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''lead author [[Alexandra Haché]]''<br><br>
''minor edits by [[Paul Bacsich]]<br><br>
''table of initiatives by [[Nick Kearney]] - [[Media:Open Education Initiatives in Spain.pdf]]''<br><br>
''For an update for Adult Education, see the April 2015 report [[Adult Education and OER in Spain]] by [[Giles Pepler]]''<br><br>
''For entities in Spain see [[:Category:Spain]]''
 
== Overview ==
Spain is a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy and has been a member of the European Union since 1986, and NATO since 1982.
=== OER in Spain: Map ===
 
Total number of Open Education Initiatives in {{PAGENAME}} on {{CURRENTDAYNAME}}, {{CURRENTDAY}} {{CURRENTMONTHNAME}} {{CURRENTYEAR}} at {{CURRENTTIME}} =
'''[[Has initiative-count::{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:{{PAGENAME}}]] |format=count| limit=1000 }} ]]''', of which:
* [[Has MOOC initiative-count::{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:MOOC]] [[Category:{{PAGENAME}}]] |format=count| limit=1000 }} ]] are MOOC
* [[Has OER initiative-count::{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:OER]] [[Category:{{PAGENAME}}]] |format=count| limit=1000 }} ]] are OER
 
''Initiatives per million'' = [[Has initiatives-per-mill::{{#expr: ( ( {{#show:Spain|?Has initiative-count#}} * 1000000 ) / {{#show:Spain|?Has population#}} ) round 2 }}]]
 
[[Category:Countries for OEI tracking]]
 
{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:Spain]] |?Has coordinates|format=googlemaps |centre=40.5,-3.7 | limit = 300}}
 
'''Additional information'''
 
''For additional open education initiatives in Spain not yet integrated into the main database, see the report [[Media:Open Education Initiatives in Spain.pdf]] by [[Nick Kearney]].''
 
'''''Recent information post POERUP'''''
 
''See the April 2015 report [[Media:ADOERUP_Annex_Spain.pdf]] by [[Giles Pepler]]''
=== Further information ===
The Spanish language is the official language in every autonomous commmunity but six autonomous communities have also other official languages:
# [[Catalonia]] ([[Catalan ]] and [[Occitan]])# [[Valencian Community ]] ([[Catalan]], also called [[Valencian ]] there)# [[Balearic Islands]] ([[Catalan]])# [[Galicia]] ([[Galician]])# [[BasqueCountry]] Country ([[Basque]])# [[Navarre]] ([[Basque]], but only in the north)
List of the autonomous communities, with their Capital capital city (the place where the government has its offices):
# [[Andalusia ]] (its capital is Sevilla)# [[Aragon ]] (its capital is Zaragoza)# [[Asturias ]] (its capital is Oviedo)# [[Balearic Islands ]] (its capital is Palma de Mallorca)# [[Basque Country ]] (its capital is Vitoria)# [[Canary Islands ]] (they have two capitals - Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife)# [[Cantabria ]] (its capital is Santander)# Castile[[Castilla-La Mancha ]] (its capital is Toledo)# [[Castile and León Leon]] (its capital is Valladolid)# [[Catalonia ]] (its capital is Barcelona)# [[Extremadura ]] (its capital is Mérida)# [[Galicia ]] (its capital is Santiago de Compostela)# [[La Rioja ]] (its capital is Logroño)# [[Madrid Community]](its capital is Madrid)# [[Murcia Region]] (its capital is Murcia)# [[Navarre ]] (its capital is Pamplona)# [[Valencian Community ]] (its capital is Valencia)
Spain also has two cities on the north coast of Africa: [[Ceuta]] and [[Melilla]]. They are called "autonomous cities" and have simultaneously the majority of the power of an autonomous community and also power of provinces and power of municipalities.
==== Examinations in {{PAGENAME}} ====
The Spanish '''Bachillerato''' is the post-16 stage of education, comparable to the [[A Levels]]/[[Higher (ScottishEngland) or Highers (Scotland)]] in the [[UK]], the [[French Baccalaureate]] in [[France]] or the [[International Baccalaureate]].
There are two parts, a core curriculum with the compulsory subjects, and a specialist part with a few pre-selected branches to choose from.
**Plastic Graphic Expression Techniques (second year and optional)
**Information and communication technologies. (Optional)
 
*Nature and Health Sciences:
**Biology
**Chemistry
**Physics or [[Earth Sciences]]
**Mathematics
*Sciences & Engineering:
**Physics,**Maths,**Chemistry,
**Technical Drawing
*Social Sciences:
**Applied Maths,**Economics,**Geography,**History of the Contemporany Contemporary World (only 1st year)
*Humanities:
**Latin,**Greek,
**History of Art/World Literature
**History of the Contemporany Contemporary World (only 1st year)
''The existence of the Bachillerato implies that there could be economies of scale if a national or autonomous region government funded the development of OER content.''
 
=== e-learning ===
==== Universities ====
In the area of quality assurance, Spain has a multifaceted array of quality assurance (QA) schemes and agencies in place at the national, regional and institutional levels. They only deal with teaching activities developed within of universities, since the evaluation of research is the responsibility of specialized agencies (which are currently being merged into a single one responsible for the evaluation of the National Plan for Research and Development). A separate set of quality assessment (QA ) mechanisms are also developed for higher vocational education.
In 2001, after 10 years' experience in quality assurance, the [http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2001/12/24/pdfs/A49400-49425.pdf Ley Organica de Universidades (LOU )] formally introduced external quality assessment QA mechanisms based on objective criteria and transparent procedures. Degree courses and qualifications were to be regulated by guaranteeing the quality of recognised degrees and syllabuses. Article 13 of the LOU states that assessment and accreditation are the responsibility of the [http://www.aneca.es/eng/ANECA/Presentation National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation (ANECA)] and such other higher education quality-assurance QA bodies as may be established by regional legislation.
In 2002, in compliance with the LOU, the government created the National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation (ANECA). This agency is a Foundation whose aim is to provide external quality assurance for the Spanish Higher Education System higher education system and to contribute to its constant improvement. ANECA has developed several evaluation Programmes programmes in order to perform its activities (evaluation, certification and accreditation), with the purpose of integrating the Spanish system into the [http://www.ehea.info/ European Higher Education Area (EHEA)]:
# Institutional and programme programmes evaluation:
* VERIFICA Programme: Evaluation of degree proposals designed according to the aims set for building the EHEA.
* MENCION Programme: (Quality Label recognition of PhD programmes) Acknowledgement of the scientific, technical and educational high standards of Doctoral studies.
# Academic staff evaluation Programmes programmes :
* PEP Programme: (non-civil servant academic staff hiring) Evaluation of the teaching and research activities as well as the academic backgrounds of future applicants to positions of non-civil servant academic staff (PhD Lecturer , PhD assistant Lecturer , Non PhD assistant Lecturer and private universities Lecturer ) as defined by the LOMLOU.
* DOCENTIA Programme: Support for Universities wishing to establish their own mechanisms to evaluate the quality of the teaching activity of their academic staff.
The main public universities providing education at distance and/or eLearning services are using ANECA's QA in complement with their own certification and quality schemes. Some examples can be found in the [http://portal.uned.es/portal/page?_pageid=93,22103018,93_22103019&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL UNED], [http://www.udima.es/es/calidad.html the Universidad a distancia de Madrid (UDIMA)], [http://www.sav.us.es/recursoscomunes/imagenes/calidad/DIPLOMA_ANECA_US_SAV.jpg the Universidad de Sevilla],   [http://microsites.aprendemas.com/Cevug/p5.asp Centro de Enseñanza Virtual de la Universidad de Granada (CEVUG)],   [http://www.uc3m.es/portal/page/portal/prog_mejora_calidad/sistema_garantia/comite_calidad Universidad Carlos III de Madrid], [http://campusvirtual.uca.es/index.php/categories/documentacion/evaluacion-de-la-calidad-guia-fortic Universidad fortic Universidad de Cádiz (UCA)], [http://www.unir.net/politica-objetivos-calidad.aspx Universidad de la Rioja (UNIR)] and the [http://www.webs.ulpgc.es/calidad/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4&Itemid=93&lang=es Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC)].
Besides, the public Administration administration shall guarantee the quality of training offers and cooperate in with the definition and implementation of the evaluation process of the National Qualification and Vocational Education and Training System after consultation with the General Council on Vocational Education, and taking into account the responsibilities of the Autonomous Communities. The Ministry of Education and Science is coordinating the establishment of a quality network with the participation of the administrations of the Autonomous Communities as since 1996 and 11 autonomous regions have created their own quality assurance agencies.
Finally, the [http://www.aec.es/web/guest/centro-conocimiento/norma-une-66181 Spanish association for Quality] provides a quality certification for virtual trainings called the UNE 61681 (under the ISO 9001 quality certification scheme). It is a certification of quality for Virtual Training which clarifies the various training activities in key areas such as quality of content and resources used. Its use is limited to those training activities aimed at people wishing to enter the labor market and workers who want to improve their current employment status. It has therefore been developed for to target providers of non-formal training, self-education, e-learning and blended learning.
==== Schools ====
The 2006 Ley Orgánica de Educación, LOE (Act on Education), devotes titles VI and VII to educational evaluation and inspection, respectively, and considers both to be key aspects to improve the education system. Thus, evaluation is an essential element to increase the education system’s transparency, which must be applied to all its areas, including inspection. In turn, with the aim of ensuring the compliance with regulations on education, the educational inspection takes part in the evaluation of the education system and its elements. Evaluation procedures of all areas and elements of the education system have been established, which has committed the relevant authorities and the different agents of the system to account for the current situation and its evolution. All these evaluation tasks are aimed at improving the quality of the education system.
The general evaluation of the education system at the non-university levels is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, through the [http://www.educacion.gob.es/inee National Institute of Education Evaluation (INEE)]. This body, reporting to the State Secretariat for Education and Vocational Training, works in collaboration with the relevant evaluation institutions of the different Autonomous Communities. The latter are responsible for the evaluation of the education system within their respective territory. The reports drafted since 2000 regarding the general evaluation of education can be found [http://www.educacion.gob.es/inee/publicaciones/indicadores-educativos/Sistema-Estatal.html here]. Those reports generally review different indicators structured along three main axes: Schooling and educational contexts, education financing and educational results and success rates. For more precise and targetted targeted analysis (for instance primary education, or a specific region) please visit the following [http://www.educacion.gob.es/inee/publicaciones/evaluacion-sistema.html link].
== Internet in {{PAGENAME}} ==
According to the [http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/ ITU (International Telecommunications Union(ITU)] there were 30,654,678 Internet users in December 2011, corresponding to a 65.6% penetration and positioning Spain as the 17th most connected country in the world. In more detail, the review of [http://www.oecd.org/sti/oecdsciencetechnologyandindustryscoreboard2011innovationandgrowthinknowledgeeconomies.htm OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development(OECD)] latest data [6] indicates the following figures: Regarding household access to ICT, it shows that 68,7% has access to a computer at home (including PC or laptop). Regarding fixed (wired) broadband connection, it reaches 24.50% of the overall population and its penetration rate increased of 4,9% from 2010 to 2011. However the total percentage of fiber connections in total broadband is still low with a rate of only 1.55%.
Regarding household access to ICT, it shows that 68,7% has access to a computer at home (including PC or laptop). Regarding fixed (wired) broadband connection, it reaches 24.50% of the overall population and its penetration rate increased 4,9% from 2010 to 2011. However the total percentage of fiber connections in total broadband is still low with a rate of only 1.55%.  Regarding specific ICT indicators put up by the Bank of Spain [31], it indicates for 2011 a level of business broadband penetration around 96%, and shows that 20% of businesses have used eCommerçe for at least 1% of their total purchase, on . On the other side 11% of businesses state to have reach at least 1% of their overall sale through this mean.
Regarding Mobile subscribers and subscribers using pre-paid cards, Spain is ranked above the OECD average showing a high level of penetration of both technologies. The [http://cmtdata.cmt.es/cmtdata/jsp/inf_anual.jsp?tipo=1&openid=8509 Telecommunication Market Comission (Comisión del mercado de telecomunicaciones)] yearly report indicates that in 2011, there was 52,6 millions mobiles lines from which 15,9 millions were connected to Internet broadband.
In relation to [http://www.oecd.org/internet/interneteconomy/oecdkeyictindicators.htm OECD statistics] regarding trade of ICT goods, Spain exported in 2009 around 5.428 and imported for 28.238 millions of US dollars. Another interesting figure of 2006 from [http://www.oecd.org/science/innovationinsciencetechnologyandindustry/oecdsciencetechnologyandindustryscoreboard2007.htm the OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard] shows show Spain ranking as the second country with more bot-infected computers with an overall rate of 4.7% computer infected per 100 computers connected to the Internet.
The [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?ab=table&plugin=0&language=en&pcode=tsdsc470 Eurostat individuals' level of Internet skills survey] shows that in 2011, 28% of the population aged 16 to 74 carried out 1 or 2 of the six Internet-related items used to group the respondents into levels of Internet skills. This results locates Spain just below the EU27 average which is 30% of the population. Finally according to [http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/Gender/index.html ITU] and its Internet users data disaggregated by gender, Spain had 65,7% male users in relation to 59,5% female users in 2009.
The [https://www.planavanza.es/ Plan Avanza] is the main ICT policy for the Information Society and has already gone through a first action plan of five years and it is currently launching its second action plan. The [http://www.oecd.org/gov/planavanzainformationsocietystrategyforspain.htm OECD analysis of the impact of the first Plan Avanza] resumes its mission and strategy as follows: “Plan Avanza is Spain’s umbrella strategy for the advancement of the Information Society (IS). The Plan was approved in 2005 by the national Senate and launched early in the following year with its first 2006-2009 Action Plan. The Plan operates under the direct authority of the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITT), specifically under the State Secretariat of Telecommunications and the Information Society (SSTIS). Implementation responsibilities are shared by the SSTIS and red.es, a public enterprise also charged with managing two key departments which directly contribute to the Plan’s objectives: CENATIC (the National Centre for the Application of ICTs based in Open Source) and INTECO (the National Communications Technology Institute). The strategy’s objectives reflect both the technological and socio-economic dimensions necessary for consolidating the knowledge economy in Spain, as well as the need to converge with other EU member countries in key IS dimensions. While the Plan’s high-level objectives are inherited from those of the European Commission’s i2010 strategy: A European Information Society for growth and employment. These have been adapted to fit the specific challenges and needs of the Spanish context. Specifically, the three strategic objectives are: Increasing diffusion of ICTs in the Spanish economy; Closing the Digital Divide to improve quality of life for citizens; Increasing levels of ICT spending. The resulting objectives have translated into four pillars of activity, or action areas, which are: The digital citizenship, digital economy, digital public services and digital context”.
The implementation strategy of the Plan Avanza allowed the implementation of actions in cooperation with the different autonomous communities through cooperation agreements and performances in cofinancement. In 2006, 19 agreements were signed with 59 cities and all autonomous communities. A list of reports regarding the Plan Avanza development in each Autonomous Communities can be acceded [https://www.planavanza.es/informaciongeneral/evaluacionseguimiento/paginas/informesplanavanzaccaa.aspx here].
10. Developing green ICT”.
Besides, it should be noted that different autonomous communities have also a specific ICT and information society development agenda and proper budget to promote its development. Some exemples are listed below: The [http://www.sandetel.es/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=64&Itemid=116 Plan Andalucía Sociedad de la Información], the [http://www.coeba.es/joomla/files/Acuerdos%20pactos%20planes/Plan%20estrategico%20Sociedad%20informacion%20Extremadura/Plan%20Estrategico%20de%20la%20Sociedad%20de%20la%20Informacion%20en%20Extremadura%202010_2013.pdf Plan Estratégico de la Sociedad la Sociedad de la Información en ExtremaduraInformación en Extremadura], the plan [http://www.innova.euskadi.net/ Euskadi de la Sociedad de la Información], the [http://www20.gencat.cat/portal/site/societat-informacio/ Pla per la societat d'informació of Catalonia] and the [http://imit.xunta.es/portal Agenda Digital de Galicia].
=== Internet in Education ===
All autonomous communities are fully responsible for the schools in their territory including the promotion of ICT in schools. ICT policies vary in emphasis and depth among the seventeen Autonomous Communities and the two Autonomous Cities (Ceuta and Melilla), although all plans address the common challenges that the adoption of ICT in school entails within that range of variation. As far as ICT use in school is concerned, there are periodic national and regional surveys that estimate how many teachers use ICTs ICT and what they use them for. All schools entering pilot plans are closely monitored and they have through detailed evaluation plans.
According to the data compiled by the [http://www.educacion.gob.es/horizontales/estadisticas/indicadores-publicaciones-sintesis/datos-cifras.html Spanish Ministry of education] the average number of students per computer devoted to learning and apprenticeship tasks was for the period 2010-2011, 3,5 students per computer. In comparison the average number was 8 student per computer in 2005-2006. Regarding educational centers connected to Internet with broadband, the Community of Madrid, Murcia, Valencia, and Navarra were the better connected. Canarias, Melilla, Catalunya, Galicia, Ceuta, Castilla Leon and La Rioja were located above the overall Spanish average and Aragon, Cantabria, Asturias, Balears, Castillam Andalucia and Extremadura were the Autonomous Communities with less educational centers connected to broadband.
Regarding connection In relation to Internet connection in general, 86,9% of public educational centers are now connected to Internet. In , in comparison in for 2005-2006 with only 45,4% were connectedones. More in detail, primary schools are connected at 83,7%, secondary and professional training centers at 95,6% and private centers at 96,2%.   Regarding the use of Internet by children between 10 and 15 years three months before being surveyed, it shows that 87,1% uses Internet at home (in comparison to 71,1% in 2006). Besides, 59,2% connected to Internet from school, 75,7% from home and 83,5% stated to use Internet to do their homework and 76% for entertainment.
Further information regarding indicators and monitoring of the use of ICT and Internet in education can be found in the 2011 report [http://recursostic.educacion.es/blogs/europa/index.php/2011/05/11/indicadores-del-uso-de-las-tic-en-espana-y-en-europa-2009-2010 Indicadores del uso de las TIC en España y en Europa 2009-2010] put up by the [http://www.ite.educacion.es/ Instituto de Tecnologías Educativas (ITE)] on behalf of the Ministry of education.
In relation to specific ICT policies for education from autonomous communities, various
initiatives to raise have raised awareness and increase increased the access, uptake and use of ICT by teachers, educators, students and life long learners . The complete picture can be found in the [http://www.slideshare.net/catedrastelefonica/las-tic-y-la-educacin following report developed by Telefonica] in 2009. Some of those initiatives are detailed below:
* ==== National Level====
The Spanish Ministry of Education still coordinates some initiatives at a national level in collaboration with the autonomous communities, like the [http://www.ite.educacion.es/escuela-20 ESCUELA 2.0].
Escuela 2.0 is a nationwide ICT plan for school building on the developments already achieved in each region and going further, schools which is trying to generalize the access to hardware and digital content in school contents in order to pedagogically integrate ICT into school life. The program had counted with a budget of 200 million Euros for the 2009-2010 academic years, and co-funded in equal parts by the Central Government of Spain and various Autonomous Regions (2010/2011). Currently the communities involved are: the Community of Madrid, Murcia, Valencia, Navarra, Canarias, Melilla, Catalunya, Galicia, Ceuta, Castilla Leon, Aragon, Cantabria, Asturias, Balears, Castilla, Andalucia and Extremadura.
The goal of the program is to transform the traditional fifth- and sixth-year Primary Education and first- and second-year Secondary Education classrooms into digital classrooms equipped with digital blackboards and wireless Internet connection, where the teacher has a laptop computer and each student work with an ultra-mobile personal computer. To that end, the Escuela 2.0 project is based on the following fundamental principles:
: - Generating and facilitating access to digital materials for teachers, students and families.
In complement to the previous, the [http://recursostic.educacion.es/eda/web/ EDA project] is aimed at helping teachers incorporate ICT into their classroom activity by identifying advantages and disadvantages of using these new technologies and learning new approaches to teaching supported by ICT. Although initially started only for math tecahersteachers, EDA has expanded in recent years to other areas. The program is promoted by the [http://formacionprofesorado.educacion.es/ INTEF (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologías Educativas y de Formación del Profesorado(INTEF)] in agreement with some autonomous communities.
In relation to private organisations, [http://encuentro.educared.org/ EducaRed] is the Telefónica Foundation program to promote the educational use of ICT in teaching, benefiting teachers, students, parents and which is . It us currently being implemented in seven countries: Spain, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Peru. Founded in Spain in 1998, EducaRed has two main objectives: improving the quality of education and promoting equal opportunities through new technologies. It is also worth mentioning that Telefonica and the Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI) published in 2009 a report "La integración de las TIC en la escuela, indicadores cualitativos y metodología de investigación" [52] in order to evaluate and measure the integration of ICT inside education organisations highlighting main methodlogical methodological and research challenges and how to best adress address those.
* ==== [[Andalusia]] ====
In Andalusia, the department of education made in 2003 the use of open source software for all ICT equipments in public schools compulsory and develop developed a specific educational distribution entitled [http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/educacion/cga/portal/info/guadalinex-edu Gualalinex Edu]. The global scope of the project involves 120.000 teachers and 1.800.000 students and cost-saving derivate derivative from not using privative software have been estimated to be around 27 and 36 millions Euros euros per year. This estimation does not take into account cost-saving for teachers, administrators', servers, and in second instance for the families. The program has been increasingly enlarged and is currently is being developed through the [http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/educacion/nav/contenido.jsp?pag=/Contenidos/TemasFuerza/nuevosTF/300909_EscuelaTIC20/texto_tic Escuela TIC 2.0 for Andalucia] translating into providing 173.500 students of primary school with laptops installed with guadalinex.edu. The technical advice and support delivered towards teachers and students, and the administration of servers and software development is achieved by the [http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/educacion/cga/portal/ Centro de Gestión Avanzado].
* ==== [[Catalonia]] ====
The [http://www.xtec.cat/web/guest/home Educational Telematic Network of Catalonia (XTEC)] (Red Telemática Educativa de Cataluña) was created in 1988 by the Catalan Department of Education provides . Its aims are to provide Internet access to schools and inasmuch as educational services dependent on the department and also provides to the entire educational community of Catalonia (at the exception of Higher Education organisations) a wide range of content, proposals and specific services. Besides, the portal [http://www.edu365.cat/ Edu365.cat] was created in 2001 to help structure structuring the educational use of the Internet by students and provide providing those with specific content and services for them. Edu365 provides such as multimedia self-learning and teaching support, mainly for the curriculum areas of Elementary, primary and secondary Education.
* ==== [[Extremadura]] ====
Extremadura launched a pioneer plan back into 2001 when evaluating the expenses of operative systems for its intranet: “After calculating the expenses for each, it was determined that the cost of MS Windows licenses surpassed 20,000,000 Euros. And that figure did not include educational and administrative applications; those applications would have to be developed or bought and adapted to the local infrastructure. After an analysis of cost and adaptability, the government decided to develop a customized and regionalized version of GNU/Linux. It would be called LinEx. The installation of LinEx was gradual until it finally reached all of the high schools in Extremadura under the form of [http://linexedu.educarex.es/web/guest;jsessionid=1771F68118E494EA7695EDF5FA6896AB.liferay1 Linex edu]” [4]". In 2011, its development was abandoned and legated legate to a national organization for the maintenance of the software, even . Even tough the migration towards open source solution solutions from institutional organizations has been kept in the agenda.
Since 2010-2011 the programe programme Escuela 2,0 has enabled the provision of schools with over 24,000 laptops (4,000 for teachers), 576 lockers for the care, custody and recharge of batteries of the equipment supplied, and 610 new digital whiteboards, along with numerous training activities oriented towards teachers in order to reap a full benefit from the new digital classrooms. Besides, a pilot project around the use of digital textbooks is being developed in five centers of primary and secondary education, to establish the best methodological option for educational profitability of new material resources available to schools.
== Copyright law in {{PAGENAME}} ==
The principal dispositions of Copyright law applicable in Spain are contained in Book One the book one of the [http://www.boe.es/diario_boe/txt.php?id=BOE-A-1987-25628 Intellectual Property Law of 11 November 11 November 1987]. A A consolidated version of this law was approved by [https://www.boe.es/diario_boe/txt.php?id=BOE-A-1996-8930 Royal Legislative Decree 1/1996 of 12 April 12 April 1996]  implementing implementing European directive 93/98/CEE and harmonizing certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the Information society. The [http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=15285&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html full text in Spanish] can be accessed at the UNESCO collection of National Copyright Laws.The main limitations to the exclusive rights of exploitation are contained in Title IIITitle III, Chapter 2Chapter 2.  For instance regrading the “Right to the private copying and home playing”, the law explicitly allows to make private copies of copyrighted work without the author's consent for published works if the copy is not for commercial use. To compensate authors, the law establishes a compensatory tax associated with certain recording media (CDs, DVDs, cassettes), managed through societies of authors and editors (as SGAE and as SGAE and CEDRO). Such private copies of a protected work must be made for the private use (not collective, nor lucrative) of the copier (2º of 2º of art. 3131): the author is compensated by a tax on the means of reproduction (e.g. photocopiers, blank cassettes) determined at article 25article 25. However, computer programs can not be copied except for a backup copy (art. 9999.2): they can be modified for the sole use of the person performing the modification (art. 9999.4). Any work can be played in a "strictly home" environment (art. 2020.1) without the author's consent. The moral rights of the author can only be exercised in the respect of the rights of owners of copies of the work or of rights to its exploitation, as detailed in article 14article 14. Besides, the “Right to receive and to impart information” states that lectures, addresses, judicial proceedings and other works of the same nature may be reproduced or communicated for the sole purpose of reporting on current events (art. 3333.2). The proceedings of parliament and of public corporations may be reproduced or communicated for any purpose (art. 3333.2). Works of news reporting may be reproduced in other news media, with identification of the author and remuneration (art. 3333.1). Any work which can be seen or heard may be reproduced, distributed and publicly communicated for the purpose of, and only to the extent necessary for, providing information thereof in the context of reporting on current events (art. 3434) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright_law_of_Spain Source: Wikipedia Copyright law of Spain].
=== Copyright law in Education ===
Regarding copyright law dispositions in relation to “Use for education and research”: Museums, libraries and similar public or cultural institutions may make reproductions of works for the purposes of research (art. 3737). "Fragments" of written, sound or audiovisual works or "isolated" plastic, photographic, figurative or analogous works may be included in another original work for the purposes of teaching or research (fines docentes o de investigación) if the following conditions are met (art. 3232):
the source work has been published;
it is included for citation or for analysis, commentary or critical judgementjudgment;
it is included with a citation of the source and the name of the author;
it is only included to the extent justified by the purposes of teaching or research.
Press reviews and collections are expressly covered by the provisions of article 32article 32.
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright_law_of_Spain Source: Wikipedia Copyright law of Spain]
== OER Initiatives in {{PAGENAME}} ==
As an introductory note, according to the OECD latest survey respondents estimated that 90% of all publicly produced or financed learning materials are available in digital format [2], besides they stated that OER activities in Spain were mostly focused towards young children (ISCED sectors 1 to 3) and . However, the analysis of the [http://www.ocwconsortium.org/en/members OpenCourseWare consortium partners], one of the most widespread initiative of Open education for Higher Education organizations, reveals that in relation to EU27 member States there is a strong over-representation of Spanish universities, followed by UK and France. In relation to above OECD survey results, it is not clear whether there is a shared understanding and common definition of what is an OER initiative among civil servants from ministries of education which have been the main target of the above mentioned survey. === Introduction ===
IndeedAs an introductory note, as according to the detail OECD latest survey entitled “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of initiatives below will show there is a general misunderstanding Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, respondents for Spain estimated that 90% of what are open and/all publicly produced or free licenses driving to confuse OER with Open Accessfinanced learning materials were available in a digital format [3]. In order to identify Open Access initiatives and It also states that OER activities in Spain our research started from extracting from were mostly created for young children (ISCED sectors 1 to 3). However, the [http://wwwpanorama is more diverse.doaj.org Directory An analysis of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)] the ones falling under OpenCourseWare consortium partners, one of the category “Spain”. DOAJ aims at being a directory of most widespread Open Access Journals education initiatives in order Higher Education, reveals that in relation to increase EU27 member States there is a strong presence of Spanish universities, followed respectively by the visibility UK and ease of use of open access scientific and scholarly journals thereby promoting their increased usage and impactFrance. According In relation to themthe results of this survey results, Open Access journals refer to journals that use a funding model it should be noted that the report does not charge readers or their institutions for access. From the [http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/boaifaq.htm#openaccess  BOAI clarify whether there was a shared understanding and common definition] of "open access", it refers to the right of users to "read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles" what stood as mandatory for a journal to be included in OER initiatives among the directory. However, DOAJ also listed repositories of digitized contents put at disposition civil servants targeted by public institutions and Higher Education universitiesthe above mentioned survey.
This is a common issue in the Spanish context. Though there is a wide range of initiatives, there is no common understanding of the nature of open and/or free licenses which leads to a confusion of Open Access initiatives in Spain: [[List with OER. This is partly due to the lack of leadership at policy level. Despite the number of 78 OA initiatives identified]]at different educational levels and across the different autonomous communities, there is currently no legislation that covers this area or provides a common definition.
Departing from An illustration of the idea that OER are defined by contents released under an open or free license, initiatives degree of confusion can be divided among: * Open Access initiatives which basically put seen by looking at disposal contents on the Internet retaining all authors rights under strict copyright policies (e.g. most results of a search of the digitized contents repositories offered by public institutions fall into this categoryDirectory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)* Mixed OA and OER, which are using the ones category “Spain”. DOAJ is a directory of Open Access Journals that enable either aims to increase the visibility and ease of use of copyrightopen access scientific and scholarly journals thereby promoting their increased usage and impact. According to their definition, either the Open Access journals refer to journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access. The BOAI definition of Creative Commons licenses (generally BY-No Commercial – No derivative) and which generally related "open access" refers to Phdthe right of users to "read, thesis and academic download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles " as mandatory for a journal to be included in the directory. However, DOAJ also listed repositories piloted of digitized contents put at disposition by HE organizations* OER initiatives using only Creative Commons license which are devided between the ones that promote open licenses (BY-NC-ND) public institutions and the ones tha tpromote free licenses (for instance CC BY-SA or GPL licenses)Higher Education universities. The search identified 78 Open Access initiatives in Spain.
In general, information regarding authors rights was available either in a specific section Starting out from the home page, either in the “legal disclaimer” or the “frequently Asked Questions” sections. It should be noted idea that among the reviewed initiatives many of them did not display clearly their Authors Rights policies driving us to categorize them OER are defined as “unclear” initiatives. Regarding our sample, 19 initiatives used strict copyright, 20 had unclear policies, 28 offered the possibility to license either content released under strict copyright either using an open or free Creative Commons licenses, 10 allowed Creative Commons licenses and only one initiative had its contents released under the GPL free license. As a result among the 78 OA identified initiatives, almost the half (39 these initiatives) could can be labelled also as OER. divided into:
Finally, it is interesting to see that most of those * Open Access initiatives used which basically make content available online platforms based on free software but retain all authors rights under strict copyright policies (mostly [http://wwwe.dspaceg.org/introducing Dspace] and [https://moodle.org/ Moodle]most of the digitized contents repositories offered by public institutions fall into this category) * Mixed OA and many OER, which are the ones that enable either the use of them also stated to copyright, either the use of Creative Commons licenses (generally BY-No Commercial – No derivative) and which generally relate to Phd, thesis and academic repositories piloted by Higher Education organizations * OER initiatives using only Creative Commons licenses which are divided between the ones that promote open standards such as metadata for categorizing contents licenses (BY-No Commercial – No derivative) and easing the ones that strictly promote free licenses (for instance CC BY-Share Alike or GPL- Gnu Public Licenses). In general, information regarding authors rights was available either in a specific section on the home page, either in the “legal disclaimer” or in the “frequently Asked Questions” section. It should be noted that many of the reviewed initiatives did not state their discoverability Authors Rights policies clearly and retrievalwere therefore categorized as “unclear” initiatives. In the sample, 19 initiatives used strict copyright, 20 had unclear policies, 28 offered the possibility to license either under strict copyright using either an open or free Creative Commons licenses, 10 allowed Creative Commons licenses and only one initiative had its contents released under the GPL free license. As a result among the 78 OA identified initiatives, just under half (39 initiatives) could be also labeled as OER.
=== International and national OER Finally, it is interesting to see that most of those initiatives ===used online platforms based on free software (mostly Dspace and Moodle) and many of them also mentioned the use of open standards such as metadata for categorizing contents and easing their discoverability and retrieval.
Regarding OpenCourseWare === International/national OER initiatives delivered by Higher Education organisations some of the most known initiatives are listed below. It should be noted that because of Spanish is used in most countries in central and Latin America, there are several initiatives which are based among partnerships between Spanish and Higher Educations organizations located overseas. ===
[http://ocw.innova.uned.es/ocwuniversia Universia] started in 2000 as an Internet initiative in the higher education sector. It is promoted Regarding OpenCourseWare initiatives delivered by a group Higher Education organisations some of Spanish universities with the support of the Spanish University Rectors' Board (CRUE), the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and sponsored by the Santander Groupmost known initiatives are listed below. It is coordinated by the Foundation Universia and its OpenCourseWare is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.5 ES. It is a network should be noted that consists because of 1,1000 Universities Spanish is used in 15 most central and latin american countries: Andorra, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Spain, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Uruguay several initiatives are based among partnerships between Spanish and Venezuela. It has 12 websites, one for each country, and another global site which offers information and contents from across the network. Universia network represents 10.1 million students, 8 million users and 850,000 university teaching staff Higher Educations organizations located overseas.
The OCW from '''[http://ocw.uoc.edu/ UOC (Universitat Oberta de Catalunya)[Universia] was launched ]''' started in 2008 and offers over 100 courses licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 32000 as an Internet initiative in the Higher Education sector.0. The OCW from It is promoted by a group of Spanish universities with the [http://ocw.ehu.es/ EHU support of the Spanish University Rectors' Board (Universidad del País VascoCRUE)] was also launched in 2008 , the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and sponsored by the Santander Group. It is coordinated by the Foundation Universia and its contents OpenCourseWare courses are licensed under CC BY -NC SA -ND 2.5 ES. The OCW network is composed by 1.1000 Universities located in 15 countries: Andorra, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Spain, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela. The initiative counts with 12 websites, one for each country, and another global site which offers information and contents from across the [http://ocwnetwork.upmUniversia reach out 10.es/ UPM (Universidia Politecnica de Madrid)] offers over 80 courses under various Creative Commons license1 million students, 8 million users and 850,000 university teaching staff.
Other spanish universities providing OpenCourseWare are the: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid The OCW from UOC (English,Spanish); Universidad Universitat Oberta de Alicante (SpanishCatalunya); Universidad de Cadiz was launched in 2008 and offers over 100 courses licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. The OCW from the EHU (Spanish); Universidad de Cantabria (Spanishdel País Vasco); Universidad de Murcia was also launched in 2008 and its contents are licensed under CC BY NC SA 2.5 ES. The OCW from the UPM (English,Spanish); Universidad de Navarra (Spanish); Universidad de Oviedo (Spanish); Universidad de Sevilla (Spanish); Universidad de Zaragoza (Spanish); Universidad Internacional de Andalucía (Spanish); Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (Spanish); Universidad Universidia Politecnica de Cartagena (Spanish); Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spanish); Universidad Politecnica Madrid (Spanish); Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Galician,Spanish); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spanish, Catalan); Universitat de Girona (Spanish, Catalan); Universitat Jaume I (Spanish, Catalan)offers over 80 courses under a various range of Creative Commons license.
The first steps into Massive Open Online Courses were taken by Other Spanish universities providing OpenCourseWare are the : # Universidad Politecnica Carlos III de Madrid which launched a virtual course regarding cryptography in 2012 [http://www.crypt4you.com/ Crypt4you]. Currently the (English,Spanish); # Universidad de Alicante (Spanish); # Universidad de Cadiz (Spanish); Universidad de Cantabria (Spanish); # Universidad de Murcia (English,Spanish); # Universidad de Navarra (Spanish); # Universidad de Oviedo (Spanish); Universidad de Sevilla (Spanish); # Universidad de Zaragoza (Spanish); # Universidad Internacional de Andalucía (Spanish); # Universidad Nacional Española de Educacion a Distancia (UNEDSpanish) in collaboration with the MIT which are launching the [http://www.redunx.org UnX platform] in order to ease the provision of open contents and virtual training developped by the UNED and the MIT OpenCourseWare. UnX is therefore the ; # Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena (Spanish equivalence for [https://www.edx.org/ EdX] created two years ago by the MIT and Harvard universities. UNED will provide formal certification through its [http://www.csev.org/ CSEV ); # Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Centro superior para la Enseñanza virtualSpanish); # Universidad Politecnica Madrid (Spanish); # Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Galician,Spanish); # Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spanish, Catalan); # Universitat de Girona (Spanish, Catalan); # Universitat Jaume I (Spanish, Catalan)] in partnership with Telefonica and Universia. The First virtual training courses will focus in the development of phone applications for the Android mobile operative system.
Regarding other OER national initiatives targeting teachers of primary and secondary, young students, families and life long learners we found the following initiatives:=== MOOC ===
The portal strong involvement in OCW is also reflected in the take up of [http://wwwMOOCs in Spain.iteIn June 2014 the European MOOC scoreboard lists 203 Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC).educacionSpain is the country in Europe with most MOOCS.es/es/recursos Recursos Educativos] put up The first steps were taken by the INTEF (Instituto Nacional Universidad Politecnica de Tecnologías Educativas y de Formación del Profesorado) offers over one thousand educational resources oriented towards teachers, kids, young adults and parents. All its ressources are licensed under Creative Commons BY – NC – SA 3.0Madrid which launched in 2012 a virtual course on cryptography Crypt4you. They are organized around 31 different targets and projects. For instanceHigher Education institutions currently offer MOOCs in Spain, [http://recursostic.educacion.es/apls/informacion_didactica/1441 WikiDidacTICa] which is more than a repository third of best educational practices developped by teachers through collaborative and collective processthe universities in the country. Its goal is to build Interestingly, though the Universidad Nacional Española a useful space facilitating Distancia (UNED) is the gradual incorporation lead provider, more traditional universities than distance or open universities are offering these courses and this is the case of digital tools as teaching resources for all levels the two other lead universities, the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and the Universidad de Cantabria, which together with UNED make up half the number of educationcourses (according to the Catedra Telefonica report of Dec 2013). Ressources are licensed under Creative Commons BY – NC – SA 3.0. They also The following table lists the universities that currently offer a [http://recursostic.educacion.es/bancoimagenes/web/ repository of images MOOCs in Spain and sounds] under Creative Commons BY-NC-SAthe platforms they use.
The [http:# EHU - University del Pais Vasco - EHUSfera# IE Business School - Coursera# Universidad de Alicante- Miriada X# Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona - Coursera# Universidad de Alcalá - Miriada X# Universidad Autónoma de Madrid - Iversity# Universidad de Cantabria - Miriada X# Universidad Carlos III de Madrid - Miriada X# Universidad Cardenal Herrera (CEU) - Miriada X# Universidad Complutense de Madrid - Miriada X# Universitat de Girona - Miriada X# Universidad de Granada - Abierta GR# Universidad de Huelva - Miriada X# Universidad de Murcia - Miriada X# IESE Universidad de Navarra - Coursera# Universidad de Navarra - Coursesites# Universidad Nacional Española a Distancia - Miriada X/UNED Coma# Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena - Miriada X# Universidad Pompeu Fabra - Miriada X# Universidad Politécnica de Madrid - Miriada X# Universidad Politécnica de Valencia - Miriada X/cedec.ite.educacion.esUPV(X)# Universidad Rey Juan Carlos - Miriada X# Universidad de Salamanca - Miriada X# Universidad San Pablo (CEU) - Miriada X# Universidad Europea - Miriada X# Universidad de Castilla La Mancha - Miriada X# Universidad de Málaga - Miriada X# Universidad Católica de Murcia - Miriada X/ CEDEC Unidad MOOC# Universidad de Zaragoza - Miriada X# Universitat Abat Oliba (National Centre for Curriculum Development in Non privative operative systemsCEU)] was founded in 2009 as an agency of the Ministry of Education through the Institute of Educational Technology and the Junta of Extremadura. Its aim is to design, promote and develop digital educational materials through the use of free software and to made them available to the entire educational community.- Miriada X
[http://www.webAs can be seen from this table the majority of the institutions use Miriada X, few use the most well-familiasknown platforms such as Coursera.com/princip.html The Virtual school of Parents] In some cases after beginning with Miriada X the university is migrating to its own platform, this is the case of the UNED, the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and the Universidad Católica de Murcia, while a web portal for parentscouple of others, aimed at supporting them in their role through useful documents Universidad del País Vasco and spaces for dialogue Universidad de Granada use their own. As previously mentioned, there universities make up around the issues 50% of children education the course offered, UNED, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, and related problemsUniversidad de Cantabria. The portal include a specific session called “Escuela Virtual”, where materials can be downloaded others offer between 1 and a forum is available5 courses each.
[www.proyectoagrega.e The Agrega project] is a federation of learning Digital repository which is to be used by 19 educational authorities in Spain. Each educational authority will have its own repository loaded with curricular learning objects created according MOOC sector continues to standards, grow at present and each single repository will be able to integrate and interoperate with other learning systems locally and worldwide. The Agrega project the number of courses offered has a clear focus on integration and interoperability between Agrega learning repositories and doubled since the rest beginning of the world. Moreover, it is open 2014 from 111 to collaborative evolution based on a generic GPL licensing. It is the first step towards providing a nation-wide access to content generated by the education community 206 in a consistent and interoperable way. Curricular content for Agrega is being developed under Creative Commons licensing schemes, can be experimented directly from a web site, offline or by an Learning Management System, and all the contents and application will be localised in Spanish, Euskera, Catalan, Valencian, Gallego and EnglishJune 2014 (European MOOC Scoreboard).
[http://wikimediaeducativa.wikispaces.com/home WikimediaEducativa] was launched in 2010 by students of some masters delivered by the private university Camilo José Cela (UCJC). It aims at offering a repository of educational contents for teachers and students from primary schools. Contents are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0.=== Other national OER initiatives ===
[http://www.wikisaber.es Wikisaber] was launched A range of other OER initiatives exist at national level in 2007 by the foundation wWikisaber Spain, targeting diverse audiences such as teachers in partnership with various organisations (London Grid for Learningprimary and secondary schools, la Universidad de Salamancayoung students, la Fundación Pastor de Estudios Clásicos o la Fundación Germán Sánchez Ruipérez) families and financed under a European fund for regional development. lifelong learners:
[http://rededucaThe INTEF (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologías Educativas y de Formación del Profesorado) Recursos Educativos portal.wikispaces.com/ Red educa] is an initiative launched by an individualThis offers over one thousand educational resources oriented towards teachers, Laura Souliékids, between 2005-2008 young adults and which aimed at providing educational contents parents. All its resources are licensed under Creative Commons BY – NC – SA 3.0. They are organized according to all teachers aims and educators dealing with ICT use into their classroomsin some cases around specific projects. Another [http://marifeFor instance, WikiDidacTICa is a repository of best educational practices developed by teachers through collaborative processes.wordpressIts main goal is to build a useful space facilitating the gradual incorporation for all educational levels of digital tools as teaching resources.com/ OER initiative] launched in 2007 by an individual, Marifé Lara Romero, The resources are licensed under Creative Commons BY – NC – SA 3.0 and there is also targets teachers in primary a repository of images and secondary schoolssounds under Creative Commons BY-NC-SA.
=== Regional OER initiatives ===CEDEC (National Centre for Curriculum Development in Non-Propietary Systems) was founded in 2009 as an agency of the Ministry of Education managed by INTEF and the Junta of Extremadura. Its aim is to design, promote and develop digital educational materials through the use of free software and make them available to the entire educational community. The Virtual School for Parents is a web portal for parents, aimed at supporting them in their role, through the provision of useful documentary resources and spaces for dialogue around the issues of child education and related problems. The portal include a specific session called “Escuela Virtual”, where materials can be downloaded and a forum is available.
Most The Agrega project is a federation of learning Digital repositories used by 19 educational authorities in Spain. Each one of them has its own repository loaded with curricular learning objects with a clear focus towards integration and interoperability between Agrega learning repositories and other repositories located worldwide thanks to the OER initiatives listed below have been extracted from the Open Access initiatives identified here: [List use of 78 OA initiatives identified]generic GPL licensing. Regarding the curricular contents, those are being developed under Creative Commons licensing schemes, and can be used directly from a web site, offline or through a Learning Management System. Contents and applications are available in Spanish, Euskera, Catalan, Valencian, Gallego and English.
[http://academicaWikimediaEducativa was launched in 2010 by a group of post-egraduate students at the private Universidad Camilo José Cela (UCJC).unavarraIt aims at offering a repository of educational contents for teachers and students in primary schools.es/ AcademicaContents are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Share-e]Alike 3.0.
Organisation:Universidad Pública de Navarra, SpainDescription:This site provides access to Wikisaber was launched in 2007 by the research output of the institution. The interface is available foundation Wikisaber in Spanish.OAI-PMH:http://academica-e.unavarra.es/oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:2438 items partnership with various organisations (2012-09-21)Subjects:AgricultureLondon Grid for Learning, Food Universidad de Salamanca, Fundación Pastor de Estudios Clásicos and Veterinary; Technology General; Computers the Fundación Germán Sánchez Ruipérez) and ITContent:References; ThesesLanguages:Spanish; EnglishPolicies:[http://academica-e.unavarra.es/xmlui/themes/unavarra-hasi/lib/derechos_autor_acceso_abierto_upna.pdf License of distribution / Creative Commons]has been financed as a European Fund for Regional Development project.
[http://ecienciaRed Educa was an initiative launched by an individual, Laura Soulié, between 2005-2008 and which aimed at providing educational contents under Creative Commons to all teachers and educators dealing with ICT use into their classrooms.urjcAnother OER initiative launched in 2007 by an individual, Marifé Lara Romero, also targets teachers in primary and secondary schools.es/dspace/ Archivo Abierto Institucional de la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos]
Organisation:Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, SpainDescription:This site is an institutional repository which provides open access EducaRed was launched between 2008-2012 by the Telefonica Foundation and aimed at offering resources and methodologies to introduce the publications produced by the members use of our University, mainly theses. The whole site interface is in Spanish only. Registered users can set up email alerts in order to notify them new added materials. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH:http://eciencia.urjc.es/dspace-oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:5305 items (2012-09-21)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; Theses; Unpublished; BooksLanguages:SpanishPolicies:[http://eciencia.urjc.es/dspace/help/derechosautorICT and Internet inside educational organisations.html Copyright / Creative Commons]
[http://oaEdukateka was created by the Gabriel Piedrahita Uribe Foundation (FGPU) and aims to provide free quality materials to teachers, school managers and trainers.upmIt also offers virtual training in order to help them enrich their use of ICT inside their school environments. It also designs and implements interactive online spaces with useful and valuable resource for teachers (Classroom Project Manager, Collaborative Project Planner, Interactive Curriculum 2.0).es/ Archivo Digital UPM]
Organisation:Universidad Politecnica de Madrid. BibliotecaThe Observatory for CyberSociety is an interdisciplinary space for debate and reflection, Universidad Politecnica de Madridwhere digital technologies are assessed and analyzed from several perspectives, SpainDescription:This is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institutionconsidering their value and social impact. Primarily contains thesisIt has been in existence for ten years and all its contents are licensed under Creative Commons BY 3.OAI-PMH:http://oa0.upm.es/cgi/oai2Software:EPrintsSize:9688 items (2012-09-21)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; Theses; Books; PatentsLanguages:SpanishPolicies:[http://oa.upm.es/publicar.html Copyright / Creative Commons]
[http://rabidaAs can be seen there are many initiatives at national level, but the bulk of institutional OER initiatives have a more regional focus as they are run by specific Higher Education organisations or public administrations at this level.uhuThese initiatives are listed below in the next section.es/dspace/ Arias Montano (Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Huelva)]
Organisation:Biblioteca Universitaria, Universidad de Huelva, SpainDescription:This site is an institutional repository which provides open access to For '''additional initiatives''' see the publications produced by the members of the University. The interface is in Spanish.OAI-PMH:http://rabida.uhu.es/dspace-oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:5433 items (2012-09-21)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:Theses; BooksLanguages:SpanishPolicies:report [http[Media://www.uhu.es/biblioteca/RepositorioDspace/Dspace_preguntas_mas_frecuentesOpen Education Initiatives in Spain.pdf Copyright / Creative Commons]] by [[Nick Kearney]].
[http://dspace.uah.es/dspace/ e_buah (Biblioteca Digital de la Universidad de Alcalá)]
Organisation:Universidad de Alcalá, SpainDescription:This is an institutional repository for the Universidad de Alacalá, giving access to the publication output of the university. The site interface is in Spanish.OAI-PMH:http://dspace.uah.es/oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:7451 items (2012-09-21)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; Conferences; Theses; SpecialLanguages:SpanishPolicies:[http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/deed.es Creative Commons BY-NC-ND]=== Regional OER initiatives ===
[http://infodigitalThese initiatives are largely institutional repositories.opandaluciaDOAR list 114 for Spain, not all all have an explicitly educational focus, and for this reason some have been left out.es/bvial/ Biblioteca virtual de obras públicas de Andalucía (BviaL)An alternative-format layout is on the wiki page [[List of 95 OA initiatives identified]].
Organisation:For clarity of layout and future automated processing the following data is listed in "nowiki" fixed-spacing format.Agencia <nowiki>ABACUS. Repositorio de Obra Pública de la Junta de AndalucíaProducción Científica Organisation: Universidad Europea, SpainDescription:This site repository provides open access to the research output work of the institutionstaff and students of Universidad Europea. The the interface is available in Spanish and English.SoftwareOAI-PMH:http://abacus.universidadeuropea.es/oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize:1009 2790 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:Law and Politics; Management and PlanningMultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; References; Conferences; Unpublished; Books; Multimedia; SpecialThesesLanguages:SpanishPolicies:[http://infodigital.opandalucia.es/bvial/# Creative Copmmons BYMetadata re-ND-NC]use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies unknown
[Academica-e Organisation: Universidad Pública de Navarra, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish.OAI-PMH: http://digitoolacademica-uame.greendataunavarra.es/R Biblosoai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 3942 items (2014-e Archivo]06-13)Subjects: Agriculture, Food and Veterinary; Technology General; Computers and ITContent: References; ThesesLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Archivo Abierto Institucional de la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos Organisation:Universidad Autonoma de MadridRey Juan Carlos, SpainDescription:This site is an institutional repository providing which provides open access to the research output publications produced by the members of the institutionUniversity, mainly theses. The whole site interface is available in Spanishonly. Registered users can set up email alerts in order to notify them new added materials. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH:http://digitool-uameciencia.greendataurjc.es/OAIdspace-PUBoai/requestSoftware:DigiToolDSpaceSize:6662 5535 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; Theses; Unpublished; BooksLanguages:SpanishPolicies:[http://biblioteca.uam.es/sc/biblose_archivo_derechos.html Copyright / Creative Commons BYMetadata re-NC-ND]use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies unknown
[ADDI (Archivo Digital para la Docencia y la Investigación) Organisation: Universidad del País Vasco (Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea / University of the Basque Country), SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in Spanish, English and Basque.OAI-PMH: http://dspaceaddi.ceuehu.es/ CEU Repositorio Institucional]oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 3006 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: ArticlesLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Archivo Digital UPM Organisation:Universidad San Pablo CEUPolitecnica de Madrid. Biblioteca, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, SpainDescription:This site provides is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in SpanishPrimarily contains thesis.OAI-PMH:http://dspaceoa.ceuupm.es/oaicgi/requestoai2Software:DSpaceEPrintsSize:3552 16788 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; ReferencesTheses; ThesesBooks; PatentsLanguages:Spanish; EnglishPolicies:[http://creativecommons.org/licenses/byMetadata re-nc-nd/3.0/deed.es Creative Commons BY-NC_NC 3.0]use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[httpArchivo gráfico institucional de la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC) Organisation://www2.citaUniversidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), SpainDescription: This site provides access to multi-aragonmedia content collected by the institution.es/citarea/ citaREA Repositorio Electrónico Agroalimentario]The interface is available in Spanish and English.Software: CONTENTdmSize: 344 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: MultimediaLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata policies unknown; Re-use of full data items permitted for not-for-profit purposes; Content policies unknown; Submission policies unknown; Preservation policies unknown
Organisation:Centro Arias Montano (Repositorio Institucional de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria la Universidad de Aragón (CITAHuelva)Organisation: Biblioteca Universitaria, Universidad de Huelva, SpainDescription:This site is an institutional repository which provides open access to the research output publications produced by the members of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new contentUniversity. The interface is available in Spanish.OAI-PMH:http://www2rabida.cita-aragonuhu.es/dspace-oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:1554 7607 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:Agriculture, Food and VeterinaryMultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; Theses; BooksLanguages:SpanishPolicies:[http://creativecommons.org/licenses/byMetadata re-nc-nd/3.0/es/ Creative Commons BY-NC_NC 3.0]use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[Biblioteca Digital Científica de les Illes Balears Organisation: Universitat de les Illes Balears (University of Balearic Islands), SpainDescription: This repository is a gateway to scientific and scholarly information produced in the University of Balearic Islands and in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The interface is in Spanish.OAI-PMH: http://dehesaibdigital.unexuib.es:8080/xmlui Dehesa (Dehesagreenstone/cgi-bin/oaiserver. Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de ExtremaduracgiSoftware: GreenstoneSize: 12574 items (2014-06-13)]Subjects: Science GeneralContent: Articles; ThesesLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Organisation:Universidad Biblioteca Digital de Extremadura Castilla y León (UNEXBDCYL)Organisation: Junta de Castilla y León, SpainDescription:This site provides access to the research students output digitised collections of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. Its purpose is to provide access to the most significant literary and scientific works about the history, Portuguese the art and Englishthe culture of this Spanish region and to disseminate the Castilian and Leonese bibliographical heritage. The BDCYL devotes special attention to the classical regional authors. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH:http://dehesabibliotecadigital.unexjcyl.es:8080/i18n/oai/requestoai.cmdSoftware:DSpaceDigibibSize:16 15922 items (20122014-1005-19)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryScience General; Arts and Humanities General; History and ArchaeologyContent:Articles; BooksLanguages:SpanishPolicies:[http://dehesa.unex.es:8080/static/ourcontent/faq_es.pdf Copyright / Creative Commons]Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[Biblioteca Digital de la Comunidad de Madrid Organisation: Comunidad de Madrid, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the digitised collections of the Community of Madrid from the 12th to 16th Centuries. The interface is available in Spanish. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH: http://digitalwww.csicbibliotecavirtualmadrid.esorg/ Digitalbvmadrid_publicacion/i18n/oai/oai.CSIC]cmdSoftware: DigibibSize: 3303 items (2014-05-19)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Books; SpecialLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Organisation:Unidad de Coordinación Biblioteca Digital de la Red Universidad de Bibliotecas, Consejo Superior AlcaláOrganisation: Universidad de Investigaciones Científicas (Spanish National Research Council) (CSIC)Alcalá, SpainDescription:This is the an institutional repository of for the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) that provides Universidad de Alacalá, giving access to the scientific publication output produced by CSIC researchersof the university. The site interface is in Spanish and includes RSS feeds to alert users to new content.OAI-PMH:http://digitaldspace.csicuah.es/dspace-oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:52898 8506 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:Multidisciplinary; Science General; Agriculture, Food and Veterinary; Biology and Biochemistry; Chemistry and Chemical Technology; Ecology and Environment; Physics and Astronomy; Mechanical Engineering and Materials; Arts and Humanities General; Social Sciences GeneralContent:Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Datasets; Learning Objects; Multimedia; PatentsSpecialLanguages:Spanish; EnglishPolicies:[http://digital.csic.es/copyright/ Copyright / Creative Commons]Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[http://ddd.uab.cat/ Dipòsit Biblioteca Digital Educativa de Documents la Región de Murcia Organisation: Consejería de Educación, Formación y Empleo, Comunidad Autónoma de la UAB]Región de Murcia, Spain
Organisation:Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, SpainDescription:this This site provides access to the research and learning output digitised collections of the institution. The interface is available in English, Catalan and Spanish. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH:http://dddbibliotecadigital.uabeducarm.cates/oai2dbidimur/i18n/oai/oai.cmdSoftware:invenioDigibibSize:81930 299 items (20122014-0805-2019)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryHistory and Archaeology; Business and Economics; EducationContent:Articles; References; Unpublished; Books; Learning Objects; MultimediaLanguages:Spanish; Catalan; EnglishPolicies:[http://serveis.uab.cat/ddd/content/normativa Copyright / Creative Commons]Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[Biblioteca Digital Hispánica Organisation: Biblioteca Nacional de España (BNE), SpainDescription: This site provides access to digitised versions of the institutions collections. Some may be fee-based for the full texts. The interface is available in Spanish, English, French, Euskera and Galician.OAI-PMH: http://dipositbibliotecadigitalhispanica.ubbne.edues/dspace/ Diposit Digital de la Universitat de Barcelona]OAI-PUBSoftware: DigiToolSubjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Books; SpecialLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Biblioteca Digital Real Academia de la Historia Organisation:Universitat Real Academia de Barcelona (UB)la Historia, SpainDescription:It is a university repository providing This site provides access to the digital output digitised collections of historical manuscripts of the faculty and staff at the University of Barcelona. All material is made available under Creative Commons licenses. The interface is available in Catalan, English and Spanishinstitution. Users may set up an RSS feeds feed to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in Spanish.OAI-PMH:http://dipositbibliotecadigital.ubrah.edues/dgbrah/i18n/dspace-oai/requestoai.cmdSoftware:DSpaceDigibibSize:7669 21959 items (20122014-0905-2119)Subjects:Business and Economics; Management and PlanningMultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Learning Objects; SpecialLanguages:CatalanSpanishPolicies:[http://www.bib.ub.edu/fileadmin/arxius/diposits/UB_OA_politica.pdf Copyright / Creative Commons]Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[httpBiblioteca Valenciana Digital Organisation://accedaBiblioteca Valenciana, SpainDescription: This site provides access to digitised copies of the collections of the institution.ulpgcThe interface is in Spanish, Portuguese and English.es/ ACCEDA Software: DigibibSize: 5335 items (Documentacion cientifica de la ULPGC en abierto2014-05-19)]Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Books; Multimedia; SpecialLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefinedRemarks: Special items include maps, ephemera, engravings and postcards.
Biblioteca Virtual de Andalucía Organisation: Universidad JUNTA DE ANDALUCÍA, Consejería de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC)Educación, Cultura y Deporte., Spain Description: This site provides access to the output digitised items of the institutioninstitutions collection, relating to Andalusian heritage. The interface is in Spanish. Software: DSpace DigibibSize: 5719 10737 items (20122014-0906-2110) Subjects: Multidisciplinary ; Science General; Mathematics and Statistics; Arts and Humanities General; Fine and Performing Arts; Philosophy and Religion; Social Sciences GeneralContent: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Learning Objects SpecialLanguages: Spanish; English Policies: Metadata reMetadata re-use policy explicitly undefineduse policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefinedFull data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefinedContent policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefinedSubmission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined OpenDOAR ID: 1641 Preservation policies explicitly undefinedBiblioteca Virtual de Aragón Organisation Gobierno de Aragón, Suggest an update for this recordGobierno de Aragón, Missing data is needed forSpainDescription: OAIThis repository is is a digital library that gives access to the digitised full text images of historical books and documents belonging to the libraries of AragonOAI-PMH & PoliciesPMH: [http://accedabibliotecavirtual.ulpgcaragon.es/popup.jsp?id=aviso_legal Copyright bva/ Creative Commons]i18n/oai/oai_bibliotecavirtual.aragon.es.cmdSoftware: DigibibSize: 8539 items (2014-05-19)Subjects: History and ArchaeologyContent: Books; SpecialLanguages: Spanish
[Biblioteca Virtual de la Provincia de Málaga Organisation: Diputación de Málaga, SpainDescription: This is a virtual library which allows open access to digitised copies of ancient and historic books and documents related to the province of Malaga. the interface in in Spanish, but the documents are in a number of different languagesOAI-PMH: http://dugi-docbibliotecavirtual.udgmalaga.edues/ DUGiDocs – Universitat i18n/oai/oai_bibliotecavirtual.malaga.es.cmdSoftware: DigibibSize: 13223 items (2014-05-19)Subjects: Geography and Regional Studies; History and Archaeology; Language and LiteratureContent: Books; SpecialLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata policies unknown; Full data item policies unknown; Content policies unknown; Submission policies unknown; Preservation policies unknown Biblioteca Virtual de Girona]Prensa Histórica (Virtual Library of Historical Newspapers) Organisation: Ministerio de Cultura, SpainDescription: This site is an institutional repository providing access to digitised historical publications, including magazines, journals, in the collections of the Spanish State Public Libraries. The site interface is in Castellano (Castillian Spanish), Català (Catalan), Euskera (Basque), Galego (Galician), Valencià (Valencian), and English. Some items are not available via Open Access and are only available as metadata (bibliographic record) entries.OAI-PMH: http://prensahistorica.mcu.es/i18n/oai/oai.cmdSoftware: DigibibSize: 1086800 items (2014-05-19)Subjects: History and ArchaeologyContent: References; Books; Multimedia; SpecialLanguages: Spanish; Catalan; French; RussianPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies not stated
Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes Organisation:Universitat Fundación Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de GironaCervantes, SpainDescription:This repository provides access to items of interest to the Hispanic culture. The site also provides a portal to information held elsewhere.the interface is in Spanish and includes RSS feeds to alert users to new content.Size: 42135 items (2014-02-10)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Theses; Unpublished; Books; MultimediaLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata policies not stated; Full data item policies not stated; Content policies not stated; Submission policies not stated; Preservation policies not stated CEACS Repository Organisation: Center for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences (CEACS), Fundación Juan March, SpainDescription: This site provides access to teaching and learning the research output of the institution. An RSS feed The interface is available to keep users in Spanish or English. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to date with newly added materialsnew content.OAI-PMH:http://dugi-docdigital.udgmarch.edues/dspaceceacs-oaiir/requestSoftware:DSpaceoai2Size:5970 2132 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:MultidisciplinarySocial Sciences GeneralContent:Articles; References; Theses; Unpublished; Books; Learning ObjectsLanguages:Spanish; EnglishPolicies:[http://dugiMetadata re-doc.udg.edu/page/disclaimer Copyright / Creative Commons]use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[CEU Repositorio Institucional Organisation: Universidad San Pablo CEU, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish.OAI-PMH: http://dugifonsespecialsdspace.udgceu.edues/ DUGiFonsEspecials oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 4505 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; References; ThesesLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re- Universitat de Girona]use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
citaREA Repositorio Electrónico Agroalimentario Organisation:Universitat Centro de GironaInvestigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA), SpainDescription:This site provides access to special collections deposited in the Library research output of the University of Gironainstitution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in a mixture of English and Spanish and English. An RSS feed is available to keep users up to date with newly added materials. Some items are not available as full-text.OAI-PMH:http://dugifonsespecialscitarea.udgcita-aragon.edues/dspace-oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:10232 2098 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryAgriculture, Food and VeterinaryContent:Articles; SpecialTheses; BooksLanguages:Spanish; EnglishPolicies:[Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefinedOpenDOAR ID: 2582, Last reviewed: 2012-11-06, Suggest an update for this record, Missing data is needed for: Policies Link to this record: http://dugifonsespecials.udgopendoar.eduorg/pageid/disclaimer Copyright 2582/ Creative Commons]
[Dehesa (Dehesa. Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Extremadura) Organisation: Universidad de Extremadura (UNEX), SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research students output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish, Portuguese and English.OAI-PMH: http://diobmadehesa.udgunex.edues:8080/ DUGiMedia – Universitat de Gironaoai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 995 items (2014-05-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: ArticlesLanguages: SpanishPolicies: [Not yet analysed] DADUN (Depósito Académico Digital de la Universidad de Navarra) Organisation: Universidad de Navarra, SpainDescription: This is an institutional repository for the University of Navarra. Collections include journals related to the University. Some items are only available to registered users.Software: DSpaceSize: 28331 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Learning ObjectsLanguages: English; SpanishPolicies: Metadata policies not stated; Full data item policies not stated; Content policies not stated; Submission policies not stated; Preservation policies not stated Digitum (Depósito de la Universidad de Murcia) Organisation: Universidad de Murcia, Spain
OrganisationDescription:This site provides access to the output of the institution. The interface is in Spanish.Universitat Software: DSpaceSize: 23992 items (2014-06-03)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Theses; Books; SpecialLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined DIALNET Organisation: Universidad de GironaLa Rioja, SpainDescription:This is an aggregating repository providing access to articles produced by several Hispanic institutions.This site gives little supporting information and some items are only available as abstracts. DIALNET includes an alerting service allowing users to be updated on scientific articles in the Spanish language.OAI-PMH: http://dialnet.unirioja.es/oai/OAIHandlerSize: 4033687 items (2013-10-30)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; References; ThesesLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies not stated Zaguan (Digital Repository of University of Zaragoza) Organisation: University of Zaragoza, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the audio and video output of the institution. The interface is available in a mixture of Spanish and of English. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. Some items are not available as full-text.Software: invenioSize: 12062 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Conferences; Theses; BooksLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined Digital.CSIC Organisation: Unidad de Coordinación de la Red de Bibliotecas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Spanish National Research Council) (CSIC), SpainDescription: This is the institutional repository of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) that provides access to the scientific output produced by CSIC researchers. the interface may be read in English or Spanish.OAI-PMH:http://diobmadigital.udgcsic.edues/dspace-oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:2055 90078 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:Multidisciplinary; Science General; Agriculture, Food and Veterinary; Biology and Biochemistry; Chemistry and Chemical Technology; Ecology and Environment; Physics and Astronomy; Mechanical Engineering and Materials; Arts and Humanities General; Social Sciences GeneralContent:Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Datasets; Learning Objects; Multimedia; PatentsLanguages:Spanish; EnglishPolicies:[Metadata re-use permitted for not-for-profit purposes; Harvesting full data items by robots prohibited; Content policies defined; Submission policies defined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined Dipòsit Digital de Documents de la UAB Organisation: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, SpainDescription: this site provides access to the research and learning output of the institution. The interface is available in English, Catalan and Spanish.OAI-PMH: http://dugifonsespecialsddd.udguab.educat/page/disclaimer Copyright / Creative Commons] oai2dSoftware: invenioSize: 101072 items (2013-11-20)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; References; Unpublished; Books; Learning Objects; MultimediaLanguages: Spanish; Catalan; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use permitted for not-for-profit purposes; Harvesting full data items by robots prohibited; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies defined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[Diposit Digital de la Universitat de Barcelona Organisation: Universitat de Barcelona (UB), SpainDescription: It is a university repository providing access to the digital output of the faculty and staff at the University of Barcelona. All material is made available under Creative Commons licenses. The interface is available in Catalan, English and Spanish. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH: http://wwwdiposit.educarexub.edu/dspace-oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 17057 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: Business and Economics; Management and PlanningContent: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Learning Objects; SpecialLanguages: CatalanPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefinedRemarks: Special items include: institution documents ACCEDA (Documentacion cientifica de la ULPGC en abierto) Organisation: Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), SpainDescription: This site provides access to the output of the institution. The interface is in Spanish.Software: DSpaceSize: 7939 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Learning ObjectsLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined DSpace Redined Organisation: Ministerio de Cultura, SpainDescription: REDINED is an information network on education that provides research documents, innovation projects and educational resources produced in Spain. It is a collaborative project of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, and the councils or departments of education of the autonomous communities. REDINED offers thousands of bibliographic and full-text documents to the educational community. the interface is in English, Spanish, Catalan, Basque and Galician.OAI-PMH: http://redined.mecd.gob.es/ EducarEx] oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 86810 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: EducationContent: Articles; Books; Learning ObjectsLanguages: Spanish; English DUGiDocs – Universitat de Girona Organisation: Universitat de Girona, SpainDescription: This site provides access to teaching and learning output of the institution. An RSS feed is available to keep users up to date with newly added materials.OAI-PMH: http://dugi-doc.udg.edu/dspace-oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 7808 items (2014-05-12)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Theses; Unpublished; Books; Learning ObjectsLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined DUGiFonsEspecials - Universitat de Girona Organisation: Universitat de Girona, Spain
Initiative piloted by Description: This site provides access to special collections deposited in the council of education and culture Library of the community autonomous government University of Extremadura between 2004 Girona. The interface is in a mixture of Spanish and 2012 and aimed at providing educational contents for all compulsory schooling cycle for teachers and studentsEnglish. Those contents were released under Creative Commons BYAn RSS feed is available to keep users up to date with newly added materials. Some items are not available as full- Share alike text.OAI- No CommercialPMH: http://dugifonsespecials.udg.edu/dspace-oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 10415 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; SpecialLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined EPrints Complutense (E-PrintsUCM) Organisation: Biblioteca de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Universidad Complutense Madrid (UCM), SpainDescription: This site is a university repository providing access to the publication output of the institution. The site interface is available in English or Spanish. Users may set up an Atom or RSS feed to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH: http://eprints.ucm.es/cgi/oai2Software: EPrintsSize: 20795 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished; Books; Learning Objects; MultimediaLanguages: English; SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies not stated
[FHL Virtual Libraries (Bibliotecas Virtuales FHL) Organisation: Fundación Ignacio Larramendi, SpainDescription: This site provides access to a collection of Spanish, Hispano-American, Brazilian and Portuguese scholars from various time periods and other ancient works. This site is available in Spanish or English and contains an RSS feed to alert users to new items. Some content is held on external websites.OAI-PMH: http://www.repositorio.ieolarramendi.es/ei18n/oai/oai_larramendi.es.cmdSoftware: DigibibSize: 174409 items (2014-ieo06-13)Subjects: Science General; History and Archaeology; Philosophy and ReligionContent: Articles; References; Unpublished; BooksLanguages: Spanish; PortuguesePolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined Fotografía Sobre España en el Siglo XIX (PHoSXIX) Organisation: Universidad de Navarra, SpainDescription: This site provides access to still image data about Spain in the Nineteenth Century. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in Spanish.OAI-PMH: http:/ e/coleccionfff.unav.es/bvunav/i18n/oai/oai.cmdSoftware: DigibibSize: 4079 items (2014-05-19)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: MultimediaLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined GREDOS Organisation: Universidad de Salamanca, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research output and collections of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish, Portuguese or English.Software: DSpaceSize: 98095 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Learning Objects; MultimediaLanguages: Spanish; Portuguese; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-IEO]use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
GUNI OPen Contents Repository Organisation:Instituto Español de OceanografíaGlobal University Network for Innovation (GUNI), SpainDescription:This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in English and Castellano. Users may set up RSS feeds must select event, then section of event and then item before being bale to be alerted download.Subjects: EducationContent: Conferences; MultimediaLanguages: EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefinedIFAPA - Servifapa (SERVIFAPA) Organisation: Research and Training Institute for Agriculture and Fisheries of Andalusia (IFAPA), SpainDescription: This site provides access to new contentthe whole IFAPA personnel production of scientific and technical information (open access initiatives), in the form of scientific publications for journals or conferences, books, technical reports, training material, dissertations, patents and plant varieties. A wide collection of photographs will complement this information. The interface is available in Spanish.This repository covers Oceanography and related subjects.OAI-PMH:http://www.repositorio.ieojuntadeandalucia.es/dspace-agriculturaypesca/ifapa/oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:451 items (2012-09-21)ALFRESCO + WebScriptsSubjects:Biology Agriculture, Food and Biochemistry; Ecology and EnvironmentVeterinaryContent:Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished; Books; MultimediaLearning Objects; Patents; SpecialLanguages:Spanish; EnglishPolicies:[http://www.repositorio.ieo.es/eMetadata re-ieo/animacion/ Creative Commons]use policy explicitly undefined; Re-use of full data items permitted for not-for-profit purposes; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[Minerva, Repositorio Institucional da Universidade de Santiago de Compostela Organisation: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in Spanish, English and Galician.OAI-PMH: http://eprintsdspace.ucmusc.es/ EPrints Complutense oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 9867 items (E2014-PrintsUCM06-13)]Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Books; Learning ObjectsLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Portal de Revistas Científicas Complutenses Organisation:Biblioteca de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Universidad Complutense Madrid (UCM), SpainDescription:This site is a university repository providing provides access to the publication journal and research output of the institution. The site interface is available in English or Spanish. Users may set up an Atom or RSS feed to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH:http://eprintsrevistas.ucm.es/cgiindex.php/oai/oai/oai2Software:EPrintsOJSSize:12336 35236 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:ArticlesLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; ConferencesFull data item policies explicitly undefined; ThesesContent policies explicitly undefined; UnpublishedSubmission policies explicitly undefined; Books; Learning Objects; MultimediaPreservation policies explicitly undefinedLanguagesRediUMH Organisation:Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, SpainDescription: REDIUMH is the Digital Repository of the University Miguel Hernández. Its purpose is to collect, organize, disseminate and preserve digital documents of scientific, educational and institutional produced by the university. The interface is available as Spanish and English; and contains RSS feeds to alert users to new content.Software: DSpaceSize: 271 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: ThesesLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: [Not yet analysed] Roderic (Repositori d'Objectes Digitals per a l'Ensenyament la Recerca i la Cultura) Organisation: Universitat de Valencia, SpainDescription: This site provides access to digitised collections including manuscripts and books, as well as research outputs of the institution. The interface is available in Valencià and Castellano Spanish.OAI-PMH: http://eprintsroderic.ucmuv.es/derechos.html Copyright oai/ Creative Commons]requestSize: 18527 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Books; Learning ObjectsLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[Repositori UJI (Repositori Institucional de la Universitat Jaume I) Organisation: Universitat Jaume I, SpainDescription: This site provides access to teaching, learning and institutional output of the institution. Also, this site provides access to Biblioteca Digital de Castellon, with materials which authors are from Castellon or they are relating to Castellon's province. The interface is available in Catalan, English, Spanish and German.OAI-PMH: http://wwwrepositori.memoriadigitalvascauji.es/ EMD oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 15372 items (Euskal Memoria Digitala2014-06-13)]Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: MultimediaLanguages: Catalan; Spanish; English; GermanPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Repositori Obert UdL Organisation:Sancho el Sabio FoundationUniversitat de Lleida, SpainDescription:This site provides access to digital scans the research output of monographs relating the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to Basque culturenew content. The interface is available in English, Spanish and Basqueor Catalan. Some items are held on external websites.OAI-PMH:http://wwwrepositori.memoriadigitalvascaudl.escat/dspace-oaioaiextended/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:3053 5363 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:BooksArticles; Theses; Unpublished; Learning ObjectsLanguages:English; Basque; SpanishPolicies:[http://www.fsanchoMetadata re-sabio.es/aviso_legal.asp Copyright / Creative Commons]use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[Repositorio da Universidade da Coruña (RUC) Organisation: Universidade da Coruña, SpainDescription: The interface is available in Spanish, Galician and English. This site replaces Universidade da Coruña UDCDspace. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH: http://gredosruc.usaludc.es/jspuioai/ GREDOS]requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 8762 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Conferences; Theses; UnpublishedLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Repositorio de la UNED Organisation:UNED (Universidad Nacional de SalamancaEducación a Distancia), SpainDescription:This site provides is a university repository providing open access to the research publication output and collections of the institutionInstitution. The interface is available in Spanish, Portuguese or EnglishOAI-PMH: http://62.204.194.45:8080/oaiprovider/Software:DSpaceFezSize:92556 16998 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; Learning ObjectsConferences; MultimediaLanguages:Spanish; Portuguese; EnglishPolicies:[Metadata policies not stated; Full data item policies not stated; Content policies not stated; Submission policies not stated; Preservation policies not statedRepositorio de la UNIA Organisation: Universidad Internacional de Andalucía (UNIA), SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research and teaching outputs of the institution. Collections include historical collections: on relations Spain & Latin America (nineteenth and twentieth centuries); History of Andalusia (Southern Spain). The interface is available in Spanish.OAI-PMH: http://gredosdspace.usalunia.es/jspuioai/ Creative Commons BYrequestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 2535 items (2014-NC06-ND 3.0 ES]13)Subjects: Geography and Regional Studies; History and Archaeology; Language and LiteratureContent: Articles; Theses; Books; SpecialLanguages: Spanish
[RODIN (Repositorio de Objetos de Docencia e Investigación de la Universidad de Cádiz) Organisation: Universidad de Cádiz, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is in Spanish.OAI-PMH: http://revistasrodin.ucmuca.es/ Portal de Revistas Científicas Complutenses]oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 8560 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Theses; BooksLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Repositorio Digital de la Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (Repositorio Digital UPCT) Organisation:Universidad Complutense Madrid Politécnica de Cartagena (UCMUCPT), SpainDescription:This site provides access to the journal and research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in Spanish.OAI-PMH:http://revistasrepositorio.ucmbib.upct.es/index.php/oai/dspace-oai/requestSoftware:OJSDSpaceSize:31573 3728 items (20122014-0905-2112)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; Theses; SpecialLanguages:SpanishPolicies:[Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefinedRemarks: Special items include: postersOpenDOAR ID: 1291, Last reviewed: 2008-09-22, Suggest an update for this record, Missing data is needed for: Policies Link to this record: http://revistas.ucm.es/indexopendoar.phporg/indexid/about1291/aboutThisPublishingSystem Licencia Pública General GNU]
[Repositorio Digital RIBEI Organisation: Red Iberoamericana de Estudios Internacionales, SpainDescription: This site is a multi institutional repository containing information on international studies. Users may set up Atom and RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in english, spanish and portuguese.OAI-PMH: http://wwwbiblioteca.alhambra-patronatoribei.esorg/ria Recursos de Investigación de la Alhambra]cgi/oai2Software: EPrintsSize: 2155 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Theses; BooksLanguages: Spanish; PortuguesePolicies: Commercial metadata re-use permitted; Rights vary for the re-use of full data items; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies defined; Preservation policies defined
Repositorio Documental de la Universidad de Valladolid (UVADOC) Organisation:Patronato Universidad de la Alhambra y el GeneralifeValladolid, SpainDescription:This site provides access to the digitised collections theses output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in Spanish.OAI-PMH: http://uvadoc.uva.es/oai/requestSoftware:DSpaceSize:13358 3990 items (20122014-0906-2113)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:BooksArticles; Multimedia under copyright Creative Commons - Es (BY-NC-ND)Conferences; Theses; Learning ObjectsLanguages:SpanishPolicies:[http://www.alhambraMetadata re-patronato.es/ria/themes/Alhambra/static/help_es/index.html Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 ES] use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[E-Archivo (Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid) Organisation: Biblioteca, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, SpainDescription: This site is an institutional repository providing access to materials produced by the members of the university. The site is supported with background information on Open Access in general, and publisher copyright issues in particular. Registered users on the site can set up email alerts, to notify them of newly added relevant content. The interface is available in Spanish and English.OAI-PMH: http://roderice-archivo.uvuc3m.es Roderic /dspace-oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 15875 items (Repositori d'Objectes Digitals per a l'Ensenyament la Recerca i la Cultura2014-06-13)]Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished; BooksLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies not stated
Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Alicante (RUA) Organisation:Universitat de ValenciaUniversity of Alicante, SpainDescription:This site provides is an institutional repository providing access to digitised collections including manuscripts and books, as well as research outputs publications produced by the members of the institutionuniversity. The site interface is available partially in Valencià Spanish and Castellano partly in English. An RSS feed is available to keep users up to date with newly added materials. The site is well supported with guidance information, in Spanishonly.OAI-PMH:http://rodericrua.uvua.es/dspace-oai/requestSizeSoftware:DSpace6776 Size: 27491 items (20122014-0806-2013)Subjects:MultidisciplinaryContent:Articles; BooksReferences; Conferences; Theses; Learning ObjectsLanguages:Spanish; EnglishPolicies: [http://roderic.uv.es/derechos_ca.html Copyright /Creative Commons]Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Re-use of full data items permitted for not-for-profit purposes; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies defined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
[Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Almería (Spain) Organisation: Universidad de Almería, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research output of the Institution. Interface available in Spanish and English. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH: http://repositorirepositorio.upfual.edues/oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 2126 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; ThesesLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefinedOpenDOAR ID: 2382, Last reviewed: 2012-08-20, Suggest an update for this record, Missing data is needed for: Policies Link to this record: http://opendoar.org/id/2382/ Repositori Digital de la UPF]
Research Repository of Catalonia (RECERCAT) Organisation: Universitat Pompeu Fabra Consorci de Biblioteques Universitàries de Catalunya (UPFCBUC), Spain Description: The RECERCAT is a cooperative repository of digital documents that includes grey literature of the universities and research centres of Catalonia. While the interface is available in Spanishonly, Catalan and a large portion of the papers provided are written in English. Many items are hosted on external sites. A few items are available as full-textManaged by the Consortium of University Libraries of Catalonia (CBUC) and the Supercomputing Centre of Catalonia (CESCA), and includes a regularly updated news page. OAI-PMH: http://repositorioai.upfrecercat.edunet/ requestSoftware: DSpace Size: 5960 72610 items (20122014-0906-2113) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; References; Conferences; Theses ; UnpublishedLanguages: English; Spanish; CatalanPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies not stated RACO (Revistes Catalanes amb Accés Obert) Organisation: Consorci de Biblioteques Universitàries de Catalunya (CBUC), SpainDescription: RACO (Catalan Journal in Open Access) is a deposit where can be consulted, in open access, the full-text from articles of scientific, cultural and erudite Catalan journals. The main purpose of RACO is to increase the visibility and consults of the journals included and to spread the scientific and academic production published in Catalan journals. The site interface is available in English , Català, and Spanish.OAI-PMH: http://www.raco.cat/index.php/index/oai/Software: OJSSize: 154922 items (2013-11-27)Subjects: Science General; Arts and Humanities General; Social Sciences GeneralContent: ArticlesLanguages: Catalan; English; SpanishPolicies: [Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies defined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined RiuNet Organisation: Universitat Politècnica de València, SpainDescription: This site is an institutional repository which provides access to the digital output of the members of the University. The interface is in Spanish. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH: http://repositoririunet.upfupv.edues/ajuda#a8 Copyright oai/ Creative Commons]requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 32222 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Theses; Learning Objects; Multimedia; SpecialLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use permitted for not-for-profit purposes; Rights vary for the re-use of full data items; Content policies defined; Submission policies defined; Preservation policies explicitly undefinedRemarks: Special items: maps
[RIUVic Organisation: Universitat de Vic - Universitat Central de Catalunya, SpainDescription: This is the institutional repository of Universitat de Vic - Universitat Central de Catalunya. It provides access to the work of staff and students and the interface is available in Catalan, Spanish and English.OAI-PMH: http://repositori.ujiuvic.escat/xmlui Repositori UJI oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 1344 items (Repositori Institucional 2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; Theses; Unpublished; Learning ObjectsLanguages: Catalan; Spanish; Galician; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined SUMMA. Repositorio Documental UPSA Organisation: Universidad Pontificia de la Universitat Jaume ISalamanca, SpainDescription: This is the institutional repository of the Pontifical University of Salamanca which contains the work of staff and students. Some items are metadata only, however there are a number of thesis and pamphlets digitised in full text. The interface is in Spanish.OAI-PMH: http://summa.upsa.es/oai.vmSoftware: PandoraSize: 9846 items (2014-06-13)]Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; References; Theses; Books; Learning ObjectsLanguages: SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Re-use of full data items permitted for not-for-profit purposes; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined
Tesis Doctorals en Xarxa (TDX) Organisation: Universitat Jaume IConsorci de Biblioteques Universitàries de Catalunya (CBUC), Spain Description: This site provides access to teaching, learning and institutional output Online Doctoral Thesis Server (TDX) is a digital collection of the institutiondoctoral theses presented at some Spanish universities. AlsoThe participating universities are: Universitat de Barcelona, this site provides access to Biblioteca Digital Universitat Autònoma de CastellonBarcelona, with materials which authors are from Castellon or they are relating to Castellon's provinceUniversitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat de Girona, Universitat de Lleida, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Universitat Ramon Llull, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Universitat de València, Universitat Jaume I, Universidad de Cantabria, Universidad de Murcia. The interface is available in CatalanTDX allows for remote consultation of the complete text of theses over the Internet, Englishadditionally allowing the user to construct searches by author, Spanish and Germantitle, knowledge area, university of publication, etc. OAI-PMH:http://repositoritdx.uji.es Software: DSpace Size: 9369 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Multimedia Languages: Catalan; Spanish; English; German Policies:[http:cat/oai/repositori.uji.es/xmlui/nota-legal?locale-attribute=es Copyright / Creative Commons]request
[Software: DSpaceSize: 17291 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: ThesesLanguages: CatalanPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies defined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies not statedO2 (The Oberta in open access) Organisation: UOC Library, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC), SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish, Catalan languages and English. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. Some items are not available as full text.OAI-PMH: http://repositoriopenaccess.udluoc.catedu/ Repositori Obert UdL]webapps/dspace_rei_oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 5304 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; References; Conferences; ThesesLanguages: Spanish; EnglishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined UCrea Organisation: Universidad de Cantabria, SpainDescription: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content.OAI-PMH: http://repositorio.unican.es/oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 4119 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; ThesesLanguages: Portuguese; SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined UPCommons - E-prints UPC Organisation: Universitat Politènica de Catalunya (UPC), SpainDescription: This site is a university repository providing access to the publication output of the institution. The contents of the repository reflect the interests of the institution and are heavily weighted towards applied sciences and technologies. The site offers in addition to the standard searching options, a concept search construction tool. The site interface is in Spanish only. Registered users can set up email alerts to notify them of newly added relevant content. A certain level of encryption and security is embedded in the site which may cause some users accessibility problems.OAI-PMH: http://eprints.upc.es:8080/dspace-oai/requestSoftware: DSpaceSize: 18587 items (2014-06-13)Subjects: MultidisciplinaryContent: Articles; ConferencesLanguages: English; SpanishPolicies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies not stated
UPCommons - Revistes i congressos UPC Organisation: Universitat Politènica de Lleida, Spain. Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in English, Spanish or Catalan. Some items are held on external websites. OAI-PMH:http://repositori.udl.cat/Software: DSpace Size: 4098 items Catalunya (2012-09-21UPC) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Theses; Unpublished; Learning Objects Languages: English Policies: [http://www.sbd.udl.cat/repositoris-digitals/drets-autor Copyright / Creative Commons] [http://ruc.udc.es Repositorio da Universidade da Coruña(RUC)] Organisation: Universidade da Coruña, Spain Description: The interface This is available in Spanish, Galician and English. This site replaces Universidade da Coruña UDCDspace. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content. OAI-PMH: http://ruc.udc.es Software: DSpace Size: 6523 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://ruc.udc.es/dspace/udc/faq_en.html Copyright / Creative Commons] [http://dspace.unia.es/ Repositorio de la UNIA] Organisation: Universidad Internacional de Andalucía (UNIA), Spain Description: This site institutional repository that provides access to journals published by the research institutions and teaching outputs of the institution. Collections include historical collections: on relations Spain & Latin America (nineteenth presentations given at workshops and twentieth centuries); History of Andalusia (Southern Spain)congresses. The interface is available can be viewed in Spanish. OAI-PMH:http://dspace.unia.esSoftware: DSpace Size: 2058 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Geography English, Catalan and Regional Studies; History and Archaeology; Language and Literature Content: Articles; Theses; Books; Special Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://dspace.unia.es/ Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 2.5 ES] [http://rodin.uca.es RODIN(Repositorio de Objetos de Docencia e Investigación de la Universidad de Cádiz)]  Organisation: Universidad de Cádiz, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is in Spanish. OAI-PMH:http://rodineprints.ucaupc.es Software: DSpace Size: 7139 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Theses; Books Languages: Spanish Policies: [http:8080//rodin.uca.es:8081/xmlui/themes/Referencerevistes-uca/manual/manual.html#licencia Copyright oai/ Creative Commons]request [http://repositorio.bib.upct.es Repositorio Digital de la Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena(Repositorio Digital UPCT)] Organisation: Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UCPT), Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in Spanish. OAI-PMH:http://repositorio.bib.upct.es Software: DSpace Size: 2531 11647 items (20122014-0906-2113) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Theses; Special MultimediaLanguages: Catalan; Spanish Policies: [http://repositorio.bib.upct.es/dspace/ayuda/derechos.pdf Copyright / Creative Commons] [http://www.eoi.es/savia/ SAVIA(Repositorio Digital EOI)] Organisation: EOI(Escuela de Organización Industrial), Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish, German, English and Japanese. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. Software: PubMan Size: 1724 items (2012-07-05) Subjects: Business and Economics Metadata policies not stated; Full data item policies not stated; Content: Thesespolicies not stated; UnpublishedSubmission policies not stated; Books; Special Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://www.eoi.es/portal/guest/aviso-legal Copyright / Creative Commons]Preservation policies not stated [http://uvadoc.uva.es Repositorio Documental de la Universidad de Valladolid(UVADOC)] Organisation: Universidad de Valladolid, Spain Description: This site provides access to the theses output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in Spanish. OAIUPCommons -PMH:http://uvadoc.uva.es Software: DSpace Size: 233 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Theses Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://uvadoc.uva.es/help/uvadocDerAutor.html Copyright / Creative Commons] [http://repositorio.racordoba.es:8080/jspui/ Repositorio Institucional Arjona y Cubas de la Real Academia de Córdoba]Treballs acadèmics UPC Organisation: Real Academia Universitat Politènica de Ciencias, Bellas Letras y Nobles Artes de Córdoba, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. Software: DSpace Size: 169 items Catalunya (2012-09-05UPC) Subjects: Science General; Arts and Humanities General; History and Archaeology; Language and Literature Content: Articles Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://repositorio.racordoba.es:8080/jspui/ Creative Commons BY NC ND] [http://ria.asturias.es Repositorio Institucional de Asturias (RIA)] Organisation: Gobierno del Principado de Asturias, Universidad de Oviedo, Spain Description: This site is providing access to the output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. OAI-PMH:http://ria.asturias.es Software: DSpace Size: 774 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Books Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://ria.asturias.es/RIA/derechosAutor Copyright / Creative Commons] [http://e-archivo.uc3m.es E-Archivo(Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)] Organisation: Biblioteca, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain Description: This site is an institutional repository providing access to materials produced by the members of the university. The site is supported with background information on Open Access in general, for student projects and publisher copyright issues in particular. Registered users on the site can set up email alerts, to notify them of newly added relevant contentcontains final scientific research projects and student theses. The interface is available in Catalan, Castillian Spanish and English. OAI-PMH: http://e-archivo.uc3m.es Software: DSpace Size: 12760 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished; Books Languages: Spanish; English Policies: [http://e-archivo.uc3m.es/help/derechos-autor.html Creative Commons] [http://rua.ua.es Repositorio Institucional Its substitute the "Projectes Final de la Universidad Carrera, Treballs Final de Alicante Carrera i Tesines digitals (RUAPFC, TFC i Tesines)]" repository Organisation: University of Alicante, Spain Description: This site is an institutional repository providing access to publications produced by the members of the university. The site interface is available partially in Spanish and partly in English. An RSS feed is available to keep users up to date with newly added materials. The site is well supported with guidance information, in Spanish only. OAI-PMH: http://ruaeprints.uaupc.es Software: DSpace Size: 20057 items (20128080/pfc-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; References; Conferences; Theses; Learning Objects Languages: Spanish Policies: [http:oai//rua.ua.es/dspace/derechos?locale=en Copyright / Creative Commons]request [http://repositorio.ual.es Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Almería (Spain)] Organisation: Universidad de Almería, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the Institution. Interface available in Spanish and English. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. OAI-PMH:http://repositorio.ual.es Software: DSpace Size: 1169 18173 items (20122014-0906-2103) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: ArticlesTheses; Theses UnpublishedLanguages: Spanish CatalanPolicies: [http://repositorio.ual.es/jspui/help/faq.pdf Copyright / Creative Commons] [http://riuma.uma.es RIUMA (Repositorio Institucional Universidad de Málaga)] Organisation: Universidad de Málaga, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research outputs of the institution. The interface is in Spanish. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. OAIMetadata re-PMH: http://riuma.uma.es Software: DSpace Size: 2021 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content: Articlespolicies explicitly undefined; Learning ObjectsSubmission policies explicitly undefined; Special Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://riuma.uma.es/xmlui/static/ayuda/autor.htm Copyright / Creative Commons]Preservation policies not stated === Institutional OER initiatives === The [http:<//www.educared.org/ EducaRed] initiative was launched between 2008-2012 by the foundation Telefonica and aimed at offering ressources and methodologies to introduce the use of ICT and Internet inside educational organisations.  [http://www.eduteka.org/OER.php Edukateka] is deliverred by the Foundation Gabriel Piedrahita Uribe (FGPU) and aims at providing for free quality materials for teachers, school managers and teacher trainers. It also offers virtual trainings in order to help them enrich their use of ICT inside their school environments. It also designs and implements interactive online spaces with useful and valuable resource for teachers (Classroom Project Manager, Collaborative Project Planner, Interactive Curriculum 2.0). [http://www.cibersociedad.net/ The Observatory for CyberSociety] is an interdisciplinary space for debate and reflection, where digital technologies are assessed and analyzed from several perspectives, considering its value, its social impact. It has just recently reached ten years and all its contents are licensed under [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ Creative Commons BY 3.0]. [http://goteo.org/ Goteo] is a social network for crowdfunding and distributed collaboration for encouraging the independent development of creative and innovative initiatives that contribute to the common good, free knowledge, and open code.  It is a platform for investing in "feeder capital" that supports projects with social, cultural, scientific, educational, technological, or ecological objectives that generate new opportunities for the improvement of society and the enrichment of community goods and resources. All projects funded through Goteo reverts into the Commons by sharing its contents, design, ideas using open or free liceses.nowiki>
=== Conclusions ===
Wrapping up, the analysis of previous Spanish OER and OA initiatives shows there is a need to increase awareness, understanding and training to what are open and free content licenses and to improve the use and reuse of existing OER. It should be noted that choosing a free/open license does not automatically translate into becoming a "truly" OER. Other required aspects are availability, accessibility and responsiveness.
Of particular importance is the lack of clear policy definitions around OER. Though a wide range of initiatives exist, indeed more than in other European countries, the new Law of Education (LOMCE) does not address the issue, and this is also the case in the regions in which education is run by the regional government. If this situation were to be addressed, it would provide a framework for further development and shared understanding, and would make it easier to address the other considerations covered in the next paragraphs.
Open resources need to be available because if they cannot be found they are as useless as if they were closed. Accessible means that they clearly set how they can be used and reused (from clearly stating their authors rights policies and being eAccesible for persons suffering disabilities until promoting cultural diversity by providing multilanguage options). Responsiveness entails that feedback is welcomed and channels are provided to facilitate it. All together they reinforce in one hand, recognition and crediting for the author(s) merits, and enable in the other hand, a culture of reciprocity and networking where the flow of ideas and knowledge results in added creativity.
Finally, another important elements impeding further mainstreaming of Spanish OER initiatives relates to the issue of their discoverability and room for adaptation. Indeed the use of licenses allowing modifications by third parties and open formats enabling to change, modify and adapt contents to new targets, contexts and pedagogical objectives appear as missing assignments for most of the reviewed spanish OER initiatives. Last but not least, OER need to be accessible in the sense that they require to be found to be useful. This last element deal with deeper problems linked to Internet development and the indexing, storage and retrieval of resources. In relation to this dimension, OER initiatives need to go more in-depth in using open linked data and semantics in order to improve their visibility and thus overall usefulness,
In conclusion, Spain counts on many Open Access initiatives and offers huge potential for boosting OER and Open Education consequently, either by convincing already digitized repositories to go for open/free licenses, either by systematizing links between HE platforms offering OpenCourseWare courses. However, more sensitization towards open standards and the use of open licenses enabling remix of contents and free licenses enabling commercial uses by third parties should also be promoted.
Wrapping up, the analysis of previous spanish OER and OA initiatives shows that there is a need to increase awareness, understanding and training to what are Open and content licenses and to improve OER being used and reused. It should be noted that choosing a free/open license does not automatically translate into being a "truly" open resource. Other required aspects are availability, accessibility and responsiveness.
 
Open resources need to be available because if they can not be found they are as useless as if they were closed. Accessible means that they clearly set how they can be used and they are usable (from cleaerly stating their authors rights policies, being eAccesible for persons suffering disabilities to promoting cultural diversity by providing multilanguage options). Responsiveness entails that feed back is welcomed and channels are provided to facilitate it. All together they reinforce in one hand, recognition and crediting for the author(s) merits, and enable in the other hand, a culture of reciprocity and networking where the flow of ideas and knowledge results in added creativity
 
Finally, another important elements impeding further mainstreaming of Spanish OER initiatives relates to the issue of their discoverability and room for adaptation. Indeed the use of licenses allowing modifcatuions by third parties and open formats enabling to change, modify and adapt contents to new targets, contexts and pedagogical objectives appear to missing assignments for most of the reviewed OER initiatives. Last but not least, OER need to be accessible in the sense that they require to be found to be useful. This last element deal with deeper problems linked to Internet development and the indexing, storage and retrieval of resources. In relation to this dimension, OER initiatives need to go more in-depth in using open linked data and semantics in order to improve their visibility and thus overall usefulness,
 
In conclusion, Spain counts on many Open Acess initiatives and offers huge potential for boosting OER and Open Education consequently, either by convincing already digitized repositories to go for open/free licenses, either by systematizing links between HE platforms offering OpenCourseWare courses. However, more sensitization towards open standards and the use of open licenses enabling remix of contents and free licenses enabling commercial uses by thrid parties should also be promoted.
 
== References ==
 
[1] [http://virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/Spain ReVica/VISCED page for Spain]
 
2. Hylén, J. et al. (2012), [http://oer.unescochair-ou.nl/?wpfb_dl=38 “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”], OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing.
 
'''Main sources used to draft the eLearning section:'''
 
* Wikipedia: [http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Educaci%C3%B3n_a_distancia#Espa.C3.B1a Educación a distancia en España]
* "El e-learning en la Universidad española", Chasco Yrigoyen, Coro; López García, Ana; González Díaz-Caneja, Ignacio; Instituto L.R. Klein-Dpto. de Economía Aplicada; Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. ('''link''')
 
'''Main sources used to draft the above text:'''
* Wikipedia: [http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Educaci%C3%B3n_a_distancia#Espa.C3.B1a Educación a distancia en España]
* "El e-learning en la Universidad española", Chasco Yrigoyen, Coro; López García, Ana; González Díaz-Caneja, Ignacio; Instituto L.R. Klein-Dpto. de Economía Aplicada; Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. ('''link''')
'''Former sources:'''
* [1] According to the [www.infodev.org/en/Document.15.pdf World Economic Forum (February 2004)]
* [2] [www.telecentros.info/pdfs/estudio_apel.pdf “E-Learning En España. Diagnóstico Prospectivo Y Pautas De Desarrollo”], APEL, Inmark, Fundación Tripartita
 
'''Former sources:'''
* [1] According to the [www.infodev.org/en/Document.15.pdf World Economic Forum] (February 2004)
* [2] [www.telecentros.info/pdfs/estudio_apel.pdf “E-Learning En España. Diagnóstico Prospectivo Y Pautas De Desarrollo”], APEL, Inmark, Fundación Tripartita
 
internet in spain
 
References:[3] www.bde.es/webbde/es/estadis/infoest/si_1_5e.pdf
[6] http://www.oecd.org/sti/oecdsciencetechnologyandindustryscoreboard2011innovationandgrowthinknowledgeeconomies.htm
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