Asia and the Pacific
From POERUP - Policies for OER Uptake
Asia and the Pacific (Asia-Pacific) comprises....
OER in Asia and the Pacific
Policies Survey notes:
- In the Asia-Pacific region, OER activity appears to be most prevalent in the tertiary education subsector.
- Australia appears to be very active in this region, and, although there are no national or state-level OER policies, there are various OER activities. Several cultural and educational institutions have made content available on a “free for education” (FFE) basis, which generally permits free use but not reuse, remixing or redistribution, as would typically be expected under an OER model. In 2010, a national repository of several thousand digital teaching resources (the National Digital Learning Resource Network, or the Learning Federation resources), owned collectively by Australian Government Education departments, was transitioned from an FFE model to an OER model using a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike licence (CC BY-SA). This has allowed increased access to education for the learning community (students and parents can access material from anywhere). Scootle, the national repository of digital learning resources accessible by teachers across Australia, is a joint initiative of Australian state governments to create and share open teaching/learning resources for ISCED 1-3.
- At the state level, the Government of South Australia’s Department for Education is currently developing resources that will be distributed underCreative Commons licences (CC-BY-NC and CC-BY-SA).
- The New South Wales (NSW) Department of Education has developed several specific interactive teaching resources and released them under a CC licence. The decisions to generate/use OER are made on an ad hoc basis, generally at the level of individual institutions or (occasionally) in relation to specific content collections.
- The Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Directorate of Education and Training makes decisions about the licensing of materials on a case-bycase basis, depending on how resources will be used. For example, materials published on the Internet are available under a CC-BY-SA licence.
- The Western Australian Department of Education actively counsels teachers to find and use OER through their preferred search engines, and is currently investigating the issue of applying open licences to materials developed with public funds.In the higher education subsector, Australian universities have been slower in adopting OER. However, there is recognition of the value of OER.
- The Australian government has provided funding for a university consortium to develop a feasibility protocol to facilitate the adoption, use and management of OER for teaching and learning in Australia. The findings of this project will inform discussions relating to the adoption of an OER approach in higher education in Australia. The Australian government has also funded the Australasian Council on Open, Distance and E-learning to promote the uptake of OER produced by some teaching and learning initiatives.
- There are also significant developments in New Zealand. The Ministry of Education is in contact with the OER university project, and participates in OER through its Tertiary e-Learning Reference Group, which comprises e-learning experts. Otago Polytechnic has adopted an OER policy, and other institutions are showing similar interest. The Ministry has also funded a small-scale project (OERNZ) to develop an OER commons for the school sector in New Zealand. One of the focuses of the project is to “seed” OER content development for use in New Zealand schools. Thus far, two school boards have adopted an OER policy, with additional schools showing interest. Teachers are also adding OER to WikiEducator, a COL-supported initiative. Many OER activities come from advocates who work in the sector. For example, the OER Foundation provides free training workshops on OER, copyright and Creative Commons licences.
- In addition to these country initiatives, the Philippines has created OER and plans to articulate and formulate an OER policy for tertiary education.
- Indonesia notes that it is developing OER.
- In Uzbekistan, OER use began relatively recently and ZiyoNet, the education portal, includes OER.
- Iran notes that it is active in the tertiary education sector, particularly through Payame Noor University.
- In Vietnam, it also appears that universities are involved in a number of OCW initiatives and partnerships with foreign institutions.