United Kingdom - distance learning

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This is work in progress - updated from time to time.

The actual file behind the original version of this page is here of 25 February 2009 (Media:DL_providers_UK-r1-1.doc)

Universities and university colleges

Currently 61 institutions.

  1. University of Aberdeen: Information Technology - http://www.computerweekly.com/Articles/2008/08/19/231910/aberdeen-university-unveils-it-degree-completed-entirely.htm; Law - http://www.abdn.ac.uk/law/llm/; Science - http://abdn.ac.uk:8080/mediareleases/release.php?id=1438; and there are more
  2. Aberystwyth University: Department of Information Studies - http://www.aber.ac.uk/en/distance-learning/
  3. Bangor University: College of Education and Lifelong Learning: Lifelong Learning - http://www.bangor.ac.uk/ll/dl.php.en (Writing with Intent, Welsh for Adults); School of the Environment & Natural Resources (Forestry) - http://www.safs.bangor.ac.uk/courses/distancelearning/index.php
  4. Birkbeck University of London: general - http://www.bbk.ac.uk/study/all_courses/distancelearning.html; Geographic Information Science - http://www.bbk.ac.uk/study/pg/geography/TMSGGISC.html; School of Management and Organisational Psychology - http://www.bbk.ac.uk/manop/prospective-students/why/distance#distance
  5. University of Birmingham: International Development - http://www.idd.bham.ac.uk/degree/distance.shtml
  6. University of Bradford: MBA (30 students per year) - http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/management/external/progs.php?section=prog&text=dlmbaataglance&id=dlmba
  7. University of Bristol: Translation Studies - http://www.bris.ac.uk/sml/prosppost/matranslation/index_html
  8. University of Cambridge: Latin GCSE - http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/news/dp/2006061402
  9. Cardiff University: School of Medicine - http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/medic/degreeprogrammes/postgraduatetaught/distancelearning/index.html
  10. Cranfield University - http://www.cranfield.ac.uk/dcmt/shortcourses/distancelearning.jsp (short courses on Explosives etc)
  11. University of Derby - http://www.derby.ac.uk/online
  12. University of Dundee: general ("at the forefront of distance learning for some 30 years") - http://www.dundee.ac.uk/admissions/distlearning/courseprofiles/index.htm and http://www.dundee.ac.uk/admissions/distlearning/general/atoz.htm; History - http://www.dundee.ac.uk/history/distancelearning/; Nursing and Palliative Care - http://www.dundee.ac.uk/admissions/distlearning/deptprofiles/nurdlc.htm; Department of Orthopaedic & Trauma Surgery - http://www.dundee.ac.uk/orthopaedics/dls/welcome.htm; Town & Regional Planning - http://www.dundee.ac.uk/planning/students/prospective/distance.htm
  13. Durham University: Durham Business School (MBA and degrees) - http://www.dur.ac.uk/dbs/degrees/mba/mba_dl/ and http://www.dur.ac.uk/dbs/degrees/distance-learning/
  14. University of East London - http://www.uel.ac.uk/uelconnect/distance_learning/ and http://www.uel.ac.uk/uelconnect/distance_learning/programmes.htm
  15. University of Edinburgh: general - http://www.law.ed.ac.uk/ahrc/teaching/ and http://www.scholarships.ed.ac.uk/postgraduate/internat/e-learning.htm (around 6 courses in Law and 12 in Medicine); Law - http://www.law.ed.ac.uk/ahrc/teaching/llm/
  16. University of Exeter: Bioinformatics - http://www.jobs.ac.uk/jobs/ZL598/MSc_Bioinformatics_by_Distance_Learning/; Education - http://education.exeter.ac.uk/dll/; Film Studies - http://www.sall.ex.ac.uk/languages/content/view/1862/429/
  17. University of Glasgow: Religious Education - http://www.gla.ac.uk/departments/religiouseducation/courses/certificateinreligiouseducationbydistancelearningcredl/; Film Journalism - http://arts.moodle.gla.ac.uk/course/category.php?id=142
  18. Henley MBA - http://www.henley.reading.ac.uk/management/mba/mgmt-distancelearningmba.asp
  19. Heriot-Watt University: Brewing and Distilling by Distance Learning [sic] - http://www.postgraduate.hw.ac.uk/course/119/; Built Environment - http://www.sbe.hw.ac.uk/distancelearning/Introduction.htm?pane=2; Construction Project Management - http://www.postgraduate.hw.ac.uk/course/252/; Edinburgh Business School MBA - http://www.ebsglobal.net/; Petroleum Engineering - http://www.pet.hw.ac.uk/courses/distance/intro.htm
  20. Kingston University London - http://www.kingston.ac.uk/postgraduate/choose-kingston/flexible-study/distance-learning/
  21. Imperial College: MBA - http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/business-school/programmes/distance-learning-mba
  22. Institute of Education: MA in TESOL - http://ioewebserver.ioe.ac.uk/ioe/cms/get.asp?cid=882&882_1=830&var2=MATESOLDL
  23. King's College London: Dentistry - http://www.kcl.ac.uk/schools/dentistry/pg/distance/
  24. University of Leeds - http://www.leeds.ac.uk/students/distance_learning.htm and http://tldynamic.leeds.ac.uk/pgprospectus/2005/get_odl.asp (17 courses); Disability Studies - http://www.sociology.leeds.ac.uk/prospective-students/postgraduate-taught/ma-disability-studies-distance/; Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - http://www.geog.leeds.ac.uk/odl/
  25. University of Leicester: general: http://www.le.ac.uk/distancelearning/ and http://www.le.ac.uk/pgprospectus/courses/distance/distanceintro.html (more than 7000 students); Archaeology - http://www.le.ac.uk/archaeology/dl/dl_ma.html; Department of Criminology - http://www.le.ac.uk/criminology/courses/pg/dl/index.html; International Relations - http://www.le.ac.uk/politics/admissions/dl.html; Faculty of Law - http://www.le.ac.uk/law/pg/dlprogrammes.html; Department of Media and Communication - http://www.le.ac.uk/mc/dl/index.html; Museum Studies - http://www.le.ac.uk/ms/study/museumstudies(dl).html
  26. University of London External System - http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/; International Management - http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/prospective_students/postgraduate/holloway/int_manage/index.shtml
  27. London Metropolitan University: Polymer Centre - http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/depts/polymers/distance-learning-options/distance-learning-options_home.cfm
  28. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine - http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/dl/
  29. Loughborough University - Renewable Energy - http://crestdl.lboro.ac.uk/outside/index.php; Water http://wedc.lboro.ac.uk/education/distance.php#programmes
  30. University of Manchester: overall - http://www.manchester.ac.uk/postgraduate/taughtdegrees/courses/distancelearning/; Bioinformatics - http://www.manchester.ac.uk/postgraduate/taughtdegrees/courses/bysubject/course/?code=00847; Computer Science - http://intranet.cs.man.ac.uk/peve/msc/distance/programmesdl.html
  31. Middlesex University: Professional Practice - http://www.middlesex.ac.uk/PIPupload/PG/PG-Art%20and%20Design/MA%20Professional%20Practice/MA%20Professional%20Practice.html; and many more programmes
  32. Napier University - http://www.napier.ac.uk/nubs/WhatCanIStudy/Pages/ProspectiveParttime,.aspx
  33. Newcastle University: Marine Biology - http://www.ncl.ac.uk/marine/learning/delvedeeper/index.htm
  34. University of Northampton - http://www2.northampton.ac.uk/portal/page/portal/business/nbs-courses/distance-learning (12 programmes in Accounting & Finance, Business, Business Computing & IT. Human Resource Management, Management, and Marketing )
  35. Northumbria University - http://www.northumbria.ac.uk/brochure/courses/enq/distlearn/ and http://www.northumbria.ac.uk/studentaz/survival/distancelearning/
  36. University of Nottingham: Applied Ergonomics - http://www.virart.nott.ac.uk/apperg/; Applied Linguistics - http://pgstudy.nottingham.ac.uk/postgraduate-courses/applied-linguistics-by-web-based-distance-learning-ma_146.aspx; English Studies - http://communications.nottingham.ac.uk/News/Article/Learning-online-Nottingham-launches-new-distance-learning-MA.html and http://pgstudy.nottingham.ac.uk/postgraduate-courses/world-englishes-by-web-based-distance-learning-ma_237.aspx; Health Communication - http://pgstudy.nottingham.ac.uk/postgraduate-courses/health-communication-by-web-based-distance-learning-ma_176.aspx
  37. Nottingham Trent University: general - http://www.ntu.ac.uk/prospective_students/courses/study_types/distance_learning/index.html; Law - http://www.ntu.ac.uk/apps/pss/courses/cf/60567-1/3/GDL_Law_(Distance_Learning).aspx
  38. Open University - http://www.open.ac.uk/new/distance-learning.shtml
  39. University of Oxford - http://onlinecourses.conted.ox.ac.uk/
  40. Oxford Brookes University (over 10% of students): general - http://www.brookes.ac.uk/studying/learning/flexible/distance; MBA - http://www.business.brookes.ac.uk/mba/dl/
  41. University of Portsmouth: general - http://www.port.ac.uk/courses/distanceonlinelearning/learningonlineanddistancelearning/; Criminal Justice - http://www.port.ac.uk/departments/academic/icjs/distancelearningugprogs/
  42. Queen Mary University of London: Electronic Engineering - http://www.elec.qmul.ac.uk/study/msc/dl/; School of Law - http://www.law.qmul.ac.uk/postgraduate/diplomas/distancelearning/
  43. Queen's University Belfast: Pharmacy - http://www.qub.ac.uk/schools/SchoolofPharmacy/dl/
  44. Robert Gordon University - http://www.study2u.com/distance-online-learning-uk/robert-gordon-university/ (28 courses)
  45. Roehampton University London - http://www.roehampton.ac.uk/postgraduate-courses/childrens-literature-distance-learning/
  46. Rose Bruford College: general - http://www.bruford.ac.uk/Students/DistanceFees.aspx and http://www.bruford.ac.uk/Students/DistanceLearningCourses.aspx; Opera Studies - http://www.bruford.ac.uk/Students/CourseDetails.aspx?CourseID=11; Theatre Studies - http://www.bruford.ac.uk/Students/CourseDetails.aspx?CourseID=12 ("there is no comparable programme by distance learning elsewhere in the world")
  47. Royal Veterinary College - http://www.rvc.ac.uk/Postgraduate/Distance/Index.cfm
  48. Sabhal Mòr Ostaig (UHI): Access to Gaelic - http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/en/cursaichean/inntrigidh/index.php
  49. School of Oriental and African Studies - http://www.soas.ac.uk/cedep/provide/index.html
  50. University of Sheffield: Department of East Asian Studies - http://www.shef.ac.uk/seas/dlc; Department of Music - http://www.shef.ac.uk/music/prospective_pg/distance; Department of Probability and Statistics - http://www.shef.ac.uk/pas/prospectivepg/masters/distance
  51. University of St Andrews: general - http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/admissions/pg/Choosingyourdegree/DistanceLearning/ (5 courses); Divinity - http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/divinity/admissions/pg/distance/; Psychology - http://psy.st-andrews.ac.uk/teaching/open_learning.shtml
  52. St Mary's University College Twickenham London: general info - http://portal.smuc.ac.uk/offcampus_students.html?&no_cache=1
  53. Staffordshire University: general - http://www.staffs.ac.uk/study_here/courses/distance_learning/; Advice Studies - http://www.staffs.ac.uk/study_here/courses/advice-studies-distance-learning-tcm429979.jsp; Law - http://www.staffs.ac.uk/study_here/courses/llm-distance-learning-tcm4213466.jsp; Sciences - http://www.staffs.ac.uk/schools/sciences/distlearn/index.php
  54. University of Stirling - http://www.external.stir.ac.uk/postgrad/flexible-learning/online-learning/index.php (9 courses)
  55. University of Sunderland - http://www.sunderland.ac.uk/study/distancelearning/
  56. University of Ulster Campus One - http://campusone.ulster.ac.uk/
  57. University College London: Speech Therapy - http://www.langsci.ucl.ac.uk/courses/class/returntopractice.php
  58. University of Warwick MBA - http://www.wbs.ac.uk/students/mba/learn/dl.cfm
  59. University of the West of Scotland: Health, Nursing & Midwifery - http://www.paisley.ac.uk/schoolsdepts/hnm/dl/index.asp.
  60. University of Worcester - http://www.worc.ac.uk/ils/942.htm (general information only)
  61. University of York: general - http://www.york.ac.uk/graduatestudy/distance/ and http://www.york.ac.uk/graduatestudy/distance/distance_learning_courses.htm (11 courses); Mathematical Finance - http://maths.york.ac.uk/www/OnlineMSCMathFin

Companies acting for universities, consortia, professional bodies etc

  1. Astronomy by Distance Learning (LJMU, UCLAN and MU) - http://www.astronomy.ac.uk/
  2. ICMA Centre - http://www.icmacentre.ac.uk/executive_education/msc_distance_learning_programmes
  3. ISLI - http://www.sli-institute.ac.uk/education/distance-learning/index.php
  4. Kaplan Open Learning, an affiliate college of University of Essex - http://www.kaplanopenlearning.org.uk/distance-learning.html and http://www.study2u.com/distance-online-learning-uk/kaplan-online-learning/ (7 courses)
  5. Laureate for University of Liverpool - http://www.study2u.com/distance-online-learning-uk/university-of-liverpool/ (14 courses)
  6. RDI with 10 HEI partners - http://www.rdi.co.uk/
  7. Royal College of General Practitioners - http://www.rcgp.org.uk/practising_as_a_gp/distance_learning.aspx
  8. UNIGIS International - http://unigis.hud.ac.uk/


Colleges

January 2013: Sadly, almost none of the URLs below work now.


Currently 36 institutions.

  1. Barony College - http://www.barony.ac.uk/Courses/Default.aspx?pid=103
  2. Barry College (LearnDirect centre only) - http://www.barry.ac.uk/courseareadetails.asp?area=28
  3. Blackburn College (East Lancashire Institute of Higher Education): press release - http://www.blackburn.ac.uk/DistanceLearningDegree.html
  4. Bishop Burton College: Foundation Degree in Animal Assisted Therapy- http://www.bishopb-college.ac.uk/index.php?module=courses&navId=153&courseId=615&mode=
  5. Bournemouth and Poole College - http://www.bpc.ac.uk/employers/grow_distance.php and http://www.bournemouthandpoole-cfe.ac.uk/faculties/accesscommunityeducation/distancelearning/ ("We are currently able to offer distance learning packages to employers where there are 6 or more candidates enrolling.")
  6. Bridgwater College: general - http://www.bridgwater.ac.uk/sec3.php?sec3ID=200&secID=3; Computing: http://www.bridgwater.ac.uk/sec4.php?sec4ID=577&secID=4 and http://www.bridgwater.ac.uk/sec4.php?sec4ID=579&secID=4 (HNC and HND top-up)
  7. Chelmsford College - http://www.chelmsford-college.ac.uk/pages/thecollege/distancelearning.asp (Dementia Care, Safe Handling of Medicines, Control of Infection & Contamination, and Cleaning & Support Services)
  8. City of Bath College: Highways Open Tech - http://www.citybathcoll.ac.uk/adult-learners/courses1/highways-open-tech.html
  9. City College Norwich - http://www.ccn.ac.uk/ccn3/ptime/flexible.htm
  10. City of Sunderland College - http://www.citysun.ac.uk/website/adult/fe/distancelearning.aspx
  11. Coleg Sir Gâr Virtual College - http://www.virtualcollege.ac.uk/ and http://www.virtualcollege.ac.uk/?m=2 ("Over 3500 students have been involved in on-line learning with us in the last six years", many courses available)
  12. Craven College - http://www.craven-college.ac.uk/courses/distance-learning/ (A Levels, GCSEs, Horticulture, Languages, Business and Management, and Travel and Tourism)
  13. The Grimsby Institute of Further and Higher Education - http://www.grimsby.ac.uk/category/305.html and http://www.grimsby.ac.uk/category/208.html
  14. James Watt College: general entries - http://www.jameswatt.ac.uk/courses/modes.asp and http://www.jameswatt.ac.uk/section/default.asp?p=136&s=3; list of courses - http://www.jameswatt.ac.uk/courses/openlearning-atoz.asp (15 courses)
  15. Kendal College - http://www.kendal.ac.uk/business/distancelearning.php ("variety of cost-effective distance learning packages" - Customer Relations, Food Hygiene and Safety, Occupational Health and Safety, Safe Handling of Medicines, Infection Control, NCFE Certificate in Dementia Awareness, and NCFE Certificate in Equality and Diversity)
  16. Leeds Thomas Danby College - http://www.leedsthomasdanby.ac.uk/courses/online.cfm (appears to be LearnDirect centre only)
  17. Lincoln College: general entry - http://www.lincolncollege.ac.uk/main/1999-distance
  18. Moray College - http://www.moray.ac.uk/moray-college/about/distance-learning.php; CMI Diploma & Executive Diploma in Management - http://www.moray.ac.uk/moray-college/what/course-detail.php?course=21; Whisky Course - http://www.moray.ac.uk/moray-college/what/course-detail.php?course=303
  19. Motherwell College - http://www.motherwell.ac.uk/distance_learning/index.aspx; Computer Aided Draughting and Design (CADD) - http://www.motherwell.ac.uk/distance_learning/CADD_Distance_Learning.aspx; Computing courses - http://www.motherwell.ac.uk/distance_learning/Computing_Distance_Learning.aspx
  20. NCC Home Learning (consortium of FE colleges) - http://www.ncchomelearning.co.uk/About-Us
  21. Newbury College - http://www.newbury-college.ac.uk/employers/courses/distance-learning/ (level 2 (GCSE level) and level 3 (A Level))
  22. Newcastle College ("one of the UK's largest and most successful providers of flexible distance learning and e-learning programmes"): general - http://www.flexible-elearning.com/; e-NVQ - http://www.flexible-elearning.com/docs/Envq%20Brochure.pdf
  23. Otley College - http://www.otleycollege.ac.uk/distance-learning/index.html and http://www.otleycollege.ac.uk/distance-learning/distance-learning-courses.html (22 courses
  24. Oxford and Cherwell Valley College - http://www.ocvc.ac.uk/distance-learning ("over 1400 learners this year")
  25. Perth College: general: http://www.perth.ac.uk/learningoptions/distancelearningcourses/Pages/default.aspx; Highers courses - http://www.perth.ac.uk/learningoptions/distancelearningcourses/Pages/HighersCourses.aspx. (English, History, French, Intermediate 2 Mathematics)
  26. Royal Forest of Dean College - http://www.rfdc.ac.uk/choosing-subcat.asp?pg=34; GCSE and AS level English online - http://www.rfdc.ac.uk/sitefiles/Online%20English.pdf
  27. St John's Nottingham - http://www.stjohns-nottm.ac.uk/show/18
  28. The Sheffield College: Skills for Business - http://www.sheffcol.ac.uk/index.cfm?pid=a2fa9ed7-01a3-4ed1-8413-9d622a65f01f (Care Sector, and Administrative and Legal); LETTOL (Learning To Teach Online) - http://www.sheffcol.ac.uk/index.cfm?ParentID=dd22687d-39f7-412e-9a00-c9bb33e12b45
  29. Shrewsbury College of Arts & Technology - http://www.shrewsbury.ac.uk/?_id=304 (GCSEs, A levels, Computing & Professional Courses)
  30. Stockport College - http://www.stockport.ac.uk/adult_community/distance_learning.html (Safe Handling of Medicines, Infection Control, Equality and Diversity) ("These courses are offered in partnership with the Health and Social Care curriculum area and they link into the CoVE - Care for the Elderly")
  31. Thanet College - http://www.thanet.ac.uk/courseintroductionpage.asp?pageid=48
  32. Wakefield College ("online/distance learning") - http://www.wakcoll.ac.uk/CourseInformation/BrowseByLeafletCategory.asp?lck=13 (14 courses)
  33. Walford and North Shropshire College - http://www.wnsc.ac.uk/index.php?id=1243 (NCFE and ASET for Care Sector; AAT: Foundation, Intermediate & Technician Levels)
  34. Warwickshire College: Equi Study - http://www.warkscol.ac.uk/college_centres/moreton_morrell/equine/distance_learning/index.htm and http://www.warkscol.ac.uk/cms/content/public/website/EquiStudyProspectus.pdf; general page - http://www.warkscol.ac.uk/courses/distance_learning/index.htm
  35. Worcester College of Technology: general reference - http://www.wortech.ac.uk/StudyCentres/help+for+distance+learners/
  36. The College Ystrad Mynach - http://www.ystrad-mynach.ac.uk/distance-learning.aspx ("a range of GCSEs and A Levels available through Distance Learning", Law, Mathematics, Psychology, Sociology)

Independent providers

  1. Brighton School of Business and Management - http://www.brightonsbm.com/
  2. Distance Learning Centre - http://www.distance-learning-centre.co.uk/
  3. Distance Learning Partnership - http://www.distancelearningpartnership.co.uk/index.php
  4. ElearnUK - http://www.elearnuk.co.uk/
  5. ICS - see http://www.icslearn.co.uk/
  6. ILEX Tutorial College - http://www.ilex-tutorial.ac.uk/ ("over 5,000 students studying by distance learning at any one time", "the first private training provider to achieve recognition by Skills for Justice under the government-sponsored Skillsmark quality scheme."); Law Level 3 units - http://www.ilex-tutorial.ac.uk/content.aspx?pageid=214
  7. Informa Distance Learning - http://www.informadistancelearning.com/NASApp/cs/ContentServer?pagename=dl/home
  8. International Christian College - http://www.icc.ac.uk/content/distance-learning
  9. The London College UCK - http://www.lcuck.ac.uk/distance_learning.html and http://www.lcuck.ac.uk/fees_and_finance.html
  10. Maryvale Institute - http://www.maryvale.ac.uk/index.php?id=144
  11. National Extension College - http://www.nec.ac.uk
  12. Open College of the Arts - http://www.oca-uk.com
  13. Oxford College - http://www.oxfordcollege.ac/
  14. Stonebridge Associated Colleges - http://www.stonebridge.uk.com/ (around 600 courses)
  15. Oxford Open Learning - http://www.ool.co.uk/
  16. UK Open Learning - http://www.uk-open-learning.com/default.asp


Non-UK providers active in the UK

  1. Hibernia College: general - http://www.hiberniacollege.net/; iTeach - http://www.hiberniacollege.net/SchoolofEducation/iTeach/tabid/133/Default.aspx


Sources of advice to students

(Note that all of these indexes are very incomplete and out of date at present.)

  1. HERO - http://www.hero.ac.uk/uk/studying/deciding_where_to_go_and_what_to_study/modes_of_study/distance_learning.cfm
  2. ICDL - http://www-icdl.open.ac.uk/courses/
  3. UCAS - http://www.ucas.ac.uk/students/beforeyouapply/faqs/choosingcourses/distancelearning


Interesting papers and reports

  1. Berg, Gary, "Early Patterns of Faculty Compensation for Developing and Teaching Distance Learning Courses", JALN Volume 4, Issue 1 - June 2000, http://www.learninglab.org.uk/papers/berg.pdf
  2. Broadhurst, Jake, "Update on online distance learning at the. University of Edinburgh", October 2007, http://www.elearn.malts.ed.ac.uk/distance/forum_oct07/JBODLforum.ppt
  3. DCSF/DIUS, "Table 4: Evening & Open and Distance Learning enrolments by subject, qualification aim, type of provision, age and gender: Adult Education - Volumes, England", from SFR: Adult Education Enrolments in England - November 2001 Issue No 12/2002, http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s000343/tab004.shtml
  4. HEFCW, Part 2: Undergraduate Enrolments on Non-degree Courses [Wales], http://www.hefcw.ac.uk/FinanceAssurance_Docs/AV0405_Part_2.pdf
  5. HMIE, Angus College inspection report, 2005, http://www.hmie.gov.uk/documents/inspection/AngusCollegeFull.html.
  6. OBHE, Higher Education by Distance: Opportunities and Challenges at National and International Levels, by Brian Denman, February 2009 (available to OBHE subscribers or for sale), abstract at http://www.obhe.ac.uk/documents/view_details?id=730
  7. QAA, The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education Academic review: subject review, April 2003, SR228/2002: Bradford College, Computing Engineering, http://www.qaa.ac.uk/reviews/reports/subjectlevel/sr228_02_textonly.htm (includes commentary on distance learning in the Metallurgy HND)

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