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The major provider of distance learning in the higher education sector is the Universitas Terbuka. UT offers nearly 1,000 courses through 29 study programs. There are four faculties: Economics (FE), Social and Political Sciences (FISIP), Mathematics and Natural Science (FMIPA), Teacher Training and Educational Sciences (FKIP) and three graduate programs. The FE, FISHIP and FMIPA provide education to high school graduates. The FKIP primarily offers in-service training for practising primary and secondary school teachers. UT had 646,467 students in 2010, 83% of which were teachers taking courses through FKIP. Most UT students are expected to study independently and teaching is primarily through correspondence. Printed learning materials are supplemented by radio and TV broadcasts, CD-ROMs and Web-based materials using the Moodle platform. As a national institution, UT collaborates with both public universities and a number of private universities across Indonesia. Universities in the provinces share their facilities with UT to provide fee-based tuition to UT students. In addition, the Distance Learning Program Unit of the Open University (UPBJJ-UT) cooperates with other Indonesian universities to develop new courses in specialised fields. The UT is not the only distance education provider in the higher education sector. There are currently Distance Learning Centres (DLCs) at four other Indonesian universities: Udayana University, Universitas Indonesia, University of Riau and Univeristas Hasanuddin Makassar. These DLCs are part of the Global Development Network funded by the World Bank. (2)
=== Quality procedures ===
The Ministry of National Education sponsors a number of SEAMEO (South-East Asian Ministers of Education Organisation) Centres that provide professional development programs for teachers in specialised fields. In addition to their own distance education courses, SEAMEO centres offer Distance Education Packages for the use of other distance education providers. SEAMEO centres in Indonesia include the SEAMEO Regional Centre for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel in Language (SEAMEO QITEP), SEAMEO Regional Centre for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel in Mathematics (SEAMEO QITEP in Mathematics), the SEAMEO Regional Centre for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel in Science (SEAMEO QITEP in Science). The SEAMEO Regional Open Learning Centre (SEAMEO SEAMOLEC) provides open and distance learning programs to teachers using an integrated e-learning environment. SEAMEO SEAMOLEC also offers a range of educational radio programs. (2)
There is also extensive use of distance education in non-formal education and training. Aid agencies and NGOs employ radio in the provision of non-formal community and adult education. In recent years, UNESCO has worked with P2PNFI Jayagiri–part of Directorate General of Non-Formal Education and Youth Education–to promote the creation of local content for educational radio. This work has extended to support for Community Multimedia Centres (CMC) as sites for the development of locally-created educational programs. (2)
The ICDE report on regulatory frameworks for distance education could find no legislation or policies in Indonesia in support of OER. (1)