For the US state of Georgia see Georgia (US state)
For entities in Georgia see Category:Georgia
- 1 Partners situated in Georgia
- 2 Georgia in a nutshell
- 3 Georgia education policy
- 4 Georgia education system
- 5 Higher education
- 6 Higher education reform
- 7 Administration and finance
- 8 Quality assurance
- 9 Georgia's HEIs in the information society
- 10 ICT in education initiatives
- 11 Lessons learnt
- 12 References
Partners situated in Georgia
Georgia in a nutshell
(sourced mainly from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_(country) )
Georgia (Georgian: საქართველო, sɑkʰɑrtʰvɛlɔ) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Georgia has a population of almost 5 million, largely ethnic Georgians. It covers a territory of 69,420 km²
Its capital is Tbilisi.
The history of Georgia can be traced back to the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia, and it was one of the first countries to adopt Christianity as an official religion, early in the 4th century. At the beginning of the 19th century Georgia became a part of the Russian Empire. After a brief period of independence following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Georgia was forcibly incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1922. Independence was restored in 1991.
Georgians call themselves Kartvelebi (ქართველები), their land Sakartvelo (საქართველო), and their language Kartuli (ქართული). Modern Georgian states have used differing names in different periods. The first modern Georgian state adopted the name Democratic Republic of Georgia. As part of the USSR the country was called the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. When Georgia broke from the USSR it adopted the name Republic of Georgia. Since it adopted its present constitution in 1995, the official name of the country is simply Georgia.
Like many post-communist countries Georgia suffered from the economic crisis and civil unrest during the 1990s. This lasted until the Rose Revolution of 2003 after which the new government introduced democratic and economic reforms.
Georgia is a representative democracy, organized as a secular, unitary semi-presidential republic.
It is currently a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), and GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development. The country seeks to join NATO and, in the longer term, accession to the European Union. However it does belong to certain organisations in Asia also.
In August 2008, Georgia engaged in an armed conflict with Russia and separatist groups from South Ossetia and Abkhazia. In the aftermath of the conflict Russia recognized the Georgian regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia as independent states, but at present only a few countries have followed suit.
Georgia insists that Abkhazia and South Ossetia are "Russian-occupied territories" but part of Georgia. We reflect that view by categorising them as such but also giving them entries - brief ones only - as de facto autonomous states.
Regions and cities
Georgia is divided into nine regions and two autonomous republics. These in turn are subdivided into 69 districts.
The main cities of Georgia include:
- Tbilisi population 1,066,100 (metro area 1.27 million) - the capital
- Kutaisi - 186,000
- Batumi - 121,000
- Rustavi - 116,000
- Zugdidi - 75,000
All other cities are towns of less than 50,000.
The regions are:
- Abkhazia (autonomous republic - de facto independent)
- Adjara (autonomous republic, but overseen by Georgia)
- Kvemo Kartli
- Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti
- Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti
- Shida Kartli
South Ossetia is not a region but an autonomous administrative district - de facto independent.
Georgia education policy
(sourced from http://eqe.ge/eng/static/119/legal-acts)
The education system in Georgia is under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Science.
The Georgian education area is regulated by the following legal acts:
- Georgian Law ,,On Higher Education;
- Georgian Law ,,On Vocational Education;
- Georgian Law ,,On General education;
- Georgian Law ,,On Education Quality Enhancement.
Sublegal acts are issued in order to regulate and enhance the quality of education.
Georgia education system
The education system of Georgia includes:
- Pre-school education
- Primary education
- Secondary education
- Higher education
Pre-school education is not compulsory. Since the adoption of the Law on Education in 1998, compulsory primary education lasts six years for the age of 6-11; secondary education consists of two stages, each one lasting three years.
More information of the education system in Georgia can be found at
More information on Higher Education in Georgia can be found at the website of the Georgian National Erasmus+ Agency: http://erasmusplus.org.ge/en/he-in-georgia and in the country report at: http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/tempus/participating_countries/overview/georgia_tempus_country_fiche_final.pdf
Higher education institutions in Georgia
(sourced from http://erasmusplus.org.ge/en/he-in-georgia)
The type of higher education institutions (HEIs) in Georgia has been determined by the Law on Higher Education whereas the number of stately recognized HEIs is not stable and fluctuations reflect dynamic process of authorisation and accreditation.
There are three types of higher education institutions (HEIs):
- research universities: authorised to award all three academic degrees (Bachelor, Master and PhD)
- teaching universities: without a notable research function, implementing first and second cycles of higher education
- colleges: implementing higher professional and Bachelor programmes
HEIs can be publicly or privately founded and funded, but quality criteria are same for all institutions despite of their legal status. Currently there are 74 stately recognized (authorised) HEIs in Georgia.
A list of Georgian Higher Education Institutions can be found at http://eqe.ge/eng/static/89/register/heis
Higher education reform
The Bologna Process
(sourced from http://erasmusplus.org.ge/en/he-in-georgia)
In the short period since Georgia joined the Bologna process in 2005, an impressive reform package for the higher education system was introduced. The reform package consists of a series of legal regulations (Law of Georgia on Higher Education, adopted in December 2004), the establishment of new institutions - National Examination Centre, National Centre for Educational Quality Enhancement – accreditation agency, Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation and various other initiatives. The three-cycle higher education system has been implemented in Georgia in 2005. Bachelor, master and doctoral programmes have already been introduced in all stately recognized HEIs, as well as ECTS and Diploma Supplement. All students below doctoral level are enrolled in the two-cycle degree system (except for certain specific disciplines such as medicine). Higher professional programmes since September 2010 referred to as level IV and V of professional education) have been introduced as a short cycle within Bachelor studies for students who are interested in acquiring practical skills. Upon completion of this type of programme, they receive a qualification from a certified specialist. These programmes correspond to 120 to 180 ECTS credits. Bachelor programmes cannot comprise less than 240 ECTS credits whereas Master programmes comprise 120 ECTS and doctoral programmes 180 ECTS.
Administration and finance
The education system in Georgia is under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Science. All publicly financed education is subordinate to or under the supervision of the Ministry.
The majority of HEIs in Georgia are funded through tuition fees. For public HEIs, tuition fees account for 90 % of total income, while the rest comes from state subsidies, paid indirectly through state-funded grants to students and directly as a lump sum payment (block grant) to the HEI. Infrastructure grants from the government are provided to public universities for infrastructure projects where necessary, from time to time. Private universities receive no direct funding from the government but receive indirect subsidies through state-funded grants to qualified students who enrol in these institutions.
The funding model of HEIs has changed substantially in the last years. The input-based lump sum financing model of education has been transformed into per capita financing. Consequently, vouchers and grants have been introduced. The grants are used to finance tuition fees, at both public and private HEIs.
Apart from state student grants, HEIs are entitled to receive funding from funds received through other sources such as private grants, research grants, special state-budgetary programs, etc.
In the absence of any objective allocation system (such as formula funding), lump sum payments received by HEIs are negotiated on an annual basis. The negotiating power of individual universities largely determines how much they receive. Thus the system works very much to the advantage of the larger universities in Tbilisi. Discussions are currently under way to decrease the lump sum funding from the state and to replace it by increasing the HEI voucher subsidy scheme. Ultimately, the lump sum funding system may be phased out.
Mechanisms of quality assurance, including authorization and accreditation, are defined by the adopted law "Development of Quality of Education” (July 2010).
Accreditation standards and processes are the same for public and private HEIs, whereas quality assurance processes on the institutional level can be different: the Law on Higher Education obliges public HEIs to establish and operate internal quality assurance services (Article 25), defining its status and responsibilities, while private HEIs are not obliged to do so. But since the self-assessment report is a main precondition for accreditation, private HEIs also establish internal structures and units responsible for quality assurance.
A special state authority – the National Centre for Educational Quality Enhancement (NCEQE) – has been established to ensure authorisation and accreditation processes. It operates in compliance with the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area.
More information on Quality Assurance can also be found in http://erasmusplus.org.ge/files/publications/Strategic%20Development%20of%20HE%20and%20Science%20in%20Georgia%20-%20en.pdf
Or read the executive summary of the report on The Best and Worst Practices of Quality Enhancement - Case of Georgia
Georgia's HEIs in the information society
Towards the information society
Information society strategy
ICT in education initiatives
(sourced from the ARMAZEG project deliverable "State of the art regarding E-learning and ICT for lifelong learning)
Implementation of modern Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the learning process at different levels of education is very intensive in Georgia nowadays. Technology-enhanced learning offers innovative solutions to the challenges facing the traditional educational process. Strict limitation in time and space - the main barrier, which is facing learners of different ages, attitudes and culture - is considerably relaxed with the flexible learning process, enabled and supported by the usage of modern technology in different types of education.
First successful attempts of e-learning and LLL solutions, realized with ICT, have been already implemented in the Georgian educational environment. The project supported by the Georgian Government "Netbooks for Primary Schools" was successfully implemented in the primary schools at the National level. Within the frame of the project all pupils in the primary schools have been equipped with the Netbooks, designed to enhance the face-to-face (F2F) learning process and give them individual working space to master new material explained by a teacher at class.
For the secondary schools the project "Virtual laboratory" was implemented. The aim of this project was overcoming the lack of physical laboratories in natural sciences. For this, virtual laboratories were purchased for a number of schools in Georgia, especially for the schools in rural regions. These laboratories are used in class, as part of traditional F2F learning. Many schools are using e-journals, e-gradebooks, eassessment and e-assignments in order to create successful learning process by shifting some activities into the e-learning environment. This practice is very popular among the learners, as modern learners are very keen on technology and welcome every activity, which is based on technology.
Technology-enhanced learning is becoming more and more widespread in the Higher Educational System as well. E-learning is implemented in different areas of the learning process and for different purposes (distribution of the learning material, assessment, assignments, communication, etc.), but the main characteristic is that e-learning is used in blend with the traditional learning.
In 2012 several Higher Educational and Research Institutions established the "National E-Learning Network". The founders of the Network are representatives of:
- Tbilisi State University (TSU);
- Georgian Technical University (GTU);
- Chiqobava Institute on Linguistics;
Later other institutions joined the network. At the moment about 15 organizations are members of the network. In 2013 St. Andrew the First-Called Georgian University (SANGU) became a member of the network as well.
The main aim of the network is the popularization of e-learning at the national level and the support of organizations who are interested in implementing technology-enhanced learning in their educational systems. A recent activity of the network was a series of trainings for the representatives of Vocational Training Institutions in order to develop capacity for e-learning there.
The National E-Learning Network is a member of Regional e-Learning Network (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia), which was established within the frame of the GIZ project "Capacity Building and Human Resource Development in Caucasus".
A lifelong learning system was very well developed in the Soviet time. But, the educational system as a whole and the LLL system in particular, were badly affected by the severe economic and political crises, occurring after the crash of the Soviet Union. At the moment a new concept of LLL is developing, and e-learning could serve as a very effective tool in order to create and distribute lifelong learning solutions. E-learning courses developed for LLL could significantly broaden the target group of the learners interested in continuous education. The usefulness of such courses would be increased if these courses are developed in the higher educational institutions, with the contribution of the experienced subject matter experts.
Virtual initiatives in schools
Deer Leap Programme
The national Deer Leap Programme was launched by the Ministry of Education and Science (MES) in March 2005 and had has its main objective the modernization of Georgian schools, providing computers and building IT capacities, aiding the process of Georgia’s overall reconstruction and globalization. Additional goals include equipping all secondary school graduates and 50% of teachers with basic ICT skills. In addition, educational software and services as well as quality technical support were to be developed, alongside the integration of ICT into the curriculum.
Virtual initiatives in post-secondary education
ARMAZEG project - Developing tools for lifelong learning in Transcaucasus region: e-Learning
The TEMPUS project ARMAZEG - Developing tools for lifelong learning in Transcaucasus region: e-Learning aims to stimulate educational reform in Armenian and Georgian partner universities by establishing e-Learning centres and training involved staff members – with special attention to lifelong learning methodologies. The project runs from 1 December 2013 until 30 November 2016. The project website is at: http://armazeg.com/
The above-mentioned ARMAZEG project deliverable State of the art regarding E-learning and ICT for lifelong learning aims to describe the current situation with regard to the level of development and the use of tools of e-learning and lifelong learning in Georgia and provides an analysis of the situation on the institutional level for:
The report also includes several interesting projects and initiatives on e-learning and/or lifelong learning in Georgia.
The ARMAZEG Project Vision, Strategy and Goals Document on the other hand highlights a future in which higher education institutions in Armenia and Georgia will use technology to enhance education for students and lifelong learners.
SuToMa project - Development of new modules for international bachelor and master programmes in sustainable tourism management
The TEMPUS project SuToMa is designed to modernize curricula in sustainable tourism management (SuToMa) in selected higher education institutions (HEI) in Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia. The project runs from 15 October 2012 – 14 October 2015 . The project website is at: http://www.sutoma.eu
The project focuses on the development of new study modules and teacher trainings in SuToMa, a hitherto underdeveloped field in all three countries. The new modules cover innovative topics, such as the integration of theory and praxis, intercultural communication, e-learning and IT technologies, and will be implemented in existing as well as new BSc. and MSc. study programmes, and accredited with ECTS. The project includes a workgroup on e-learning which has as its main task to provide a unified electronic platform as learning management system for all the modules elaborated within this project. The aim is to familiarize future teaching staff with the concept of blended learning and to enable them to apply contemporary (electronic) and traditional means of teaching. The activities of this workgroup will focus on creating guidelines for successful e-learning, guidelines for implementation and use of Learning Management Systems (LMS) and the development of eLearning courses as examples.
- Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_(country)
- National Center for Educational Quality Enhancement http://eqe.ge/eng
- Website National Erasmus+ Office in Georgia http://erasmusplus.org.ge/en/he-in-georgia
- World Data on Education Report. Georgia. UNESCO International Bureau of Education. August 2011. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Georgia.pdf
- Higher Education in Georgia. European Commission. Tempus http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/tempus/participating_countries/overview/georgia_tempus_country_fiche_final.pdf
- Strategic Development of Higher Education and Science in Georgia ce in Georgia. The International Institute for Education Policy, Planning and Management. Tbilisi 2013. http://erasmusplus.org.ge/files/publications/Strategic%20Development%20of%20HE%20and%20Science%20in%20Georgia%20-%20en.pdf
- The Best and the Worst Practices of Quality Enhancement – Case of Georgia. Research Project Report Executive Summary. Tbilisi State University. 2010. http://erasmusplus.org.ge/files/publications/Quality%20Enhancement%20-%20Case%20of%20Georgia%20-%20en.pdf
- State of the art regarding E-learning and ICT for lifelong learning. ARMAZEG project deliverable. http://www.armazeg.com/media/documents/Stateoftheartreport_ARMAZEG.pdf