Policies Survey notes:
- Indonesia notes that it is developing OER. It has committed to OER as part of its strategy of serving the educational needs of a population of nearly 250 million spread over 17,000 islands and three time zones. Indonesia's National Education Development Strategy 2010–2014 makes reference to the incorporation of OER. At the regulatory level there is a Ministerial Regulation on OER, whilst at the operational level, the Indonesian Higher Education Network (INHERENT) was established in 2007 for resource-sharing in education and research, in which all development of resources will be based on open source and open access principles. There is also a national repository for publications.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Education in Indonesia
- 3 Internet in Indonesia
- 4 Copyright law in Indonesia
- 5 OER Initiatives in Indonesia
- 6 References
Indonesia is a republic, with an elected parliament and president. Its population is 237,000,000.
The nation's capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor and Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Administratively, Indonesia consists of 33 provinces, five of which have special status. Each province has its own political legislature and governor. The provinces are subdivided into regencies and cities, which are further subdivided into subdistricts, and again into village groupings. Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in 2001, the regencies and cities have become the key administrative units, responsible for providing most government services. The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life, and handles matters of a village or neighborhood through an elected village chief.
The provinces of Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua, and West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces.
- The Acehnese government, for example, has the right to create an independent legal system; in 2003, it instituted a form of Sharia (Islamic law).
- Yogyakarta was granted the status of Special Region in recognition of its pivotal role in supporting Indonesian Republicans during the Indonesian Revolution.
- Papua, formerly known as Irian Jaya, was granted special autonomy status in 2001.
- Jakarta is the country's special capital region.
For further general information see Wikipedia:Indonesia.
Education in Indonesia
For a general description of education in Indonesia see Education:Indonesia.
For a description more focussed to e-learning see E-learning:Indonesia.
The major provider of distance learning in the higher education sector is the Universitas Terbuka. UT offers nearly 1,000 courses through 29 study programs. There are four faculties: Economics (FE), Social and Political Sciences (FISIP), Mathematics and Natural Science (FMIPA), Teacher Training and Educational Sciences (FKIP) and three graduate programs. The FE, FISHIP and FMIPA provide education to high school graduates. The FKIP primarily offers in-service training for practising primary and secondary school teachers. UT had 646,467 students in 2010, 83% of which were teachers taking courses through FKIP. Most UT students are expected to study independently and teaching is primarily through correspondence. Printed learning materials are supplemented by radio and TV broadcasts, CD-ROMs and Web-based materials using the Moodle platform. As a national institution, UT collaborates with both public universities and a number of private universities across Indonesia. Universities in the provinces share their facilities with UT to provide fee-based tuition to UT students. In addition, the Distance Learning Program Unit of the Open University (UPBJJ-UT) cooperates with other Indonesian universities to develop new courses in specialised fields. The UT is not the only distance education provider in the higher education sector. There are currently Distance Learning Centres (DLCs) at four other Indonesian universities: Udayana University, Universitas Indonesia, University of Riau and Univeristas Hasanuddin Makassar. These DLCs are part of the Global Development Network funded by the World Bank. (2)
The School of Internet (SOI) Asia works in concert with a number of Indonesian universities in the provision of online distance education. The SOI Asia is an international project utilising satellite-based Internet to distribute live lectures sourced from a number of Japanese higher education institutions. Indonesian universities participating in the SOI Asia project include Brawijaya University Sam Ratulangi University, Hasanuddin University, Institute of Technology Bandung and University of Syiah Kuala. In addition to live lectures, SOI Asia broadcasts the proceedings of workshops, conferences, talks and symposia, as well as providing online access to past lectures and course materials in the fields of ICT, science and environmental studies. (2)
In 2002, the Ministry of National Education launched the Open Senior Secondary Schools project. One aim of the project was to test the feasibility of e-learning as the primary mode of delivery at the secondary school level. Open Senior Secondary Schools were established different parts of Indonesia: Bogor in West Java Province, Pemalang in Java Province, Benkalis in Riau, Surabaya and Malang in East Java, Samarinda in East Kalimantan, and Pangkep in South Sulawesi. As part of the project, e-learning materials were used to supplement printed materials in modular instruction. In the end, the Open Senior Secondary School initiative failed to move past the pilot stage, although it continued for a number of years. Part of the problem was that the infrastructure to support the wider use of e-learning in Indonesian schools did not yet exist. In 2002, less than 0.3% of the Indonesian population had Internet access. This low rate of Internet penetration was due primarily to two factors: the prohibitively high cost of Internet connections and the rudimentary telecommunications infrastructure in rural areas. In retrospect, the Open Senior Secondary Schools initiative was too ambitious. (2)
Internet in Indonesia
Internet hosts (2010) - 1.269 million Internet users (2008) - 30 million (2)
Internet in Education
Copyright law in Indonesia
Copyright law in Education
OER Initiatives in Indonesia
Aid agencies and NGOs employ radio in the provision of non-formal community and adult education. In recent years, UNESCO has worked with P2PNFI Jayagiri–part of Directorate General of Non-Formal Education and Youth Education–to promote the creation of local content for educational radio. This work has extended to support for Community Multimedia Centres (CMC) as sites for the development of locally-created educational programs. (2)
UNESCO has established an e-Learning Site, hosted by the Directorate General of Higher Education. The e-Learning Site hosts a range of free learning materials aimed at school-level courses. Learning materials are available in a range of formats including streamed video lecturers and downloadable course notes. (2)
The ICDE report on regulatory frameworks for distance education could find no legislation or policies in Indonesia in support of OER. (1)
National OER initiatives
The Ministry of National Education sponsors a number of SEAMEO (South-East Asian Ministers of Education Organisation) Centres that provide professional development programs for teachers in specialised fields. In addition to their own distance education courses, SEAMEO centres offer Distance Education Packages for the use of other distance education providers. SEAMEO centres in Indonesia include the SEAMEO Regional Centre for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel in Language (SEAMEO QITEP), SEAMEO Regional Centre for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel in Mathematics (SEAMEO QITEP in Mathematics), the SEAMEO Regional Centre for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel in Science (SEAMEO QITEP in Science). The SEAMEO Regional Open Learning Centre (SEAMEO SEAMOLEC) provides open and distance learning programs to teachers using an integrated e-learning environment. SEAMEO SEAMOLEC also offers a range of educational radio programs. SEAMEO SEAMOLEC is part of the SEA EduNET project. SEA EduNet includes an online repository of open education resources designed for re-use by teachers in South-East Asia. (2)
Regional OER initiatives
Institutional OER initiatives
A number of Indonesian universities have established OCW repositories as part of OpenCourseWare Consortium. These include Universitas Indonesia (UI), Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU) and the Udayana University (UNUD). In 2011, the University of Sumatera Utara OpenCourseWare was named the best new site in the OpenCourseWare Consortium. The site shares materials from 177 courses in 12 disciplines, including materials from 20 textbooks. All of the content is available both in English and Indonesian. (2)
In 2006, the Anti Corruption and Governance Unit from Soegijapranata Catholic University launched an online program which aimed to increase high school students’ awareness of anti-corruption activities. The e-learning program involved case studies, digital comics, interactive games and tuition on information searching and retrieval as well as opportunities for students to post their own content on school Web sites. Overall, the project was a success. Feedback from 150 students indicated that the majority of students responded positively to e-learning experience. Almost 80% found the program beneficial for the development of their critical thinking skills. However, there were some negatives. Some teachers found the challenge of delivering an online program extremely daunting, while a small minority disliked e-learning. Another major problem was connection speeds. Students and teachers were frequently frustrated by the time it took to download digital photographs and images. The program was carried out in partnership with the Indonesian Commission on Corruption Eradication. (2)
2. ICDE Country Profile for Indonesia (http://www.icde.org/projects/regulatory_frameworks_for_distance_education/country_profiles/indonesia/)
- ICDE Report: Regulatory frameworks for distance education: A pilot study in the Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region - Final report. December 2011. Prepared by the Project Team (Team leader, Dr. Rosalind James) (accessed at http://www.icde.org/filestore/Regulatory_Framework/RegulatoryFrameworksforDEfinalreport2.pdf on Friday 13th July 2012)
- Education in Indonesia: Rising to the Challenge, OECD, March 2015, http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/education-in-indonesia_9789264230750-en