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''lead author [[Susanne Friz]], based on initial work by Daniela Proli, [[SCIENTERJames Kay]]''<br>''original general and HE-related material by [[Theo BastiaensPaul Bacsich]]''<br>''material on Länder Table [[File:Open Education Initiatives in Germany.pdf]] by [[Paul BacsichSusanne Friz]]''
For university-related material see also [[Germany from Re.ViCa]]{{cc}}
For entities in Germany (including Länder) see [[:Category:Germany]]== Overview ==
<!-- copy material from VISCED/Re.ViCa wiki
Use the style [[Has population::7,600,000]] and [[Has capital::Sofia]] for population and capital. -->
== Partners and Experts situated ''Germany'', officially the '''Federal Republic of Germany''' (German: '''Bundesrepublik Deutschland''') is a country in Central [[Europe]]. The territory of Germany ==covers 357,021 km² and is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate.
None in With over [[VISCEDHas population::82,000,000]]inhabitants, co-author it comprises the largest population among the member states of the [[Theo Bastiaens]] was a partner in [[Re.ViCaEuropean Union]]and is home to the third-highest number of international migrants worldwide.
The capital of Germany is [[Has capital::Berlin]].
== Germany in ('''Deutschland''') is a nutshell ==Federal Republic consisting of sixteen states, known in German as Länder (singular Land). Since Land is the literal German word for "country", the term Bundesländer (federal states; singular Bundesland) is commonly used colloquially, as it is more specific, though technically incorrect within the corpus of German law. The peoples of the states are the nation of Germany. The governments of the states are part of the authority of Germany.
The states have many devolved powers including nearly full control of the education system including universities. Different states differ considerably as to how they exercise this control.
[[Image:429px-Map_Germany_Länder-de.svg.png|thumb|left|200px|Germany and its "Länder"]]''Germany'', officially Under the '''Federal Republic of Germany''' Basic Law (German: '''Bundesrepublik Deutschland'''Grundgesetz) the exercise of governmental powers and the fulfilment of governmental responsibility is a country in Central [[Europe]]incumbent uponthe individual Länder as far as the Basic Law does not provide for or allow for any otherarrangement. The territory Basic Law contains a few fundamental provisions on questions of Germany covers 357education,021 km² culture and science: thus for example it guarantees the freedom of art and scholarship,research and teaching, the freedom of faith and creed, freechoice of profession and of the place of training, equality before the law and the rights of parents. The entire school system is influenced by a temperate seasonal climateunder the supervision of the state.
With over 82 million inhabitantsUnless the Basic Law awards legislative powers to the Federation, it comprises the largest population among Länder have the member states of rightto legislate. Within the [[European Union]] and is home education system, this applies to the third-highest number school sector, the highereducation sector, adult education and continuing education. Administration of international migrants worldwidethe educationsystem in these areas is almost exclusively a matter for the Länder.
The capital of === OER initiatives in Germany is Berlin.===
Germany (Total number of Open Education Initiatives in {{PAGENAME}} on {{CURRENTDAYNAME}}, {{CURRENTDAY}} {{CURRENTMONTHNAME}} {{CURRENTYEAR}} at {{CURRENTTIME}} = '''Deutschland[[Has initiative-count::{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:{{PAGENAME}}]] |format=count| limit=1000 }} ]]''') is a Federal Republic consisting of sixteen states, known in German as Länder (singular Land). Since Land is the literal German word for "country", the term Bundesländer (federal states; singular Bundesland) is commonly used colloquially, as it is more specific, though technically incorrect within the corpus of German law. The peoples of the states which:* [[Has MOOC initiative-count::{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:MOOC]] [[Category:{{PAGENAME}}]] |format=count| limit=1000 }} ]] are the nation of Germany. The governments of the states MOOC* [[Has OER initiative-count::{{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:OER]] [[Category:{{PAGENAME}}]] |format=count| limit=1000 }} ]] are part of the authority of Germany. OER
The states have many devolved powers including nearly full control of the education system including universities''Initiatives per million'' = [[Has initiatives-per-mill::{{#expr: ( ( {{#show:Germany|?Has initiative-count#}} * 1000000 ) / {{#show:Germany|?Has population#}} ) round 2 }}]] [[Category:Countries for OEI tracking]] {{#ask:[[Category:Open Education Initiatives]] [[Category:Germany]] |?Has coordinates|format=googlemaps |centre=51. Different states differ considerably as to how they exercise this control2,10.4 | limit = 200}}
Under the Basic Law (Grundgesetz) the exercice of governmental powers and the fulfilment of governmental responsibility is incumbent upon the individual Länder as far as the Basic Law does not provide for or allow for any other arrangement. The Basic Law contains a few fundamental provisions on questions of education, culture and science: thus for example it guarantees the freedom of art and scholarship, research and teaching, the freedom of faith and creed, free choice of profession and of the place of training, equality before the law and the rights of parents. The entire school system is under the supervision of the state.'''''Recent information'''''
Unless the Basic Law awards legislative powers to the Federation, the Länder have the right to legislate. Within the For additional open education system, this applies to initiatives in Germany not yet integrated into the school sectormain database but all geocoded and with full regional information, see the higher education sector, adult education and continuing educationreport [[File:Open Education Initiatives in Germany. Administration of the education system in these areas is almost exclusively a matter for the Länderpdf]].
(For the original summary table of OER entities in Germany see [[Media:Germany OER entities.pdf]])
=== Further information === ''For further general information see [[Wikipedia:{{PAGENAME}}]].'' ==== States of Germany ====
The 16 Länder are called in English (and German if different):
Those states in bold have at least 5 million people (and of these, four have 10-20 million) - in other words, they are larger than many European countries.
== Education in Germany {{PAGENAME}} ==
Education in Germany include* pre-primary education from 3 to 6 years ''For a general description of age* compulsory education from 6 to 15 or 16 years of age (depending on the land)* upper secondary education (including general education as well as vocational education and vocational training in the dual sytem) * tertiary education{{PAGENAME}} see [[Education:{{PAGENAME}}]].''
'''Preprimary education''' <!-- copy material from VISCED/Re.ViCa wiki -->
Pre=== e-primary education and care is part of the child and youth welfare sector. In most Länder, responsibility for pre-primary education and care lies with the social ministries. From three to six years, children can attend Kindergärten which are mainly run by non-public bodies (primarily churches and welfare associations) and to which parents are required to contribute, despite the allocation of major public subsidies and reliance on other funds.learning ===
'''Compulsory schooling'For a description more focussed to e-learning see [[E-learning:{{PAGENAME}}]].''
'''Full<!-time education is compulsory - copy material from between the ages of 6 and 15 or 16''' (depending on the Land), and partVISCED/Re.ViCa wiki -time education is compulsory until the age of 18 for those who do not attend a full-time school.>
{| class="prettytable" border="1" style="border-collapse: separate; border-spacing: 0;" |-| styleQuality procedures ==="padding: 4px;" | '''''Grundschule''''' (primary education)
| style="padding: 4px;" | 6<!-10 years of age (6-12, Berlin & Brandenburg) there may be material on the VISCED/Re.ViCa wiki -->
|-| style="padding: 4px;" | '''Lower secondary education''' = Internet in {{PAGENAME}} ==
''Orientierungsstufe ''(‘orientation’ phase within The ICT strategy, Digital Germany 2015, sets out the different school typespriorities, tasks and projects for the period up to 2015. Amongst its aims are: the expansion of digital infrastructure and networks to meet future challenges; the safeguarding and protection of the personal rights of users in the future Internet and in the use of new media; and the strengthening of basic, further and continuing education and training and competencies in handling new media. (1)
''Gymnasium/Realschule/Hauptschule/Gesamtschule ''and types of schools offering several courses of education (''Schularten mit mehreren Bildungsgängen'')
| style="padding: 4px;" | 10-12 years of age == Internet in Education ===
10/12-15/16 years In 1996, The Federal Ministry Education and Research (in cooperation with Deutsche Telekom) created the Schulen ans Netz association with the first mission of age connecting all German schools to the Internet by the end of 2001. After that, Schulen ans Netz was step by step transformed into a competence centre covering all aspects of the use of new media in schools. The scope of Schulen ans Netz is nationwide and the focus of the work lays in identifying and disseminating Good Practice. The main emphasis is to offer concrete online tools, content and support for teachers, school leaders, school authorities and parents. These services shall simplify teaching and learning with ICT in daily school life. (1)
|-| style="padding: 4px;" | '''Upper secondary education''' = Copyright law in {{PAGENAME}} ==
| style="padding<!-- likely to require new material -->Copyright gives the creator of an original work exclusive rights to it, i.e. it gives the copyright holder the right to be credited for the work and to determine who may adapt the work to other forms. The authors' rights are internationally protected by the „Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works“ (1886). In Germany the copyright law and related rights are regulated in the [http: 4px;//www.gesetze-im-internet.de/englisch_urhg/index.html " | 15Urheberrechtsgesetz/16German Copyright Act"] from 1965. Last changes werde made in 2007, coming into effect in 2008. The changes were mainly a result of the [http://eur-18lex.europa.eu/19 years legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32001L0029&from=DE EU Directive 2001/29/EC] which Germany first implemented in 2003.=== Copyright law in Education ===The EU Directive 2001/29/EC provides in Article 5 Section 3 optional exceptions or limitations to the copyright law in the following cases:* 3 (d) "quotations for purposes such as criticism or review, provided that they relate to a work or other subject-matter which has already been lawfully made available to the public."* 3 (e) "use for the sole purpose of age illustration for teaching or scientific research, as long as the source, including the author's name, is indicated, unless this turns out to be impossible and to the extent justified by the non-commercial purpose to be achieved."
|}That means copying in these cases is allowed for a limited circle of those taking part in the instruction of a specifically limited circle of persons for their personal scientific research. These exceptions are optional and therefore not all EU states implemented them. In 2003, Germany implemented the Article 5 Section 3 of the EU Directive in the German Copyright Act in Article 52a:<br />"Making works available to the public for instruction and research:<br />(1) It shall be permissible for:<br /># published small, limited parts of a work, small scale works, as well as individual articles from newspapers or periodicals for illustration in teaching at schools, universities, non-commercial institutions of education and further education, and at vocational training institutions, exclusively for the specifically limited circle of those taking part in the instruction, or# ... exclusively for a specifically limited circle of persons for their personal scientific research to be made available to the public, to the extent that this is necessary for the respective purpose and is justified for the pursuit of non-commercial aims."
This article regulates the copyright law in German schools, so that this material can be copied for the instruction in schools, but can`t be used outside of schools, e.g. on school-websites. The copyright law is very restrictively used in schools (q.v. the discussion about the "school trojan" in the chapter "OER initiatives in Germany").
All pupils == OER Initiatives in Germany enter the '''Grundschule which covers grades 1 to 4'''. The transition from the Grundschule (primary school) to one of the different lower secondary school types where pupils remain at least until the completion of their full-time compulsory education is dealt with differently depending on Land legislation. Following the primary school stage at which all children attend mixed-ability classes (grades 1 to 4, in Berlin and Brandenburg grades 1 to 6) the organisation of the secondary school system (grades 5/7 to 12/13) in the Länder is characterised by division into the various educational paths with their respective leaving certificates and qualifications for which different school types are responsible. {{PAGENAME}} ==
Secondary education includes four types of schools based on a pupil's ability as determined by teacher recommendations: * <!-- some initiatives in the '''Gymnasium''' includes the most gifted children and prepares students for university studies; * the '''Realschule''' has a broader range of emphasis for intermediary students; * the '''Hauptschule''' prepares pupils for vocational education * the '''Gesamtschule or comprehensive school''' combines the three approaches. There are also Förderschulen (schools for the mentally challenged and physically challenged). One in 21 students attends a FörderschuleVISCED/Re. ViCa wiki may be OER initiatives -->
'''Post-compulsory education and post secondary level education'For a summary table of OER entities in Germany see [[Media:Germany OER entities.pdf]] by [[Susanne Friz]]''
Once pupils have completed compulsory schooling – generally when they reach Germany has raised a number of fundamental objections to the age idea of 15 – they move into upper secondary educationOER. The type They question whether a lack of school entered depends on digital content prevents learning, particularly in the case of people with low qualifications , and entitlements obtained at whether well-educated people will benefit the end most from OER. Furthermore, they ask if there are any sustainable business models for OER and suggest that there are questions of lower secondary educationstandards, quality, technical interoperability, and legal questions concerning copyright that have not yet been solved. The range issue of courses on offer includes '''full-time general education and vocational schools, as well as vocational training within copyright is widely discussed in Germany in reference to the duales System (dual system)ongoing Open Access debate.''' In order Germany was the only country which in its response to enter a university, high school students are required to take the Abitur examination. The courses of education provided at vocational schools within OECD questionnaire reported that the upper secondary level lead OER issue is not expected to become a vocational qualification for skilled work as qualified staff, e.g. policy priority in the anerkannte Ausbildungsberufe near future. They also stated that they do not consider a lack of learning material in digital format (recognised occupations requiring formal trainingespecially in English) or to be one of the assistant occupationsmajor problems in education; howevertherefore, students possessing a diploma from a vocational school may also apply to enter higher educationthe potential benefit of OER in Germany is not highly rated.(2)
{| class=In Germany the discussion about OER has started in autumn of 2011 with the debate about the so called "prettytable" border="1" style=school trojan"border-collapse. The textbook publishers had asked the school authorities to check in schools with the help of a software if the copyright laws were observed in the intranet of the schools. That caused a lot of discussions. In the end the publishers gave up on the idea. But the awareness of OER was raised and more campaigns and regional events were organised to emphasise the idea of OER. Several publications about OER werde initiated and research in that field funded. Here are the most important steps of the discussion about OER in Germany: separate; border* March/2012 '''OER-spacingWhitepaper''' („Open Educational Resources for schools in Germany“ Internet & Gesellschaft Co: 0;" llaboratory)(3): describes background, players and development status of OER in Germany|* September/2012 '''OER-Camp in Bremen'''| * November/2012 '''Hearing of BMBF''' ( Federal Ministry of Education and Research) '''and KMK''' (standing committee of the German ministers of education and cultural affairs) '''about style="paddingOER''': 4px;" | agreement between KMK , publishers and collecting societies about digitalisation of textbooks* August/2013: '''General upper secondary schoolthree surveys from BMBF''' : outline(4)/ judicial (5)/ metadata (6) * September/2013 ''Gymnasiale Oberstufe'OER-Camp in Berlin') at ''* September/2013 '''OER-conference in Berlin by Wikimedia'''* September/2013: the following school typesKMK (standing committee of the German ministers of education and cultural affairs) has established a working committee to develop a '''commentary to OER in Germany till autumn 2014'''* November/2013: '''OER in the CDU/CSU - SPD coalition agreement in Germany''': „Free digital teaching material must be strengthened by the state and the federal states. The basis for this is an educational and research friendly copyright law and an open-access-policy. The access to textbooks for schools and teaching materials for universities should be – as much as possible – free and the usage of free licences and formats should be strengthened.“
''Gymnasium=== National OER initiatives ===Since the discussion in Germany about OER is mainly led by institutions, teachers and staff from universities, there are not very many national OER initiatives. Some are funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, but most of the initiatives are led by non-profit organisations. Since there are hardly any national policies by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany, the initiatives arise from teachers itself or non-profit organisations who believe in free OER material for schools in Germany (see section "Institutional OER initiatives). Another reason for the lack of national OER initiatives is the fact that Germany is a Federal Republic. Each of the 16 federal states have nearly full control of the education system including universities. Therefore the state cannot normally fund national projects for education in schools and universities in the states.<br /Berufliches Gymnasium/Fachgymnasium/Gesamtschule''>Nevertheless, there are some national OER initiatives which have been or are still funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF):
| style="padding* [http: 4px;" | 15/16-18/19 years www.lehrer-online.de Lehrer-online (teachers-online)] is a national platform for schools which was originally funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The main tasks of Lehrer-online are the provision of information and teaching material for schools (primary schools, secondary schools, vocational schools). New media is a strong focus of the programme.:Lehrer-online is part of an online network www.schulen-ans-netz.de, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and, in its first phase, sponsored by the Deutsche Telekom as well. Now it is led by the limited company Lehrer-Online GmbH. It is financed by advertisement and other services for the Federal Ministry or the ministries of the federal states. The material is still free for the schools. Most German federal states have now similar and linked initiatives, e.g. Bavaria, Lower Saxony etc. Like all the web-based services, provided by the Schulen ans Netz, this portal is also supported by a team of education experts, IT-specialists and teachers who are knowledgeable on the current educational needs. The services of Lehrer-Online include: practical teaching modules including free-of-charge working materials, methodological and didactical articles and suggestions for classroom preparation, which have been developed and approved by teachers in the classroom and carefully developed, researched and validated by editorial staff, both in terms of subject and methodology, before being published; dedicated discussion forum, where teaching professionals can exchange their ideas and experience; an information service specially tailored to users’ needs (this includes news about schools, new media and education policy along with in-depth information on practical legalities like data privacy and copyright issues); the Virtual Learning Environment lo-net offering virtual rooms for cooperation with colleagues as well as for class teaching and cooperative projects with other schools in Germany and elsewhere; the homepage generator for primary schools: Primolo is a net-based tool which can be used free of age charge and which enables primary school children accompanied by a teacher to design their own web sites. (1)
|-| style="padding* [http: 4px;" | '''Vocational education //www.bildungsserver.de Deutscher Bildungsserver] (German Education Server/[http://www.eduserver.de/ eduserver])is a meta-server referring to web resources, e.g. from the federal government and the Länder (states), the European Union, universities, schools, state institutes, research and service institutions and scholarly information centres. It is funded by the federal government (Bund) and the federal states (Länder). It covers all subjects for Pre-Primary education, Primary School, High School, vocational training''' and universities. Most German federal states have now similar and linked educational servers, e.g. Bavaria, Lower Saxony, Baden-Württemberg, Hessen, Niedersachsen and North-Rhine Westphalia etc. (see Regional OER Initiatives).
''Berufsfachschule ''(full* [http://www.rpi-time vocational virtuell.net/ Rpi virtuell] is led by the Comenius-Institut in Münster and financed by the Protestant Church in Germany (EKD). It is an open platform for RE (religious education) where students can create their material collaboratively. The material is for Pre-Primary education, Primary Schools, High Schools and Adult Education. The thematic sites contain digital assets with pictures, texts and link-lists. Students can also upload their own material.<br />
''Fachoberschule ''(full time vocational * [http://www.exil-club.de Exil-Club] is an online learning environment that engages with the subjects of exile, migration and intercultural education. The content as well as the working platform of the Exil-Club can be used by European school projects dealing with topics from the Exil-Club. The platform also stresses the topic of media literacy and media competence. It is led by the foundation Else-Lasker-Schüler-Stiftung and Schulen ans Netz e.V. From 2001 till 2005 it was funded by the German Bundeministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)/German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. (1)
''duales System – Berufschule + Betrieb ''(dual === Regional OER initiatives ===Since the 16 federal states in Germany have nearly full control of the education system: part-time vocational school and part-time on-, most official OER initiatives are regional. All of the-job trainingGerman federal states have a regional educational server (see list below) . Berlin and Brandenburg have one together. Besides resource servers, some states also have media portals with specific OER material.<br />
| style="padding: 4px;" | 15/16-18 years Here are the regional educational servers of age the federal states:
16* [http://www.bildungsserver.de/elixier/ Elixier] is a search machine of metadata from the federal states' education servers. The education servers of the federal states exchange their metadata. All these metadata linked to resources can be found in ELIXIER. ELIXIER devotes its work to OER material and there will be a special section only for OER material with CC.* [http://www.schule-18 years bw.de Baden-Württemberg] links to resources and material from other teachers for all subjects and school types ranging from Primary School, High School to vocational training. All material is supervised by an editorial staff consisting of age teachers.* [http://www.schule.bayern.de Bavaria (Bayern)]: links to resources for different school types (Primary School, High School, vocational training) and to different school subjects. There are also links to school projects and downloads of learning software.* [http://bildungsserver.berlin-brandenburg.de/ Berlin-Brandenburg]: links to resources for Languages, Music, Art, Maths and Science, PE and bilingual education. There is also a special portal for Primary Schools with their subjects.* [http://www.bildung.bremen.de/sixcms/detail.php?gsid=bremen02.c.730.de Bremen]: material on job orientation, PE and Maths and Science in Primary Schools.* [http://bildungsserver.hamburg.de/ Hamburg]: links to resources in Languages, Maths and Science, Humanities, Theatre, Art, Music and PE and also to link lists for these subjects. There is also a special [http://www.hibb.hamburg.de/index.php/ portal for vocational training].* [http://dms.bildung.hessen.de Hesse (Hessen)]: The portal has a [http://mediathek.bildung.hessen.de/material/index.html media library] with 5.000 files (photos, MP3-files, video, text etc.) for all school subjects to be used e.g. for worksheets, teaching material and presentations in the classroom. Besides that, already prepared material like webquests are also available. They are all under the CC BY licence. For each subject and topic you can also find external links. There is also a separate portal for [http://grundschule.bildung.hessen.de/unterricht Primary Schools]. * [http://www.bildung-mv.de Mecklenburg-Vorpommern]: Only some external links to material for the school subjects.* [http://www.nibis.de/nibis.phtml Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen)]: Material is in the media-server [http://www.nibis.de/nibis.phtml?menid=35 merlin] (see list below).* [http://www.learnline.schulministerium.nrw.de/ North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen)]: Material is in the media-server [http://www.learnline.schulministerium.nrw.de/ learn:line] (see list below).* [http://bildung-rp.de/gehezu/startseite.html Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz)]: External links to resources in Languages, Humanities, Maths and Science, Art, Music and PE.* [http://www.bildungsserver.saarland.de Saarland]: External links to resources for RE, German, Humanities, Art, Maths, IT, Science, Economy and Primary Schools. * [http://www3.sn.schule.de/sbs/startseite/ Saxony (Sachsen)]: Material-databank [http://www2.sn.schule.de/~matdb/matdb2/?action=categorieview MatDB] with material from teachers for all subjects. Teachers can upload their material and an administrator clears it. The databank is just developing and therefore not a lot of material is in it yet (over 300 entries).* [http://www.bildung-lsa.de Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt)]: Online-material is in the media-server [http://www2.bildung-lsa.de/schule/medien_fuer_die_schule/emutube___einsatz_digitaler_medien_im_unterricht.html emuTUBE] (see list below).* [http://www.schleswig-holstein.de/Bildung/DE/Bildung_node.html Schleswig-Holstein]: Databank [http://medien.lernnetz.de/home/content/index.php IQSH-Mediathek] with film sequences, videos, photos, pictures, texts etc. (see list below).* [http://www.thueringen.de/th2/tmbwk/ Thuringia (Thüringen)]: External links to different information.
15/16Besides these educational servers, some federal states also have media portals with online-18/19 years material (video, audio, pictures, texts etc.). Some of age this material is OER, but not all of it like films from German educational TV. Therefore, for most of these portals teachers and schools have to register. Then they can use the material in the classroom free of charge and also download it in most cases. Students can work with it, but can't download.
|-Here is a list of media portals of different states:| * '''Baden-Württemberg''': [http://medienrecherche.lmz-bw.de/ SESAM] includes teaching material, teaching modules styleand photos. Teachers have to register. You can also find teaching modules created by teachers for the different subjects. They are all according to the curriculum of Baden-Württemberg. * '''Bavaria (Bayern)''': [https://mediathek.mebis.bayern.de/ mebis] includes digital media like films, audio, multimedia, pictures, maps, worksheets, texts etc. Al lot of material is OER, but not the films from educational TV and films from commercial producers. Teachers can also download most media, students can only stream it. Schools have to register first. Media from mebis can also be found and used in a Moodle platform which is linked to the media server.* '''Berlin''': [http://medienforum-berlin.datenbank-bildungsmedien.net/ MOM - Medienforum Online-Medien] can be used by all schools in Berlin. Teachers can register and can use the media in the schools, but not outside. Exceptions are for preparing lessons at home and for students to use the media offline for homework.* '''Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen)''': [http://www.nibis.de/nibis.phtml?menid="padding35 merlin] contains digital films, graphics, worksheets and links to OER material. All media is professionally produced and cleared for schools. Teachers can download the material, students can work with it. Everybody can search in the media portal, but for viewing and downloading the material, schools have to register.* '''North Rhine-Westphalia''': 4px;Material in the media-server [http://www.learnline.schulministerium.nrw.de/ learn:line] is mainly OER and comes from different sources. It always states the copyright. Teachers only have to register for material from the [http://edmond20.lvr.de/ EDMOND] portal which includes audiovisual material from commercial producers. The download is free of charge once the teachers have registered. * '''Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz)''': All OER material in [http://omega.bildung-rp.de OMEGA] can be used by anybody. Free access is also to the material from the "Medienkompass" | which features media and links for media competence. For all other material, schools have to register in order to use it in their classrooms. Teachers can download most of the material as long as it is on legal grounds. * '''PostSaxony (Sachsen)''': [http://mesax.datenbank-secondary nonbildungsmedien.net/ MeSax] is the media information and distribution system of educational media in Saxony. Schools have to register in order to use the platform. The media in MeSax can also be used with the learning platform LernSax. Teachers can integrate the material in the virtual classrooms for students to use directly.* '''Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-tertiary educationAnhalt)''' : Online-material is in the media-server [http://www.bildung-lsa.de/emutube.html emuTUBE]. You can find digital material for all subjects. Schools have to register since not all media are OER. Those media can only be used by teachers, but it is free of charge. Media can be tagged by teachers and be downloaded for the classroom or the lesson preparation at home.* '''Schleswig-Holstein''': Databank [http://medien.lernnetz.de/home/content/index.php IQSH-Mediathek] with film sequences, videos, photos, pictures, texts etc. Everybody can search in the portal, but teachers have to be registered in order to view and download material.
''Berufsfachschule ''=== Institutional OER initiatives ===Most OER initiatives at the moment in Germany are institutional ones, either from non-profit organisations, universities, teachers or limited corporations. The material is free for schools and mainly funded by donations or advertisement.
''Fachoberschule ''* The [http://www.virtuelle-schule.de/home.html Virtuelle Schule] (Virtual School) is an initiative of the non-profit association Virtual School e. V. and includes three internet platforms: [http://www.virtuelle-schule.de/home.html Virtuelle Schule for pupils in grades 5 and 12]; [http://www.uebergaengegestalten.d Ubergänge gestalten], specifically focused on the passage between different school levels; and [http://www.virtuellegrundschule.de Virtuelle Grundschule], for Primary School (pupils in grades 1-4). They address mainly teachers (by providing relevant material and content for their lessons and teaching practice), but there is also space for access and participation on the part of students and parents. The internet platform generates from a previous initiative (end of the 90s) at the Clavius-Gymnasium in Bamberg and is now led by the non-profit association Virtuelle Schule e.V. (1)
''Abendgymnasium* [http:/Kolleg ''/schulbuch-o-mat.de/index.html Schulbuch-O-Mat] is a national wide initiative by OER-Schul-E-Books to create collaborative free OER textbooks for schools which are according to curriculum standards. The money for the textbooks is raised by crowd-funding. Teachers, experts from university and graphic designer work together to produce the textbooks. They are free of charge for everybody. Since they are according to the curriculum of the particular federal state, the textbooks themselves are regional projects. The initiators of Schulbuch-O-Mat were mainly from universities. The project is also accompanied by an evaluation. So far two textbooks have been produced by OER-Schul-E-Books:<br />
''duales System – Berufschule + Betrieb ''(dual system# [http: part//biologie.oncampus.de/loop/BIOLOGIE_1 OER Schul-time vocational school E-Book Biologie 1] is a textbook for Biology for grades 7/8 of High Schools according to the curriculum of Berlin. It started in 2012 and partthe idea was to finish the textbook till the end of July 2013. The capital money was raised by crowd-funding till January 2013. The book itself was written by voluntary biology teachers and professionals graphic designers. The textbook is consistent with the curriculum (from 2006/2007) of Berlin for High Schools (Gymnasium) grades 7/8. It is the first free digital textbook in Germany under OER and CC. A lot of teachers participated, but in the end they had to translate some of the missing texts from courses from the Khan Academy in order to finish in time . The textbook itself is available as a webpage, and can be downloaded as pdf, ePub and iBook. Up to now there were 20.000 downloads. An accompanying report explains the difficulties in producing the book, e.g. in finding voluntary teachers. The textbook consists of multimedia courses with quizzes and exercises. Form and content is similar to a printed textbook, but it also includes interactive exercises, videos and pictures. A glossary contains the explanation of 327 technical terms. Topics are cells, living environment, nutrition, respiration, blood, addiction, puberty and sexuality. The textbook is created with LOOP (Learning Object Online Platform), an authoring software by the University Lübeck.# [http://politik-wirtschaft.oncampus.de/loop/Hauptseite OER Schul-E-Book Politik/Wirtschaft] is a collaboratively written textbook for grades 5/6 and 7 to 9 in Secondary Schools for politics and economy according to curriculum in North Rhine-Westphalia. The title of the first booklet is "Securing and enhancing democracy". There will be two levels for different types of schools available. The textbook consists of multimedia courses with exercises. Form and content is similar to a printed textbook, but it also includes interactive exercises, videos, pictures, a glossary and an index. The last chapter is about different methods used in the subject like interviews, analysing texts, pictures and cartoons, researching in the internet, designing a poster etc. It is an on-going process with thefirst booklet being finished in June 2014. Each booklet will be an independent e-job trainingbook. The content is under the CC By-SA licence. The textbook is created with LOOP (Learning Object Online Platform) , an authoring software by the University Lübeck. So far it is available as a website and PDF and ePub as download.
| * The [http://www.segu-geschichte.de/ Seguhistory] website is led by the University of Cologne (History Department). style="paddingIt consists of self-regulated lessons for history for teachers and students. The material is organized in open modules and students can arrange their own lessons from learning modules, method modules and research modules. Some are bilingual. The modules are arranged in two ways: 4px;chronological from early times up to the 20th century (" | 19Zeiten") and according to themes and topics ("Einblicke). Up to now, about 60 % of the planned modules are already available. The different modules are like parts of a big puzzle with which the students can make up their own picture of history. They decide when, how and what they would like to learn. That way they can "make history" too. Students chose the modules in which they are interested in and can download them as pdf or text files and print them. Most of the time, the exercises can be solved offline with the help of the history textbook or other material. All modules should be kept in a folder. For the video-22 years modules on youtube, a computer is necessary and sometimes the internet for research. Besides the modules, quizzes, online exercises and a segu_planer is available. In the segu_planer teachers can chose a specific topic and certain modules for the students to work with. The students can do the exercises in the order they like to or they can make their own plan with the segu-planer. A time line in pdf and an interactive time line helps students to get an overview of history. Different tutorials explain the use of age segu.<br />
18* Teachers have their own [http://segu-19 years blog.de/ portal]. They get help for their lesson plans and an introduction to the idea of age an open and self-directed history classroom. Self-directed learning in the history classroom is not used very often in Germany because it is very time consuming in the preparation. The segu portal can help with that and shorten the preparation time. The material can also be used with laptop classes and ipads etc. Solutions to the exercises are also presented on the teachers' portal. But some exercises are open and have no specific solution. Besides that, teachers also find a newsletter, can ask questions and find partner schools.<br />:Segu is an OER learning platform. All modules and learning material is under the CC licence. They can be copied and used again in digital form as long as segu is named as author. The text files can also be modified.
20* [http://wikis.zum.de/zum/Hauptseite ZUM-35 years Wiki] is led by the non-profit association „Zentrale für Unterrichtsmedien im Internet e. V.“ ZUM-Wiki is an open platform for teaching material covering all subjects and types of age schools from Primary to Secondary School. The material consists of digital assets, e.g. modules, picture, texts, links and animation. The platform is for the exchange of material, information, experiences and ideas concerning teaching and school in all German speaking countries. It is also for German as a foreign language. The Wiki is also meant for workgroups in schools to train responsible writing and communication in the internet. Discussions about concepts, methods and the material is welcome. All material can be changed and updated all the time by the users. : ZUM started as a website in 1995 by Margit Fischer. The non-profit association was founded in 1997 and has since then collected material for teachers and students. You will not only find material for the classroom, but also information about interdisciplinary activities. Articles for teachers, students and parents are also collected. The original idea was to launch a platform from teachers for teachers in order to use the internet as a data and information base for teaching. The participation is voluntary. All material is provided by teachers free of charge for the schools. ZUM-Wiki is financed by donations, grants, partnerships and advertisement. <br />
19* Besides the ZUM-22 years of age Wiki there is a special portal for Primary Schools - the [http://grundschulwiki.zum.de/wiki/Hauptseite ZUM-Grundschulwiki]. It is also led by the non-profit association Zentrale für Unterrichtsmedien im Internet e. V. and is an open platform from primary-school pupils for primary-school pupils. The pupils are helped by the teachers in writing the texts. The idea is to five primary-school pupils the space to write their own texts and assemble material for other pupils. It is also licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 DE. The portal also contains a mailing system, a Web Quest and a search for Primary Schools in Germany.<br />
|}* [http://www.rpi-virtuell.net/ Rpi virtuell] is led by the Comenius-Institut in Münster and financed by the Protestant Church in Germany (EKD). It is an open platform for RE (religious education) where students can create their material collaboratively. The material is for Pre-Primary education, Primary Schools, High Schools and Adult Education. The thematic sites contain digital assets with pictures, texts and link-lists. Students can also upload their own material.<br />
* [http://l3t.eu/homepage/ L3T]is a collaboratively written e-textbook on learning and teaching technologies for university students and teachers. It is led by the non-profit association "Bims gem.e.V." The authors are mainly scientists from the field of technology. The free material should help to study and teach modern technologies.
* [http://www.serlo.org Serlo] is led by the non-profit association "Gesellschaft für freie Bildung". It is an open platform for free material for mathematics mainly for students in High Schools and Vocational Training. Students can upload their own videos or pictures. There are also German translations of videos from the Khan Academy. New subjects besides Mathematics are in planning.
For more detailed information see * [http://eaceade.ecwikiversity.europa.euorg/educationwiki/eurydice/documents/eurybase/eurybase_full_reports/DE_ENHauptseite Wikiversity] is a project initiated by the Wikimedia Foundation.pdf EurydiceIt is an open Platform to create OER for Universities, Organisation of the Schools and Adult Education System . There is also a section in Germany, 2009/2010]for German schools.
On the German education system see also * [http://enwww.wikipedializzynet.org/wiki/Education_in_Germanyde LizzyNet] is a portal and community with information, communications and learning tools especially developed for girls. The information on the platforms is open for everybody, but the communities of LizzyNet are made available only on request. You have to register in order to get an e-mail address, instant-messenger, own profile and contact, homepage and free web space, forums, clubs, chat and e-cards. The main topics on the portal are ones for girls like body and health, politics, culture, education and research and multimedia. It consists of articles, quizzes, recipes and games. In both communities the creation of national groups from other countries is welcome. Also groups for international exchange can be created. The portal and community is led by the closed corporation LizzyNet GmbH. The articles and information are supervised by pedagogues.(1)
A glossary with explanation of different school types is available at * [http://www.kmkexil-club.org/fileadmin/doc/Dokumentation/Bildungswesen_en_pdfs/ende Exil-2009Club] is an online learning environment that engages with the subjects of exile, migration and intercultural education. The content as well as the working platform of the Exil-Club can be used by European school projects dealing with topics from the Exil-Club. The platform also stresses the topic of media literacy and media competence. It is led by the foundation Else-Lasker-Schüler-Stiftung and Schulen ans Netz e.V. From 2001 till 2005 it was funded by the German Bundeministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)/German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.pdf(1)
== Schools * [http://www.deutsche-fernschule.de/ Deutsche Fernschule] (sub-site in Germany ==English at http://www.deutsche-fernschule.de/en/home/) is an important correspondence school for German children (4 to 10) in Pre-Primary education and Primary School whose parents live abroad for a while. It has traditionally avoided the use of internet, given also the very young age of the target group, but now there are some online courses available. A pilot project has however been recently launched, and might deserve some further investigation. Info retrieved from http://www.expatica.com/es/family/kids/The-virtual-classroom_16680.html Deutsche Fernschule is both an advisory agency for Germans working abroad and concerned about their children's schooling, and a provider of various sorts of supplementary schooling services to these. Most courses have to be paid for and are printed material, but some courses are now online and free of charge. Deutsche Fernschule assures children the highest possible level of education and provide each child with the opportunity to retain its cultural roots and still have plenty of time and enthusiasm to explore and experience the foreign environment. It has 40 years of experience and over 10,000 German pupils in 139 countries of the world.
For a full list of school in Germany visit http* [https://enopenlearnware.wikipediatu-darmstadt.orgde%20/wiki/List_of_schools_in_GermanyOpenLearnWare] is a web-portal with lectures and courses from the Technical University in Darmstadt. You can find the material as courses or the single material. All digital material which is created for teaching at the University can be uploaded. The courses are for E-Learning, Pedagogy, PE, IT, Philosophy, Mechanical Engineering, Physics, Maths, Law and Economy.
== Further * [https://openlearnware.tu-darmstahttp://electures.informatik.uni-freiburg.ddt.de Electures-Portal] is a web-portal with lectures and Higher education ==courses from the University in Freiburg. The video lectures are only for IT. There is also a Wiki. The Electure-Portal is used at the Faculty of Applied Sciences to distribute lecture material. You have to open an account, but everybody can use it.
Higher education (HE) studies in Germany are offered at three types * [http://www.video.uni-erlangen.de FAU Videoportal] is a videoportal from the university of Higher Education Institutions (HEI)Nürnberg-Erlangen.It offers university courses for Health and Medicine, Languages, Sciences, Psychology and Social Studies, Engineering, Humanities, Communication and Media, History, Society, Learning and Teaching Maths, Law and Politics, and Economy. Some of the videos are even broadcasted on TV.
* '''Universitäten (Universities)''' including various specialized institutions, offer the whole range of academic disciplines[http://www. In the German tradition, universities focus in particular on basic research so that advanced stages of study have mainly theoretical orientation and research-oriented componentsj3l7h.* '''Fachhochschulen (Universities of Applied Sciences)''' concentrate their study programmes in engineering and other technical disciplines, business-related studies, social work, and design areasde/videos. The common mission of applied research and development implies html Jörn Loviscach Videos] is a distinct application-oriented focus videoportal for Maths and professional character IT of studieslectures, which include integrated scripts and supervised work assignments in industry, enterprises or other relevant institutionsexercises. It is led by Prof.* '''Kunst- und Musikhochschulen (Universities of Art/Music)''' offer studies for artistic careers in fine arts, performing arts and music; in such fields as directing, production, writing in theatre, film, and other media; and in a variety of design areas, architecture, media and communicationDr. Jörn Loviscach from the University Bielefeld.
Studies in all three types of institutions have traditionally been offered in integrated "long" (one* [https://lecture2go.uni-tier) programmes leading to Diplom- or Magister Artium degrees or completed by hamburg.de Lecture2go] is a Staatsprüfung (State Examination)videoportal of lectures and other material from the University Hamburg. Within You can see the framework of lecturer and his presentation at the Bologna-Process one-tier study programmes same time. The lectures are successively being replaced by a two-tier study systemfor Law, Economy and Social Studies, Medicine, Psychology. Since 1998Pedagogy, a scheme of first- RE, Humanities, Sciences, Maths, IT and second-level degree programmes (Bachelor and Master) was introduced to be offered parallel to or instead of integrated "long" programmesMedia.
The Berufsakademie – offered by some Länder – forms part * [http://lernfunk.de/portal-ui/user-interface/ LERNFUNK.DE] is a media portal with videos and podcasts of courses from the tertiary sector and combines academic training at University in Osnabrück. It also contains a Studienakademie with practical in-company professional training in keeping databank with all digital material from the principle courses. The courses are from all subjects of the dual systemUniversity.
According * [http://www.youtube.com/user/oncampusFHL oncampus] is led by the Oncampus GmbH which belongs to the International Standard Classification Virtual University of Education (ISCED)Applied Sciences Lübeck. It contains educational videos on youtube for IT, the Fachschulen, the Fachakademien in Bayern Economy and the two- and three-year schools in the health sector (Schulen des Gesundheitswesens) are also part of the tertiary sectorSofz Skills. Fachschulen are continuing vocational education institutions in the tertiary sector that, as a rule, require the completion of relevant vocational training in a recognised occupation requiring formal training and subsequent employment
Higher Education Institutions are either state or state-recognized institutions* [http://www. In their operations, including podcampus.de podcampus] is led by Multimedia Kontor Hamburg which is run by all the organization of studies universities in Hamburg. It is a podcasting-platform with lectures from universities and the designation and award of degreesresearch institutes in Germany, they Austria and Switzerland. The subjects are both subject to higher education legislation: Medicine, Languages, Sciences, Psychology, Philosophy, History, Engineering, IT, Art and Design, Music, Media, Maths, Law, Politics, PE and Economy.
For detailed information on the German Higher Education System and the different types of higher education institution see * [http://wwwtimms.daaduni-tuebingen.de/deutschland/hochschulen/hochschultypen/00414timms] is a multimedia server with video, audio material and texts from the university Tübingen.enIt was funded by the federal stat of Baden-Württemberg in 2000. The courses are for Law, economy, medicine, philosophy and history, Social Studies, Philology, Cultural Studies, Maths and Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography and IT.html
* [http://mitschau.edu.lmu.de/ VideoOnline] is led by the LMU University Munich. It is run by the Department of Pedagogy and Rehabilitation and is a service for all members of the university. It presents lectures from the LMU Munich, mainly from Psychology, Pedagogy, Chemistry, Maths and Economy.
=== Universities Updates in Germany June 2014 ===
For a full list of Universities additional open education initiatives in Germany visit httpnot yet integrated into the main database, see the report [[Media://www.daad.de/deutschland/hochschulen/hochschulprofile/00597Open Education Initiatives in Germany.enpdf]] by [[Susanne Friz]].html?show=liste
=== Polytechnics in Germany ===
<!-- cover public and private -->=== Colleges OER Policies in Germany = {{PAGENAME}} ==
=== National OER policies ===
Even though Germany had raised a number of fundamental objections to the idea of OER in the OECD Country Questionnaire in 2011 (2), the attitude in general has changed since then and some national policies have taken place. In 11/2013, OER was even a topic in the CDU/CSU - SPD coalition agreement:
„Free digital teaching material must be strengthened by the state and the federal states. The basis for this is an educational and research friendly copyright law and an open-access-policy. The access to textbooks for schools and teaching materials for universities should be – as much as possible – free and the usage of free licences and formats should be strengthened.“
So, despite the fact that OER was not seen as an issue which was expected to become a policy priority in the near future, some actions in that field have occurred. Because of pressure from teachers, other educational institutions and non-profit organisations, a hearing took place in 11/2012 between the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Standing Committee of the German Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs (KMK) about the issues of OER and especially the copyright problems of digitalising parts of textbooks for the classroom. In the end, an agreement was found between KMK, the publishers of educational media (Verband Bildungsmedien) and the collecting societies on rules for the digitalization and photo copying of content from textbooks for the classroom ([http://www.schulbuchkopie.de "Digitale Schulbücher, einscannen und kopieren in der Schule"]). Teachers and schools were not very happy with the agreement since it did not solve all the problems of OER and copyright law.
Therefore the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) launched in 8/2013 three surveys to determine their policy in the different aspects concerning OER:
* [http://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/7868/pdf/DBS_2013_OER.pdf Outline of OER in Germany ("Freie Bildungsmedien (OER)"):] The first survey covered the fields of action, actors and development options in Germany in an international perspective.
* [http://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/8008/pdf/Kreutzer_2013_OER_Recht.pdf Judicial matters ("Open-Content und Urheberrecht")]: The second survey tried to solve some questions concerning open-content and copyright law.
* [http://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/8024/pdf/TIB_2013_Metadaten_OER.pdf OER and Metadata ("Metadaten für Open Educational Resources (OER)")]: The third survey is about metadata and how these can help to find, produce and distribute OER in Germany and internationally.
<!Another policy of the BMBF is finding scenarios for the usage of copyright protected material in education and research till 2020 [http://www.bmbf.de/pubRD/Abschlussbericht_strategischer_Dialog_wissfreundl_Urheberrecht.pdf: "Ein wissenschafts-und innovationsfreundliches Urheberrecht für die digitale Wissensgesellschaft."] It is still not clear which scenario will be implemented in the end. If copyright protected material should be free for everybody is still widely discussed in Germany. A desirable perspective in the future is to have open access with a CC- cover public and private -By->licence to all scientific literature. A free access to everything in the web would be even better, but the question is how this can be financed.
== Some national institutions have therefore declared to develop free OER material, e.g.:* The [http://werkstatt.bpb.de/themen/open-educational-resources/ Federal Centre for Political Education reform ==] in Bonn has declared to develop free OER material for certain historical topics for schools. They are free for everybody.
A European project [http://www.olcos.org "OLCOS"] financed by the EU in which Germany participated built an online information and observation centre for promoting the concept, production, distribution, and usage of OER. One of the final products is a “Roadmap 2012” with suggestions and recommendations for a higher production, sharing, distribution and usage of OER in education.
One of the reasons for the lack of very many national OER initiatives is also the fact that Germany is a Federal Republic. Each of the 16 federal states has nearly full control of the education system including universities. Therefore the state cannot normally fund national projects for education in schools and universities in the states. But recently the KMK („Standing Committee of the German Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany”) has established in 9/2013 a '''working committee''' in order to develop '''a commentary to OER in Germany''' till autumn 2014.
=== Schools Regional OER policies (in the Länder) ===The initiatives in Germany about OER are mainly from institutions, non-profit teachers and staff from universities, there are not very many regional OER initiatives.
North-Rhine Westphalia was the only federal state that had a [http://www.gew-online.de/dms_extern/download.php?id=231833 hearing] about supporting free learning and teaching material in Düsseldorf in 2013 in the Landtag. The pressure again came from the teachers and schools. The result was to support free teaching and learning material by the state. There are no policies in other German federal states ("Länder").
=== Institutional OER policies ===
Most German universities have no policies relating to OER, but there are some policies now of universities that work together in order to offer quality OER teaching material on the web (see "Institutional OER initiatives" for a list of universities with OER):
* Some universities in Germany work together in order to offer quality OER teaching material on the web. The University of Darmstadt provides a platform OLW [http://www.e-learning.tu-darmstadt.de/openlearnware/lehrmaterial_anderer_unis/index.de.jsp (OpenLearnWear)] as an open source software for other universities to publish their OER material as well. While doing this, these universities contribute to the idea of free education on the internet. Darmstadt also provides a website with the different URLs of other OER platforms from universities to make it easier to find the other initiatives.
* The [http://openaccess.mpg.de/Berlin-Declaration "Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities"] of the Max Planck Gesellschaft declared that research results and cultural heritage shall be freely accessible and usable for scientists and the public. A lot of [http://openaccess.mpg.de/319790/Signatories other educational institutions and universities] joined this declaration.
* '''Further German Open Access Initiatives are:''' [http://www.dfg.de/dfg_magazin/forschungspolitik_standpunkte_perspektiven/open_access/ Open Access und Forschungsförderung durch die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft], [http://www.allianzinitiative.de/de/start/handlungsfelder/open_access/ Schwerpunktinitiative "Digitale Information" der Allianz der deutschen Wissenschaftsorganisationen], [http://oa.helmholtz.de/ Open Access in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft], [http://www.fraunhofer.de/content/dam/zv/de/publikationen/Fraunhofer_OpenAccessPolicy.pdf Open Access Policy der Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft], [http://www.leibniz-gemeinschaft.de/infrastrukturen/open-access/ Open Access in der Leibniz-Gemeinschaft] and [http://www.dini.de/ag/e-pub/ Deutsche Initiative für Netzwerkinformation e. V. (DINI) - Arbeitsgruppe Elektronisches Publizieren].
* In the EU project [http://www.oer-quality.org OPAL], funded by the EU Commission under The Long Life Learning Program, some European universities under the leadership of the University of Duisburg-Essen focused on the provision of innovative Open Educational Practices in higher and adult education for all subjects.
One institutional OER policy for the school sector is [http://schulbuch-o-mat.de/index.html "Schulbuch-O-MAT"] (see also Institutional OER policies). The idea is to create collaborative free OER textbooks for schools for all subjects which are according to curriculum standards. The money for the textbooks is raised by crowd-funding. Teachers, experts from university and graphic designer work together to produce the textbooks. They are free of charge for everybody. Since they are according to the curriculum of the particular federal state, the textbooks themselves are regional projects. The initiators of "Schulbuch-O-Mat" were mainly from universities. So far two textbooks have been produced by "Schulbuch-O-Mat": for Biology and Politics/Economy.
=== Post-secondary ===
== Administration and finance ==<!-- only list policies for consortia of universities, an open university or other very influential university -->
The political and administrative hierarchy in the Federal Republic of Germany is made up of three levels: 1) '''Federation; 2) Länder; and 3) local authorities (Kommunen).'''== References ==
According to the Basic Law * ReVica/VISCED page for Germany (Grundgesetz), '''educational legislation and administration are primarily the responsibility of the Länder''' (in a system comprising the Land Ministries of Education, Cultural affairs and Science, the regional authorities (Bezirksregierunghttp:/Oberschulamt) and the lower-level school supervisory authorities (Schulamt)/virtualcampuses. This particularly applies to the school system, higher education and the adult educationeu/continuing education sectorindex.php/Germany)
'''Decisions on the financing of education are taken at all three levels, but over 90 per cent of public expenditure are provided by the Länder and the local authorities'''.
The Länder cooperate with each other within the framework of the '''Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany''' (abbr.: Kultusministerkonferenz – KMK) on matters of importance for all Länder. === Reports ===
The '''responsibilities of the Federal Government''' # Blees, I. et al. (2013), "Freie Bildungsmedien (OER). Dossier: Offene Bildungsressourcen / Open Educational Resources – Handlungsfelder, Akteure, Entwicklungsoptionen in education are defined internationaler Perspektive" http://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/7868/pdf/DBS_2013_OER.pdf# BMBF (2002), Fachhochschulen in the Basic LawGermany", http://www. Among these responsibilities is the legislation concerning the admission to higher education institutions and the degrees they conferbmbf.de/pub/fachhochschulen_in_germany.pdf# Bretschneider, as well as the financial assistance for individual trainingM. et al. (2012), including promotion of younger academic staff“Open Educational Resources (OER) für Schulen in Deutschland”, Whitepaper, Internet & Gesellschaft Co:llaboratory. The Basic Law also provides for particular forms http://www.collaboratory.de/w/Open_Educational_Resources_f%C3%BCr_Schulen_in_Deutschland_-_Whitepaper # Hylén, J. et al. (2012), “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of cooperation between Responses to the Federation OECD Country Questionnaire”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing. http://oer.unescochair-ou.nl/?wpfb_dl=38# Kreutzer, Till (2013), "Open Educational Resources (OER), Open-Content und Urheberrecht" http://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/8008/pdf/Kreutzer_2013_OER_Recht.pdf# Lepori, B. and the LänderSucci, such as that which occurs C. (2004), "eLearning in the sector Universities of the promotion of researchApplied Sciences Country Report on Germany", https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242216460_eLearning_in_the_Universities_of_Applied_Sciences_Country_Report_on_Germany# Ziedorn, Frauke et al. (2013), "Metadaten für Open Educational Resources (OER). Eine Handreichung für die öffentliche Hand, erstellt von der Technischen Informationsbibliothek (TIB)2013, 27" http://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/8024/pdf/TIB_2013_Metadaten_OER. pdf
 
 
=== Schools ===
 
'''Pre-primary sector'''
 
Pre-school education is not a part of the state school system, and Kindergarten attendance is not, as a general rule, free of charge. Publicly-maintained Kindergärten (maintained by the local authorities) are financed by the local authority (Kommune), by the Land (subsidies to cover personnel and material costs etc.) and through parental contributions. Meanwhile, Kindergärten that are privately maintained (by churches, parents' initiatives etc.) are also financed by the local authority (Kommune), by the Land and through parental contributions, and, in addition, by the maintaining body's own resources. The financing by the Länder may encompass subsidies to cover investment, personnel and material costs etc.
 
'''Primary and secondary sector'''
 
Supervision of the school system (general education and vocational schools) is the responsibility of the Ministries of Education and Cultural Affairs in the Länder in their capacity as the highest educational authorities. The planning and organisation of the overall school system is the responsibility of the Ministries of Education and Cultural Affairs and the subordinate school supervisory authorities. The Länder are in charge of organising the school structure and determining the content of courses and teaching objectives.
Attendance of public-sector schools is free of charge. The public-sector school system is financed on the basis of a division of responsibilities between the Länder and the Kommunen (local authorities). While the latter bear the costs of non-teaching staff and the material costs, the Ministries of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder are responsible for the teaching staff payroll.
 
The possibility of schools managing their own budgetary funds has increased in recent years on the basis of amendments to the school legislation. In the majority of Länder, schools are already able to determine their own use of resources for one or several types of expenses (e.g. learning and teaching aids) within the budget allocated by the maintaining body. Initial approaches are also in place for the autonomous use of the personnel resources allocated.
 
The maintaining bodies of '''privately-maintained schools''' receive some financial support from the Länder, in various forms.
 
 
=== Post-secondary ===
 
 
== Quality assurance, inspection and accreditation ==
 
'''Supervision of the school system (general education and vocational schools) is the responsibility of the Ministries of Education and Cultural Affairs in the Länder''' as the highest educational authorities, as stated in the Basic Law (Grundgesetz).
 
The school legislation of most Länder provides for measures of '''external and internal evaluation''' beyond state supervision.
 
The Länder have taken a number of evaluation measures which combine various quality assurance and quality development procedures. These measures are embedded in overall strategies of the individual Länder for quality evaluation and quality assurance which, amongst other measures, include
* the '''strengthening of the autonomy of the individual school''',
* the '''development of school-specific profiles''',
* the''' promotion of inter-school cooperation'''
* the strengthening of the '''advisory functions of the school supervisory authority'''.
 
The evaluation systems for schools in the Länder are in line with the '''Educational Standards (Bildungsstandards)''' for the primary and secondary sector adopted by the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs in order to thoroughly develop and assure the quality of instruction and school education on the basis of binding standards. These Länder-spanning target criteria are in most Länder complemented by the provisions of the so-called '''frameworks for school quality''' which provide schools with indicators of school and teaching practice quality. The schools in the Länder are evaluated by external evaluation agencies and inspection systems in accordance with these criteria.
It is the main task of the [http://www.iqb.hu-berlin.de/ Institut zur Qualitätsentwicklung im Bildungswesen – IQB] (Institute for Educational Progress) to review whether the educational standards have been met in the Länder.
 
The Federation and the Länder have agreed on a biennial indicator-based report [http://www.bildungsbericht.de/zeigen.html?seite=6609 Education in Germany] as a continuous, data-based, problem-centred examination of the German education system.
 
 
==== Quality assurance for in-company vocational training ====
Quality assurance in in-company vocational training is achieved mainly through laws and regulations and through the recommendations of the board of the [http://www.bibb.de/ Federal Institute for Vocational Training - BIBB] . The Vocational Training Act (Berufsbildungsgesetz – BBiG) places a high value on quality assurance and quality development. It contains a comprehensive set of instruments for assuring quality in vocational education and training which ranges from the establishment of '''uniform national standards for training and examinations in the training regulations''' and further training regulations of the Federation to the responsibilities of the competent bodies with regard to ensuring the personal and technical aptitude of the instructors and the suitability of the training premises.
 
=== Schools ===
 
 
=== Post-secondary ===
<!-- subdivide as necessary - QA for HE is usually very different from QA for colleges -->
 
== Information society ==
 
 
[http://www.initiatived21.de Initiative D21]
 
The Initiative D21 is a public-private partnership initiative aimed at improving the general conditions necessary to move on successfully into the information and knowledge society and to make Germany more internationally competitive. More than 200 representatives of enterprises, associations, parties, political institutions and other organizations are currently involved, including board members from companies such as Alcatel, AOL, Cisco Systems, debitel, IBM, Microsoft, Siemens and TNS Infratest. They are assisted by an Advisory Council.
Their commitment is channeled toward promoting skills in the use of information and communications technologies among specific social groups, as well as in schools, government agencies, associations and enterprises.
 
The Initiative D21 is pursuing these objectives in some 40 practical projects, each headed by a representative of business and politics.
 
The Initiative is organized into three subject areas ("steering groups"):
 
* Digital Integration
* Digital Competence
* Digital Excellence
 
The annual "(N)ONLINER Atlas" is the largest study on the use of the Internet in Germany, see [http://www.nonliner-atlas.de (N)ONLINER Atlas 2011 report]
 
 
 
[http://www.bmwi.de/English/Redaktion/Pdf/ict-strategy-digital-germany-2015,property=pdf,bereich=bmwi,sprache=en,rwb=true.pdf ICT strategy of the German Federal Government: Digital Germany 2015]
 
The ICT strategy, Digital Germany 2015, sets out the priorities, tasks and projects for the period up to 2015. It aims to do the following:
 
* Strengthen competitiveness through the use of ICT in all segments of the economic process
* Expand digital infrastructure and networks to meet future challenges
* Safeguard the protected and personal rights of users in the future Internet and in the use of new media
* Step up research and development in the ICT sector and speed up the translation of R&D findings into marketable products and services
* Strengthen basic, further and continuing education and training and competencies in handling new media
* Make consistent use of ICT to cope with social problems, including sustainability and climate protection, health, mobility, administration and the improvement of the quality of life of citizens.
 
== ICT in education initiatives ==
 
ICT initiatives in education in Germany are determined at Land level, resulting in a highly fragmented picture which is difficult to map. Since the mid-90s the Federeal Ministry of Education has been trying to adpat the German schools to the digital age. As they are not able to directly interfere in the curriculum, these initiatives mainly support ICT integration in education by providing equipment and technical advice. The main aims of these initiatives are
* encourage a responsible, critical and creative approach on the part of pupils and students
* include ICT in the initial and in-service training of teachers
* encourage partnership between multimedia centres and teacher training institutes in the Länder
 
In 1996 The Federal Ministry Education and Research (in cooperation with Deutsche Telekom) has created the [http://www.schulen-ans-netz.de/ '''Schulen ans Netz'''] association with the first mission of
connecting all German schools to the Internet, by the end of 2001. After that, Schulen ans Netz was step by step
transformed a competence centre covering all aspects of the use of new media in schools. The scope
of Schulen ans Netz is nationwide and the focus of the work lays on identifying and disseminating
Good Practice. The main emphasis is to offer concrete online tools, content and support for teachers,
school leaders, school authorities and parents. These services shall simplify teaching and learning
with ICT in daily school life.
 
 
 
=== Virtual initiatives in schools ===
 
 
 
==== Lehrer-online ====
 
[http://www.lehrer-online.de '''Lehrer-online'''] (teachers-online) is the national German school server, funded by the national ministry for education and research.The main tasks of Lehrer-online are the '''provision of information and teaching material for schools''' (primary schools, secondary schools, vocational schools). New media is a strong focus of the programme.
 
Lehrer-online is part of an online network www.schulen-ans-netz.de, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and, in its first phase, sponsored by the Deutsche Telekom as well.
Some German federal states have similar and linked initiatives, e.g. Bavaria, Lower Saxony etc.. Like all the web-based services, provided by the Schulen ans Netz, this portal was also supported by a team of education experts, IT-specialists and teachers who were knowledgeable of the current educational needs.
 
The services of Lehrer-Online include:
* Practical teaching modules including free-of-charge working materials, methodological and didactical articles and suggestions for classroom preparation, which have been developed and approved by teachers in the classroom and carefully developed, researched and validated by editorial staff, both in terms of subject and methodology, before being published.
* Dedicated discussion fora, where teaching professionals can exchange their ideas and experience.
* An information service specially tailored to users’ needs. This includes news about schools, new media and education policy along with in-depth information on practical legalities like data privacy and copyright issues.
* The Virtual Learning Environment [http://www.lo-net2.de/wws/101505.php?sid=73580149563930478931107980798210 lo-net] offering virtual rooms for cooperation with colleagues as well as for class teaching and cooperative projects with other schools in Germany and elsewhere.
* The homepage generator for primary schools:[http://www.primolo.de Primolo] is a net-based tool which can be used free of charge and which enables primary school children accompanied by a teacher to design their own web sites.
 
==== [[Virtuelle Schule]] ====
 
The [[Virtuelle Schule]] (Virtual School) is an initiative of the non-profit association Virtual School e. V. and include three internet platforms:
 
* [http://www.virtuelle-schule.de/ Virtuelle Schule] for pupils in grades 5 and 12
* [http://www.uebergaengegestalten.de/ Ubergängen Gestalten], specifically focused on the passage between different school levels
* [http://www.virtuellegrundschule.de/ Virtuelle Grundschule], for primary school (pupils in grades 1-4)
 
They address mainly teachers (by providing relevant material and content for their lessons and teaching practice), but there is also space for access and participation on the part of students and parents
 
It might be further investigated as a potential exemplary. The internet platfom generates from a previous initiative (end of the 90s) at the [http://cg.bamberg.de/ Clavius-Gymnasium] in Bamberg
 
==== LizzyNet ====
 
[http://www.lizzynet.de '''LizzyNet'''] is a portal and community with information, communications and learning tools especially developed for girls The concept of the platforms and communities of LizzyNet are made available on request. In both communities the creation of national groups from other countries is welcome. Also groups for international exchange can be created
 
==== Exil-Club ====
 
[http://www.exil-club.de '''Exil-Club'''] is an online learning environment that engages with the subjects of exile, migration and intercultural education.
The content as well as the working platform of the Exil-Club can be used by European school projects dealing with topics from the Exil-Club.
 
==== [[Lo-net and Virtuelles Gymnasium Sonthofen]] ====
 
The [http://www.gymnasium-sonthofen.de/index.php?option=com_content&view=frontpage&Itemid=91 Sonthofen Gymnasium], in Sonthofen is an interesting example of adoption of the [http://www.lo-net2.de/wws/101505.php?sid=73580149563930478931107980798210 lo-net] services to create virtual classrooms and change the traditional way of teaching-learning in school.
 
[http://www.lo-net2.de/wws/101505.php?sid=23359548301287296130979607960690 '''Lo-net'''] stands for "'''lehrer-Online-Netzwerks'''" (teacher on line network) and is a service provided by Schulen and Nets - free of charge - for schools. The second version of lo-net was launched in 2006, and provides for the possibility to create virtual learning environments (virtual classrooms and groups) where teachers and students can work and where it is possible to exchange artefacts and materials. As mentioned in the Lo-net website homepage "“LO-Net makes true the dream of the virtual school: teachers and learners work together in classes and courses online, school organization and work with parents take place in the network. Already more than 6,500 schools nationwide use the web-based learning and work lo-net platform, the comprehensive and innovative solution for schools.”
 
[http://www.gymnasium-sonthofen.de/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=223:virtuelles-gymnasium-sonthofen-im-lo-nets&catid=136:virtuelles-gymnasium&Itemid=268 '''Virtuelles Gymnasium Sonthofen''']: in the Sonthofen Gymansium, which has subscribed to the lo-net system, all teachers and students have their own account, which is also an email address. In 2006 Many teachers in the school were already giving their lessons using lo-net, including homeworks, opportunities for additional practice, etc. Students can also work with their classmates, exchange material, i.e. upload and download presentations. Forum and chats are also available. The learning environment access is controlled but can be opened either to other classrooms, as well as to parents etc.. (it would be interesting to see how the situation has developed after 2006)
 
==== Deutsche Fernschule (German Correspondance School)====
The [[Deutsche Fernschule]] is an important correpondance school for expat children (6 to 10) has traditionally avoided the use of internet, given also the very young age of the target group. A pilot project has however been recenlty launched, and might deserve some further investigation. Info retrieved from http://www.expatica.com/es/family/kids/The-virtual-classroom_16680.html
 
==== Other potential interesting cases ====
 
The [http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/2010/doc/infovisit_bonn.pdf report on a EU study visit at Schulen ans Nets] (2004) of Group C (Implementation of "E&T 2010" work programme) "ICT in education and training", indicate some potential interesting schools, innovatively applying ICT in their daily practices.
 
=== Virtual initiatives in post-secondary education ===
 
<!-- include virtual campuses and virtual universities (distance education) as well as on-campus initiatives -->
 
== Lessons learnt ==
 
 
=== General lessons ===
 
 
=== Notable practices ===
 
<!-- include exemplar practices (ones to follow) as well as practices to avoid -->
 
 
== References ==
 
#[http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/eurybase/national_summary_sheets/047_DE_EN.pdf Eurydice, National system overviews on education systems in Europe and ongoing reforms, Germany 2010]
#[http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/eurybase/structures/041_DE_EN.pdf Eurydice, Structures of Education and Training Systems in Europe, Germany, 2009/10]
#[http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/eurybase/eurybase_full_reports/DE_EN.pdf Eurybase, The Information Database on Education Systems in Europe: The Education System in Germany, 2009/10]
#[http://www.bmbf.de/en/ Federal Ministry of Education and Research]
#[http://www.bildungsserver.de German Education Server]
#http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/2010/doc/infovisit_bonn.pdf
#[http://www.tab-beim-bundestag.de/de/pdf/publikationen/berichte/TAB-Arbeitsbericht-ab122.pdf Mediennutzung und eLearning in Schulen]
 
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