Galicia is an autonomous community in northwest Spain, with the status of a nationality of Spain. It is constituted under the Galician Statute of Autonomy of 1981. Its component provinces are A Coruña, Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra.
Besides its continental territory, Galicia includes the archipelagos of Cíes, Ons, Sálvora, as well as Cortegada Island, the Malveiras Islands, Sisargas Islands, and Arousa Island. However, only a handful of people are permanent residents of these archipelagos and islands.
The capital of Galicia is Santiago de Compostela, in the province of A Coruña.
However, Vigo, in the province of Pontevedra, is the most populous municipality with 297,332 inhabitants and the second most populous city with 206,411 habitants; while A Coruña is the most populous city with 220,581 habitants and the second most populous municipality with 246,056 habitants in its municipality (INE 2009). Both cities are the cores of the two major metropolitan areas of Galicia.
Galicia has roughly 2.78 million inhabitants as of 2008, with the largest concentration in two coastal areas, from Ferrol to A Coruña in the north-west and from Vilagarcía to Vigo in the south-west.
Galicia has its own historic language, Galician, a Romance language that, along with Portuguese, descends from medieval Galician-Portuguese. For more details see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galician_language
The name Galicia comes from the Latin name Gallaecia, associated with the name of the ancient Celtic tribe that resided north of the Douro river, the Gallaeci or Callaeci in Latin, and Kallaikói (καλλαικoι) in Greek (as mentioned by Herodotus).
The term Galiza is used by the Galician reintegrationist movement. However, this alternate term is not recognised by the Xunta de Galicia, the regional government, nor the Royal Galician Academy, the institution responsible for regulating the Galician language.
The population is around 1.1 million.
For more details see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balearic_Islands