Research and Training Institute for Agriculture and Fisheries of Andalusia (IFAPA), SpainDescription: This site provides access to the whole IFAPA personnel production of scientific and technical information (open access initiatives), in the form of scientific publications for journals or conferences, books, technical reports, training material, dissertations, patents and plant varieties. A wide collection of photographs will complement this information. The interface is in Spanish.OAI-PMH:http://dugifonsespecialswww.udgjuntadeandalucia.edues/dspace-oaiagriculturaypesca/requestifapa/oaiSoftware:DSpaceSize:10232 items (2012-09-21)ALFRESCO + WebScriptsSubjects:MultidisciplinaryAgriculture, Food and VeterinaryContent:Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished; Books; Learning Objects; Patents; SpecialLanguages:Spanish; EnglishPolicies:[http://dugifonsespecials.udg.edu/page/disclaimer Copyright / Creative Commons]Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Re-use of full data items permitted for not-for-profit purposes; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[Minerva, Repositorio Institucional da Universidade de Santiago de Compostela Organisation: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in Spanish, English and Galician.OAI-PMH: http://diobmadspace.udgusc.edues/ DUGiMedia – Universitat de Girona]oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 9867 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Books; Learning ObjectsLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Portal de Revistas Científicas Complutenses Organisation:Universitat de GironaUniversidad Complutense Madrid (UCM), SpainDescription:This site provides access to the audio journal and video research output of the institution. The interface is in a mixture of Spanish and English. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. Some items are not available as full-text.OAI-PMH:http://diobmarevistas.udgucm.edues/index.php/oai/dspace-oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceOJSSize:2055 35236 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:ArticlesLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; ConferencesFull data item policies explicitly undefined; ThesesContent policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; MultimediaPreservation policies explicitly undefinedLanguagesRediUMH Organisation:Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, SpainDescription: REDIUMH is the Digital Repository of the University Miguel Hernández. Its purpose is to collect, organize, disseminate and preserve digital documents of scientific, educational and institutional produced by the university. The interface is available as Spanish and English and contains RSS feeds to alert users to new content.Software: DSpaceSize: 271 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: ThesesLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies:[Not yet analysed] Roderic (Repositori d'Objectes Digitals per a l'Ensenyament la Recerca i la Cultura) Organisation: Universitat de Valencia, SpainDescription: This site provides access to digitised collections including manuscripts and books, as well as research outputs of the institution. The interface is available in Valencià and Castellano Spanish.OAI-PMH: http://dugifonsespecialsroderic.udguv.edues/pageoai/disclaimer Copyright / Creative Commons] requestSize: 18527 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Books; Learning ObjectsLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[Repositori UJI (Repositori Institucional de la Universitat Jaume I) Organisation: Universitat Jaume I, SpainDescription: This site provides access to teaching, learning and institutional output of the institution. Also, this site provides access to Biblioteca Digital de Castellon, with materials which authors are from Castellon or they are relating to Castellon's province. The interface is available in Catalan, English, Spanish and German.OAI-PMH: http://wwwrepositori.educarexuji.es/ EducarEx] oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 15372 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: MultimediaLanguages: Catalan; Spanish; English; GermanPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Initiative piloted by Repositori Obert UdL Organisation: Universitat de Lleida, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the council of education and culture research output of the community autonomous government of Extremadura between 2004 and 2012 and aimed at providing educational contents for all compulsory schooling cycle for teachers and studentsinstitution. Those contents were released under Creative Commons BYUsers may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in English, Spanish or Catalan. Some items are held on external websites.OAI- Share alike - No CommercialPMH: http://repositori.udl.cat/oaiextended/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 5363 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Theses; Unpublished; Learning ObjectsLanguages: EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[Repositorio da Universidade da Coruña (RUC) Organisation: Universidade da Coruña, SpainDescription: The interface is available in Spanish, Galician and English. This site replaces Universidade da Coruña UDCDspace. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH: http://wwwruc.repositorio.ieoudc.es/e-ieooai/ erequestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 8762 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Conferences; Theses; UnpublishedLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-IEO]use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Repositorio de la UNED Organisation:Instituto Español UNED (Universidad Nacional de OceanografíaEducación a Distancia), SpainDescription:This site is a university repository providing open access to the publication output of the Institution.OAI-PMH: http://62.204.194.45:8080/oaiprovider/Software: FezSize: 16998 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Conferences; MultimediaLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata policies not stated; Full data item policies not stated; Content policies not stated; Submission policies not stated; Preservation policies not statedRepositorio de la UNIA Organisation: Universidad Internacional de Andalucía (UNIA), SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research output and teaching outputs of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new contentCollections include historical collections: on relations Spain & Latin America (nineteenth and twentieth centuries); History of Andalusia (Southern Spain). The interface is available in Spanish.This repository covers Oceanography and related subjects.OAI-PMH:http://wwwdspace.repositorio.ieounia.es/dspace-oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:451 2535 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:Biology Geography and BiochemistryRegional Studies; Ecology History and EnvironmentArchaeology; Language and LiteratureContent:Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished; Books; MultimediaSpecialLanguages:Spanish; EnglishPolicies:[http://www.repositorio.ieo.es/e-ieo/animacion/ Creative Commons]
[RODIN (Repositorio de Objetos de Docencia e Investigación de la Universidad de Cádiz) Organisation: Universidad de Cádiz, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is in Spanish.OAI-PMH: http://eprintsrodin.ucmuca.es/ EPrints Complutense oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 8560 items (E2014-PrintsUCM06-13)]Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Theses; BooksLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Organisation:Biblioteca Repositorio Digital de la Universidad Complutense Politécnica de Madrid, Cartagena (Repositorio Digital UPCT) Organisation: Universidad Complutense Madrid Politécnica de Cartagena (UCMUCPT), SpainDescription:This site is a university repository providing provides access to the publication research output of the institution. The site interface is available in English or Spanish. Users may set up an Atom or RSS feed feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in Spanish.OAI-PMH:http://eprintsrepositorio.ucmbib.upct.es/cgidspace-oai/oai2requestSoftware:EPrintsDSpaceSize:12336 3728 items (20122014-0905-2112)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished; Books; Learning Objects; MultimediaSpecialLanguages:SpanishEnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; SpanishFull data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefinedRemarks: Special items include: postersOpenDOAR ID: 1291, Last reviewed: 2008-09-22, Suggest an update for this record, Missing data is needed for: PoliciesLink to this record: [http://eprintsopendoar.ucm.esorg/derechos.html Copyright id/1291/ Creative Commons]
[Repositorio Digital RIBEI Organisation: Red Iberoamericana de Estudios Internacionales, SpainDescription: This site is a multi institutional repository containing information on international studies. Users may set up Atom and RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in english, spanish and portuguese.OAI-PMH: http://wwwbiblioteca.memoriadigitalvascaribei.esorg/ EMD cgi/oai2Software: EPrintsSize: 2155 items (Euskal Memoria Digitala2014-06-13)]Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Theses; BooksLanguages: Spanish; PortuguesePolicies: Commercial metadata re-use permitted; Rights vary for the re-use of full data items; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies defined; Preservation policies defined
Repositorio Documental de la Universidad de Valladolid (UVADOC) Organisation:Sancho el Sabio FoundationUniversidad de Valladolid, SpainDescription:This site provides access to digital scans the theses output of monographs relating the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to Basque culturenew content. The interface is available in English, Spanish and Basque.OAI-PMH:http://wwwuvadoc.memoriadigitalvascauva.es/dspace-oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:3053 3990 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:BooksArticles; Conferences; Theses; Learning ObjectsLanguages:English; Basque; SpanishPolicies:[http://www.fsanchoMetadata re-sabio.es/aviso_legal.asp Copyright / Creative Commons]use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[E-Archivo (Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid) Organisation: Biblioteca, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, SpainDescription: This site is an institutional repository providing access to materials produced by the members of the university. The site is supported with background information on Open Access in general, and publisher copyright issues in particular. Registered users on the site can set up email alerts, to notify them of newly added relevant content. The interface is available in Spanish and English.OAI-PMH: http://gredose-archivo.usaluc3m.es/jspuidspace-oai/ GREDOS]requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 15875 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished; BooksLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies not stated
Organisation:Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de SalamancaAlicante (RUA) Organisation: University of Alicante, SpainDescription:This site provides is an institutional repository providing access to publications produced by the research output and collections members of the institutionuniversity. The site interface is available partially in Spanish, Portuguese or and partly in English. An RSS feed is available to keep users up to date with newly added materials. The site is well supported with guidance information, in Spanish only.SoftwareOAI-PMH:http://rua.ua.es/dspace-oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize:92556 27491 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; References; Conferences; Theses; Learning Objects; MultimediaLanguages:Spanish; Portuguese; EnglishPolicies:[http://gredos.usal.es/jspui/ Creative Commons BYMetadata re-NCuse policy explicitly undefined; Re-ND 3.0 ES]use of full data items permitted for not-for-profit purposes; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies defined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Almería (Spain) Organisation: Universidad de Almería, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research output of the Institution. Interface available in Spanish and English. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH: http://revistasrepositorio.ucmual.es/ Portal de Revistas Científicas Complutenses]oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 2126 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; ThesesLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefinedOpenDOAR ID: 2382, Last reviewed: 2012-08-20, Suggest an update for this record, Missing data is needed for: Policies Link to this record: http://opendoar.org/id/2382/
Research Repository of Catalonia (RECERCAT) Organisation:Universidad Complutense Madrid Consorci de Biblioteques Universitàries de Catalunya (UCMCBUC), SpainDescription:RECERCAT is a cooperative repository of digital documents that includes grey literature of the universities and research centres of Catalonia. While the interface is available in Spanish only, a large portion of the papers provided are written in English. Managed by the Consortium of University Libraries of Catalonia (CBUC) and the Supercomputing Centre of Catalonia (CESCA), and includes a regularly updated news page.This site provides OAI-PMH: http://oai.recercat.net/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 72610 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Conferences; Theses; UnpublishedLanguages: English; Spanish; CatalanPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies not stated RACO (Revistes Catalanes amb Accés Obert) Organisation: Consorci de Biblioteques Universitàries de Catalunya (CBUC), SpainDescription: RACO (Catalan Journal in Open Access) is a deposit where can be consulted, in open access , the full-text from articles of scientific, cultural and erudite Catalan journals. The main purpose of RACO is to increase the journal visibility and research output consults of the institutionjournals included and to spread the scientific and academic production published in Catalan journals. The site interface is available in English, Català, and Spanish.OAI-PMH:http://revistaswww.ucmraco.escat/index.php/oaiindex/oai/Software:OJSSize:31573 154922 items (20122013-0911-2127)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryScience General; Arts and Humanities General; Social Sciences GeneralContent:ArticlesLanguages:Catalan; English; SpanishPolicies:[Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies defined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined RiuNet Organisation: Universitat Politècnica de València, SpainDescription: This site is an institutional repository which provides access to the digital output of the members of the University. The interface is in Spanish. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH: http://revistasriunet.ucmupv.es/index.phpoai/index/about/aboutThisPublishingSystem Licencia Pública General GNU] requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 32222 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Theses; Learning Objects; Multimedia; SpecialLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use permitted for not-for-profit purposes; Rights vary for the re-use of full data items; Content policies defined; Submission policies defined; Preservation policies explicitly undefinedRemarks: Special items: maps
[RIUVic Organisation: Universitat de Vic - Universitat Central de Catalunya, SpainDescription: This is the institutional repository of Universitat de Vic - Universitat Central de Catalunya. It provides access to the work of staff and students and the interface is available in Catalan, Spanish and English.OAI-PMH: http://wwwrepositori.alhambrauvic.cat/oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 1344 items (2014-patronato06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Theses; Unpublished; Learning ObjectsLanguages: Catalan; Spanish; Galician; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined SUMMA. Repositorio Documental UPSA Organisation: Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca, SpainDescription: This is the institutional repository of the Pontifical University of Salamanca which contains the work of staff and students. Some items are metadata only, however there are a number of thesis and pamphlets digitised in full text. The interface is in Spanish.OAI-PMH: http://summa.upsa.es/ria Recursos de Investigación de la Alhambra]oai.vmSoftware: PandoraSize: 9846 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; References; Theses; Books; Learning ObjectsLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Re-use of full data items permitted for not-for-profit purposes; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Tesis Doctorals en Xarxa (TDX) Organisation:Patronato Consorci de la Alhambra y el GeneralifeBiblioteques Universitàries de Catalunya (CBUC), SpainDescription:This site provides access to the digitised collections Online Doctoral Thesis Server (TDX) is a digital collection of the institutiondoctoral theses presented at some Spanish universities. The interface is in Spanishparticipating universities are: Universitat de Barcelona, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat de Girona, Universitat de Lleida, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Universitat Ramon Llull, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Universitat de València, Universitat Jaume I, Universidad de Cantabria, Universidad de Murcia. TDX allows for remote consultation of the complete text of theses over the Internet, additionally allowing the user to construct searches by author, title, knowledge area, university of publication, etc.Software:DSpaceSize:13358 items (2012OAI-09-21)SubjectsPMH:MultidisciplinaryContent:Books; Multimedia under copyright Creative Commons - Es (BY-NC-ND)Languages:SpanishPolicies:[http://wwwtdx.alhambra-patronato.es/riacat/themesoai/Alhambra/static/help_es/index.html Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 ES] request
[Software: DSpaceSize: 17291 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: ThesesLanguages: CatalanPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies defined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies not statedO2 (The Oberta in open access) Organisation: UOC Library, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC), SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish, Catalan languages and English. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. Some items are not available as full text.OAI-PMH: http://rodericopenaccess.uvuoc.edu/webapps/dspace_rei_oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 5304 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; References; Conferences; ThesesLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined UCrea Organisation: Universidad de Cantabria, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH: http://repositorio.unican.es Roderic /oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 4119 items (Repositori d'Objectes Digitals per 2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; ThesesLanguages: Portuguese; SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined UPCommons - E-prints UPC Organisation: Universitat Politènica de Catalunya (UPC), SpainDescription: This site is a l'Ensenyament la Recerca i la Culturauniversity repository providing access to the publication output of the institution. The contents of the repository reflect the interests of the institution and are heavily weighted towards applied sciences and technologies. The site offers in addition to the standard searching options, a concept search construction tool. The site interface is in Spanish only. Registered users can set up email alerts to notify them of newly added relevant content. A certain level of encryption and security is embedded in the site which may cause some users accessibility problems.OAI-PMH: http://eprints.upc.es:8080/dspace-oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 18587 items (2014-06-13)]Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; ConferencesLanguages: English; SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies not stated
UPCommons - Revistes i congressos UPC Organisation:Universitat Politènica de ValenciaCatalunya (UPC), SpainDescription:This site is an institutional repository that provides access to digitised collections including manuscripts journals published by the institutions and books, as well as research outputs of the institutionpresentations given at workshops and congresses. The interface is available can be viewed in Valencià English, Catalan and Castellano Spanish.OAI-PMH:http://rodericeprints.uvupc.es:8080/revistes-oai/requestSizeSoftware:DSpace6776 Size: 11647 items (20122014-0806-2013)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; Books; Learning ObjectsMultimediaLanguages:Catalan; Spanish; EnglishPolicies: [http://roderic.uv.es/derechos_ca.html Copyright /Creative Commons] [http://repositori.upf.edu/ Repositori Digital de la UPF] Organisation: Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Spain Description: The interface is in Spanish, Catalan and English. Many items are hosted on external sites. A few items are available as full-text. OAI-PMH: http://repositori.upf.edu/ Software: DSpace Size: 5960 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: ArticlesMetadata policies not stated; ReferencesFull data item policies not stated; ConferencesContent policies not stated; Theses Languages: SpanishSubmission policies not stated; English Policies: [http://repositori.upf.edu/ajuda#a8 Copyright / Creative Commons]Preservation policies not stated [http://repositori.uji.es/xmlui Repositori UJI (Repositori Institucional de la Universitat Jaume I)]UPCommons - Treballs acadèmics UPC Organisation: Universitat Jaume IPolitènica de Catalunya (UPC), Spain Description: This site provides access to teaching, learning and institutional output of the institution. Also, this site provides access to Biblioteca Digital de Castellon, with materials which authors are from Castellon or they are relating to Castellon's province. The interface repository is available in Catalan, English, Spanish for student projects and German. OAI-PMH:http://repositori.uji.es Software: DSpace Size: 9369 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Multimedia Languages: Catalan; Spanish; English; German Policies:[http://repositori.uji.es/xmlui/nota-legal?locale-attribute=es Copyright / Creative Commons] [http://repositori.udl.cat/ Repositori Obert UdL] Organisation: Universitat de Lleida, Spain. Description: This site provides access to the contains final scientific research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new contentprojects and student theses. The interface is available in English, Spanish or Catalan. Some items are held on external websites. OAI-PMH:http://repositori.udl.cat/Software: DSpace Size: 4098 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Theses; Unpublished; Learning Objects Languages: English Policies: [http://www.sbd.udl.cat/repositoris-digitals/drets-autor Copyright / Creative Commons] [http://ruc.udc.es Repositorio da Universidade da Coruña(RUC)] Organisation: Universidade da Coruña, Spain Description: The interface is available in Castillian Spanish, Galician and English. This site replaces Universidade da Coruña UDCDspace. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content. OAI-PMH: http://ruc.udc.es Software: DSpace Size: 6523 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://ruc.udc.es/dspace/udc/faq_en.html Copyright / Creative Commons] [http://dspace.unia.es/ Repositorio Its substitute the "Projectes Final de la UNIA] Organisation: Universidad Internacional Carrera, Treballs Final de Andalucía Carrera i Tesines digitals (UNIA)PFC, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research and teaching outputs of the institution. Collections include historical collections: on relations Spain & Latin America (nineteenth and twentieth centuriesTFC i Tesines); History of Andalusia (Southern Spain). The interface is available in Spanish. OAI-PMH:http://dspace.unia.esSoftware: DSpace Size: 2058 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Geography and Regional Studies; History and Archaeology; Language and Literature Content: Articles; Theses; Books; Special Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://dspace.unia.es/ Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 2.5 ES]" repository [http://rodin.uca.es RODIN(Repositorio de Objetos de Docencia e Investigación de la Universidad de Cádiz)]  Organisation: Universidad de Cádiz, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is in Spanish. OAI-PMH:http://rodineprints.ucaupc.es Software: DSpace Size: 7139 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Theses; Books Languages: Spanish Policies: [http:8080//rodin.uca.es:8081/xmlui/themes/Referencepfc-ucaoai/manual/manual.html#licencia Copyright / Creative Commons]request [http://repositorio.bib.upct.es Repositorio Digital de la Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena(Repositorio Digital UPCT)] Organisation: Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UCPT), Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in Spanish. OAI-PMH:http://repositorio.bib.upct.es Software: DSpace Size: 2531 18173 items (20122014-0906-2103) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Theses; Special Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://repositorio.bib.upct.es/dspace/ayuda/derechos.pdf Copyright / Creative Commons] [http://www.eoi.es/savia/ SAVIA(Repositorio Digital EOI)] Organisation: EOI(Escuela de Organización Industrial), Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish, German, English and Japanese. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. Software: PubMan Size: 1724 items (2012-07-05) Subjects: Business and Economics Content: Theses; Unpublished; Books; Special Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://www.eoi.es/portal/guest/aviso-legal Copyright / Creative Commons] [http://uvadoc.uva.es Repositorio Documental de la Universidad de Valladolid(UVADOC)] Organisation: Universidad de Valladolid, Spain Description: This site provides access to the theses output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in Spanish. OAI-PMH:http://uvadoc.uva.es Software: DSpace Size: 233 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Theses Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://uvadoc.uva.es/help/uvadocDerAutor.html Copyright / Creative Commons]Catalan [http://repositorio.racordoba.es:8080/jspui/ Repositorio Institucional Arjona y Cubas de la Real Academia de Córdoba] Organisation: Real Academia de Ciencias, Bellas Letras y Nobles Artes de Córdoba, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. Software: DSpace Size: 169 items (2012-09-05) Subjects: Science General; Arts and Humanities General; History and Archaeology; Language and Literature Content: Articles Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://repositorio.racordoba.es:8080/jspui/ Creative Commons BY NC ND] [http://ria.asturias.es Repositorio Institucional de Asturias (RIA)] Organisation: Gobierno del Principado de Asturias, Universidad de Oviedo, Spain Description: This site is providing access to the output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. OAIMetadata re-PMH:http://ria.asturias.es Software: DSpace Size: 774 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articlesuse policy explicitly undefined; Books Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://ria.asturias.es/RIA/derechosAutor Copyright / Creative Commons] [http://e-archivo.uc3m.es E-Archivo(Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)] Organisation: Biblioteca, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain Description: This site is an institutional repository providing access to materials produced by the members of the university. The site is supported with background information on Open Access in general, and publisher copyright issues in particular. Registered users on the site can set up email alerts, to notify them of newly added relevant content. The interface is available in Spanish and English. OAI-PMH: http://e-archivo.uc3m.es Software: DSpace Size: 12760 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: ArticlesFull data item policies explicitly undefined; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished; Books Languages: Spanish; English Policies: [http://e-archivo.uc3m.es/help/derechos-autor.html Creative Commons] [http://rua.ua.es Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Alicante (RUA)] Organisation: University of Alicante, Spain Description: This site is an institutional repository providing access to publications produced by the members of the university. The site interface is available partially in Spanish and partly in English. An RSS feed is available to keep users up to date with newly added materials. The site is well supported with guidance information, in Spanish only. OAI-PMH: http://rua.ua.es Software: DSpace Size: 20057 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articlespolicies explicitly undefined; ReferencesSubmission policies explicitly undefined; Conferences; Theses; Learning Objects Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://rua.ua.es/dspace/derechos?locale=en Copyright / Creative Commons]Preservation policies not stated [http://repositorio.ual.es Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Almería (Spain)] Organisation: Universidad de Almería, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the Institution. Interface available in Spanish and English. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. OAI-PMH:http://repositorio.ual.es Software: DSpace Size: 1169 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Theses Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://repositorio.ual.es/jspui/help/faq.pdf Copyright / Creative Commons] [http://riuma.uma.es RIUMA (Repositorio Institucional Universidad de Málaga)] Organisation: Universidad de Málaga, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research outputs of the institution. The interface is in Spanish. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. OAI-PMH: http://riuma.uma.es Software: DSpace Size: 2021 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Learning Objects; Special Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://riuma.uma.es/xmlui/static/ayuda/autor.htm Copyright </ Creative Commons]nowiki>
=== Conclusions ===
Wrapping up, the analysis of previous Spanish OER and OA initiatives shows there is a need to increase awareness, understanding and training to what are open and free content licenses and to improve the use and reuse of existing OER. It should be noted that choosing a free/open license does not automatically translate into becoming a "truly" OER. Other required aspects are availability, accessibility and responsiveness.
Of particular importance is the lack of clear policy definitions around OER. Though a wide range of initiatives exist, indeed more than in other European countries, the new Law of Education (LOMCE) does not address the issue, and this is also the case in the regions in which education is run by the regional government. If this situation were to be addressed, it would provide a framework for further development and shared understanding, and would make it easier to address the other considerations covered in the next paragraphs.
Open resources need to be available because if they cannot be found they are as useless as if they were closed. Accessible means that they clearly set how they can be used and reused (from clearly stating their authors rights policies and being eAccesible for persons suffering disabilities until promoting cultural diversity by providing multilanguage options). Responsiveness entails that feedback is welcomed and channels are provided to facilitate it. All together they reinforce in one hand, recognition and crediting for the author(s) merits, and enable in the other hand, a culture of reciprocity and networking where the flow of ideas and knowledge results in added creativity.
Finally, another important elements impeding further mainstreaming of Spanish OER initiatives relates to the issue of their discoverability and room for adaptation. Indeed the use of licenses allowing modifications by third parties and open formats enabling to change, modify and adapt contents to new targets, contexts and pedagogical objectives appear as missing assignments for most of the reviewed spanish OER initiatives. Last but not least, OER need to be accessible in the sense that they require to be found to be useful. This last element deal with deeper problems linked to Internet development and the indexing, storage and retrieval of resources. In relation to this dimension, OER initiatives need to go more in-depth in using open linked data and semantics in order to improve their visibility and thus overall usefulness,
In conclusion, Spain counts on many Open Access initiatives and offers huge potential for boosting OER and Open Education consequently, either by convincing already digitized repositories to go for open/free licenses, either by systematizing links between HE platforms offering OpenCourseWare courses. However, more sensitization towards open standards and the use of open licenses enabling remix of contents and free licenses enabling commercial uses by third parties should also be promoted.
Wrapping up, the analysis of previous Spanish OER and OA initiatives shows there is a need to increase awareness, understanding and training to what are open and free content licenses and to improve the use and reuse of existing OER. It should be noted that choosing a free/open license does not automatically translate into becoming a "truly" OER. Other required aspects are availability, accessibility and responsiveness.
 
Open resources need to be available because if they can not be found they are as useless as if they were closed. Accessible means that they clearly set how they can be used and reused (from clearly stating their authors rights policies and being eAccesible for persons suffering disabilities until promoting cultural diversity by providing multilanguage options). Responsiveness entails that feed back is welcomed and channels are provided to facilitate it. All together they reinforce in one hand, recognition and crediting for the author(s) merits, and enable in the other hand, a culture of reciprocity and networking where the flow of ideas and knowledge results in added creativity.
 
Finally, another important elements impeding further mainstreaming of Spanish OER initiatives relates to the issue of their discoverability and room for adaptation. Indeed the use of licenses allowing modifications by third parties and open formats enabling to change, modify and adapt contents to new targets, contexts and pedagogical objectives appear as missing assignments for most of the reviewed spanish OER initiatives. Last but not least, OER need to be accessible in the sense that they require to be found to be useful. This last element deal with deeper problems linked to Internet development and the indexing, storage and retrieval of resources. In relation to this dimension, OER initiatives need to go more in-depth in using open linked data and semantics in order to improve their visibility and thus overall usefulness,
 
In conclusion, Spain counts on many Open Access initiatives and offers huge potential for boosting OER and Open Education consequently, either by convincing already digitized repositories to go for open/free licenses, either by systematizing links between HE platforms offering OpenCourseWare courses. However, more sensitization towards open standards and the use of open licenses enabling remix of contents and free licenses enabling commercial uses by third parties should also be promoted.
 
== References ==
 
[1] Banco de España, Specific ICT indicators. Spain, EU and United States, 2011. [Consult. 2012-01-19] Available in WWW: <URL: www.bde.es/webbde/es/estadis/infoest/si_1_5e.pdf
 
[2] Padilha, Marcia, Aguirre, Solange, La integración de las TIC en la escuela. Indicadores cualitativos y metodología de investigación, 2011. [Consult. 2012-01-19] Available in WWW: <URL: http://www.oei.es/noticias/spip.php?article9607
[3] Hylén, Jaan. et al, Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing, 2012, [Consult. 2012-01-19] Available in WWW: <URL: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/open-educational-resources_5k990rjhvtlv-en
----
> [[Countries]]
<br>