This entry does not contain any information on OER or MOOCs in Armenia.
For entities in Armenia see Category:Armenia
- 1 Partners situated in Armenia
- 2 Armenia in a nutshell
- 3 Armenia education policy
- 4 Armenia education system
- 5 Higher education in Armenia
- 6 Higher education reform
- 7 Administration and finance
- 8 Quality assurance
- 9 Armenia HEIs in the information society
- 10 ICT in education initiatives
- 11 Lessons learnt
- 12 References
Partners situated in Armenia
Armenia in a nutshell
(sourced mainly from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenia (country) )
Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստան, transliterated: Hayastan), officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun), is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Situated at the juncture of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and the Azerbaijan exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.
The population of Armenia is 2.9 million.
Its capital is Yerevan.
A former republic of the Soviet Union, Armenia is a unitary, multiparty, democratic nation-state with an ancient and historic cultural heritage. The Kingdom of Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as its religion in the early years of the 4th century (the traditional date is 301). The modern Republic of Armenia recognizes the Armenian Apostolic Church as the national church of Armenia, although the republic has separation of church and state with the Armenian Apostolic Church liable to the laws of the state. The native Armenian name for the country is Hayk’. The name in the Middle Ages was extended to Hayastan, by addition of the Iranian suffix -stan (land). The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk (Հայկ), the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, who according to historians of the time defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC, and established his nation in the Ararat region.
Armenia is a member of more than 40 international organisations, including the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Asian Development Bank, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the World Trade Organization, the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, and La Francophonie. It is a member of the CSTO military alliance, and also participates in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) programme. In 2004 its forces joined KFOR, a NATO-led international force in Kosovo.
It is also an observer member of the Eurasian Economic Community and the Non-Aligned Movement.
Armenia is classified as a country with medium human development and 10.6% of the population live below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day.
Armenia is divided into ten provinces (marzer, singular marz), with the city (kaghak) of Yerevan (Երևան) having special administrative status as the country's capital. Within each province are communities (hamaynkner, singular hamaynk). Each community is self-governing and consists of one or more settlements (bnakavayrer, singular bnakavayr). Settlements are classified as either towns (kaghakner, singular kaghak) or villages (gyugher, singular gyugh). As of 2007, Armenia includes 915 communities, of which 49 are considered urban and 866 are considered rural. The capital, Yerevan, also has the status of a community. Additionally, Yerevan is divided into twelve semi-autonomous districts.
Armenia has a population of around 3 million and is the second most densely populated of the former Soviet republics. There has been a problem of population decline due to elevated levels of emigration after the break-up of the Soviet Union. However, in the past years, emigration levels have levelled and there is steady population growth.
Ethnic Armenians make up almost all of the current population.
Armenia has a relatively large diaspora (8 million by some estimates, greatly exceeding the 3 million population of Armenia itself), with communities existing across the globe.
The predominant religion in Armenia is Christianity. The roots of the Armenian Church go back to the first century. According to tradition, the Armenian Church was founded by two of Jesus' twelve apostles – Thaddaeus and Bartholomew – who preached Christianity in Armenia between AD 40–60. Because of these two founding apostles, the official name of the Armenian Church is Armenian Apostolic Church. Over 93% of Armenian Christians belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church, a form of Oriental (Non-Chalcedonian) Orthodoxy, which is claimed by some to be a very ritualistic, conservative church.
Armenians have their own distinctive alphabet and language. The alphabet was invented in AD 405 by Saint Mesrop Mashtots and consists of 38 letters, two of which were added during the Cilician period. 96% of the people in the country speak Armenian, while 75% of the population additionally speaks Russian - although English is becoming increasingly popular.
Armenia education policy
(sourced from http://www.armenic.am/?laid=1&com=module&module=menu&id=83)
Education in Armenia is under the control of the Ministry of Education and Science in Armenia. Its web site is at http://www.edu.am (in Armenian).
The organizational basis of the state education policy is "The Education Development State Program", which has been approved by the RA National Assembly, upon presentation of the RA Government" (RA "Law on Education", Article 4, Yerevan, 1999).
The current stage of the reforms started in 2003. The most important state and national goal currently is the progressive development of the education system and ensuring its competitiveness in the international arena. Orientation of the education system to the needs of "knowledge-economy" is the head-stone of the current reforms.
Within the past ten years the state developed and enacted a whole set of laws and legal and normative documents, which have been serving as a basis for the education system development.
The National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia adopted the "Law on Education" on 14 April, 1999, which being based on the Constitution provisions, guided development of the reforming system.
The RA Law on Education was followed by the development and adoption of laws and legal and normative documents regulating separate levels of education. In particular, the following RA Laws served as basis for reforming the different levels of education: "On Higher and Post Graduate Professional Education" (14.12.2004), "On Preliminary and Middle Level Professional (Vocational) Education" (08.07.2005), "On State Education Inspectorate" (15.11.2005), "On Preschool Education" (15.11.2005), and the GoA Protocol Decisions "On Strategy of the RA Higher Education Reforms" (21.11.2003), "On Approval of Concept of Aesthetic Education" (18.11.2004), "Inclusive Education Policy Paper" (25.05.2005), "Pedagogical Education Reform Policy Paper" (29.12.2005) and etc.
In addition to improving the legislation field, the state adopted the policy of mid-term and long-term development planning which is reflected in the Mid-Term Expenditure Framework and Education Development Programmes. Following its approval at the RA National Assembly, "The Education Development National Programme 2001-2005" was enacted for the first time in 2001, its goal was to ensure progressive development of the education system as a factor of strengthening the statehood and social-economic progress of the society. Preparation of the draft "Education Development National Programme 2008-2015" was launched in 2006.
Armenia education system
The education system of Armenia includes:
- Pre-school education;
- General secondary education comprised of primary, middle level or basic and high school;
- Preliminary vocational, middle level vocational and higher professional education;
- Post-graduate education, specialist training and qualification improvement institutions;
- Education assessment and education services delivering institutions.
In 2006 Armenia converted to a three level 12 year general education system having the following sequence: elementary school (4 years), middle school (5 years) and high school (3 years).
More information on the education system can be found on
Higher education in Armenia
More information on Higher Education in Armenia can be found at the website of the Armenian National Erasmus+ Agency: http://erasmusplus.am/higher-educationhigher-education-in-armenia/higher-education-in-armenia/ and in the country report at: http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/tempus/participating_countries/overview/armenia_tempus_country_fiche_final.pdf
Higher education institutions in Armenia
According to higher education legislation, the types of higher education institutions in Armenia are the following:
- University: higher education institution providing higher, postgraduate and supplementary education in different branches of natural and sociological fields, science, technology and culture, as well as providing opportunities for scientific research and study.
- Institute: higher education institution, conducting specialised and postgraduate academic programmes and scientific research in a number of scientific, economic and cultural branches.
- Academy (education), the activity of which is aimed at the development of education, science, technology and culture in an individual sphere; it conducts programmes preparing and retraining qualified specialists in an individual field, as well as postgraduate academic programmes.
- Conservatory: higher education institution preparing specialists in the field of music, providing qualification development and postgraduate academic programmes.
A list of Armenian Higher Education Institutions can be downloaded at: http://erasmusplus.am/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/List-of-Armenian-Universities_NEO-AM_20141.pdf
Higher education reform
The Bologna Process
Armenia joined the Bologna Process in 2005 in Bergen. Since then, the main foci of the Government of Armenia (GoA), the Ministry of Education and Science (MoES), and the Higher Education Institutions (HEI) are introduction of a two-cycle degree system, a credit transfer and accumulation system, and a Diploma Supplement system; strengthening of Doctoral Programmes as a bridge between higher education and research area; and creation of a recognition body and national quality assurance agency.
For more information on the Bologna Process in Armenia see http://www.armenic.am/?laid=1&com=module&module=menu&id=84
Administration and finance
The main external stakeholder that claims significant formal power and influence in Armenian tertiary education sector is the Ministry of Education and Science of Armenia which is the authorised state body for education and responsible for developing and implementation of state policy/strategy and legislation in tertiary education. The Ministry is also a source of funding and exercises oversight and auditing function.
Tertiary education in Soviet Armenia was highly centralised and strictly controlled by the Government. Nowadays, it is still a most regulated sphere. However, the general tendency is to confine the state to the general supervisory functions. At present, the right to main decision making within the academic community is mostly reserved to the institutions of higher education. They are autonomous in determining the main spheres of activity, adopting budgets and supervising execution thereof, introducing new majors and upgrading the existing ones, adopting curricula and teaching methods. Rectors and deans are now elected by the academic community of each institution rather than being appointed by the Ministry as was the practice under the soviet regime. So, tertiary institutions themselves and state seem to share governance of the system, but responsibilities seem tangled and sometimes unclear.
The Government issues a state seats order for enrolment by specialties and by institutions as well as appropriate funding. The higher educational institutions can establish quotes for tuition free and tuition paying enrolment of students based on the total quotas for academic admissions allocated by the Government, providing unpaid education for at least 10% of admission figure for each major.
The Government approves the state educational standards and their formation mechanisms; the fields of study and the list of specialties to be taught; the state order for higher educational institutions. The Ministry defines state educational standards, issues licenses and state credentials; forms the list of the specialties provided; develops the state order for colleges and universities; approves the admission rules for the state and private accredited higher educational institutions and supervises their implementation; conducts state accreditation according to the institutions and their specialties (with no regard to the organisational-juridical and ownership form of the institution).
As a direct impact of joining Bologna Process, there have been certain structural changes in the Ministry. Department of Policy Development and Planning and also a Coordinating Committee of Bologna Promoters were formed. In 2009, 5 Bologna committees, composed of the representatives of different Universities, were founded by the MoES on the development of the strategy on post-graduate education, qualification frameworks, ECTS, finance administration, and quality assurance.
Among the institutions responsible for the organisation and administration of the HE system are the State Licensing and Accreditation Service – the only intermediate body established by the Ministry by operating in the area of the central accreditation system – and National Center for Professional Education Quality Assurance Foundation (ANQA), established on December 28, 2008, as an independent foundation for promoting quality education at tertiary level.
There are also two main representative bodies in the tertiary education system: the Council of Rectors of State Higher Educational Institutions and the Council of Rectors of Private Higher Educational Institutions, which are advisory bodies to the Ministry.
(sourced from http://erasmusplus.am/higher-educationhigher-education-in-armenia/higher-education-in-armenia/ & http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/tempus/participating_countries/overview/armenia_tempus_country_fiche_final.pdf)
The external review of quality assurance of HEIs is done by the National Center for Professional Education Quality Assurance Foundation (ANQA) – an independent foundation aimed at promoting quality education at tertiary level, being established on December 28, 2008. ANQA is founded and subsidized by the Armenian Government and is projected to be financed through entrepreneurial initiatives. It is governed by the board of stakeholders and is independent of the Ministry of Education and Science (MoES) and institutions at tertiary level. Among the objectives of the center are to accredit quality of the educational programmes and provide the decision to the MoES for state accreditation; make academic audit of HEI, evaluate and accredit HEI, provide the decision on accreditation to the MoES for state accreditation of HEIs, as well as evaluate quality assurance systems of HEIs and make recommendations, etc.
The Universities themselves are involved in the development of internal mechanisms for quality assurance. They are becoming increasingly introspective and analytical about their strengths and weaknesses and need to develop a culture of constant improvement through periodic evaluation.
Armenia HEIs in the information society
Towards the information society
Information society strategy
ICT in education initiatives
(sourced from the ARMAZEG project deliverable "State of the art regarding E-learning and ICT for lifelong learning)
Lifelong learning and e-learning are not new attitudes in Armenia. The Law of the Republic of Armenia on “Higher and Postgraduate Professional Education” was adopted in 2004. This law regulates the system of higher and postgraduate professional education in the Republic of Armenia making certain reflections on lifelong education, as well as on the growth of the level of professional qualification of the specialists and their training. In 2008, within the framework of the State Program of the Republic of Armenia on the development of education in 2008-2015, the Ministry of Education and Science of the RA initiated the work on amendments to the “Concept Paper on Lifelong Learning” and on a new law on “Adult Education” or to the existing laws, which are, at present, in the development and implementation phases.
Under the conditions of absence of the Law on Adult Education in the Republic of Armenia, at present, a certain system of state regulation of that field is also missing. However, a number of Ministries (RA Ministry of Education and Science, the Ministries of Justice, Health Care, Culture etc.) and agencies (RA Police, Custom’s, Tax and other services) organize training and quality raising courses for the specialists, working in their respective fields as well as for the unemployed and job seekers organized by the RA Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.
As a centralized system of governance in the field of adult education and learning is missing, the adult education and learning in the Republic of Armenia is decentralized. It is organized and implemented by the state as well as private organizations and NGOs, like Lifelong Learning League, which is an umbrella for 12 non-governmental organizations experienced in education and training in Armenia. The overarching goal of the League is to support the formation of lifelong learning culture in the country by means of developing a coherent LLL system focused on employability/adaptability, personal fulfillment, active citizenship and social inclusion.
There is also the Lifelong Learning Association which is implementing the main activities in the sphere of LLL. In the field of Adult Education and Learning Armenia cooperates with a number of international organizations (dvv international, GIZ, World Bank, USAID, UNDP, OSI AF Armenia, Eurasia Foundation, EC, British Council) and with a number of countries (Germany, Norway, Denmark, USA, Netherlands). (see http://www.unesco.org/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/INSTITUTES/UIL/confintea/pdf/National_Reports/Europe%20-%20North%20America/Armenia.pdf).
A huge input regarding e-learning comes from GIZ (German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development). Since 2008 the purposed training of trainers was implemented for most Armenian educational organizations within the project of "Capacity Building and Human Resource Development in Caucasus" on behalf of InWent, and then GIZ.
Though many Armenian public and private organizations have their own strategy and approaches to the implementation of e-learning, there was no formulated network or coordinating organization yet. As a result of the cooperation within the mentioned project the mission of e-learning was formed, potential partner institutions were defined and pilot projects were implemented in 2008-2009. And finally, in 2010 the Armenian E-learning Network (ArmeLNet) and E-learning centre was founded. Eight organizations signed the official memorandums and became the full members of ArmeLNet.
In 2011 the Armenian E-learning Network also became a full member of the Caucasus E-learning Network together with Georgia and Azerbaijan. The annual training of trainers regarding e-learning has been implemented for the Higher and Vocational educational institutions of Armenia, and about 15 new organizations joined the ArmeLNet. The mission of ArmeLNet became the promotion of e-learning to the Armenian Educational landscape, and the goals are to support member organizations in the development and deployment of e-learning activities and implement quality assurance of e-learning courses and modules produced by its members by providing an effective assessment tool (Caucasus e-Learning Quality Assessment). As a result of the cooperation between ArmeLNet and these trained organizations there was an exchange of experts, content, e-courses, trainings, resources, design of new educational programs and e-courses, monitoring of e-learning implementation and development process in educational organizations
Virtual initiatives in schools
Virtual initiatives in post-secondary education
ARMAZEG project - Developing tools for lifelong learning in Transcaucasus region: e-Learning
The TEMPUS project ARMAZEG - Developing tools for lifelong learning in Transcaucasus region: e-Learning aims to stimulate educational reform in Armenian and Georgian partner universities by establishing e-Learning centres and training involved staff members – with special attention to lifelong learning methodologies. The project runs from 1 December 2013 until 30 November 2016. The project website is at: http://armazeg.com/
The above-mentioned ARMAZEG project deliverable State of the art regarding E-learning and ICT for lifelong learning aims to describe the current situation with regard to the level of development and the use of tools of e-learning and lifelong learning in Armenia and provides an analysis of the situation on the institutional level for:
The report also includes several interesting projects and initiatives on e-learning and/or lifelong learning in Armenia.
The ARMAZEG Project Vision, Strategy and Goals Document on the other hand highlights a future in which higher education institutions in Armenia and Georgia will use technology to enhance education for students and lifelong learners.
SuToMa project - Development of new modules for international bachelor and master programmes in sustainable tourism management
The TEMPUS project SuToMa is designed to modernize curricula in sustainable tourism management (SuToMa) in selected higher education institutions (HEI) in Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia. The project runs from 15 October 2012 – 14 October 2015 . The project website is at: http://www.sutoma.eu
The project focuses on the development of new study modules and teacher trainings in SuToMa, a hitherto underdeveloped field in all three countries. The new modules cover innovative topics, such as the integration of theory and praxis, intercultural communication, e-learning and IT technologies, and will be implemented in existing as well as new BSc. and MSc. study programmes, and accredited with ECTS. The project includes a workgroup on e-learning which has as its main task to provide a unified electronic platform as learning management system for all the modules elaborated within this project. The aim is to familiarize future teaching staff with the concept of blended learning and to enable them to apply contemporary (electronic) and traditional means of teaching. The activities of this workgroup will focus on creating guidelines for successful e-learning, guidelines for implementation and use of Learning Management Systems (LMS) and the development of eLearning courses as examples.
Open Education initiatives
No information. But see http://www.armedu.am/arm/materials.php?sec=library&cat_id=1724
- Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenia
- Website National Information Center for Academic Recognition and Mobility http://www.armenic.am/
- Website National Erasmus+ Office in Armenia http://erasmusplus.am/higher-educationhigher-education-in-armenia/higher-education-in-armenia/
- World Data on Education Report. Armenia. UNESCO International Bureau of Education. August 2011. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Armenia.pdf
- Higher Education in Armenia. European Commission. Tempus http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/tempus/participating_countries/overview/armenia_tempus_country_fiche_final.pdf
- State of the art regarding E-learning and ICT for lifelong learning. ARMAZEG project deliverable. http://www.armazeg.com/media/documents/Stateoftheartreport_ARMAZEG.pdf