(this replaces his 2013 report OER in Thailand)
For entities in Thailand see Category:Thailand
Policies Survey notes:
- Thailand’s Distance Learning Foundation is engaging with an OER strategy.
- Thailand uses a specific CC license: CC-BY-NC-ND.
- Thailand's education policy makes reference to OER.
OER in Thailand: Map
Total number of Open Education Initiatives in Thailand on Thursday, 2 April 2020 at 13:49 = 2 , of which:
- 0 are MOOC
- 2 are OER
Initiatives per million = 0.03
- 1 Overview
- 2 Education in Thailand
- 3 Internet in Thailand
- 4 Copyright law in Thailand
- 5 OER Initiatives in Thailand
- 6 References
Thailand, in full the Kingdom of Thailand (Thai: ราชอาณาจักรไทย - Ratcha Anachak Thai) is an independent country that lies in the heart of Southeast Asia.
- The country's official name was Siam (Thai: สยาม RTGS: Sayam) until 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. It was renamed Siam from 1945 to 1949, after which it was again renamed Thailand. Also spelled Siem, Syâm or Syâma, it has been identified with the Sanskrit Śyâma (श्याम, meaning "dark" or "brown"). But the names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word, and Śyâma is possibly not its origin but a learned and artificial distortion.
Thailand is bordered to the north by Laos and Burma, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and Burma. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast and Indonesia and India in the Andaman Sea to the southwest.
Thailand is the world's 50th largest country in terms of total area (slightly smaller than Yemen and slightly larger than Spain), with a surface area of approximately 513,000 km2 (198,000 sq mi), and the 21st most-populous country, with approximately 63,000,000 people.
The capital and largest city of Thailand is Bangkok. It is also the country's centre of political, commercial, industrial and cultural activities.
About 75% of the population is ethnically Thai, 14% is of Chinese origin, and 3% is ethnically Malay; the rest belong to minority groups including Mons, Khmers and various hill tribes. There are an estimated 2.2 million legal and illegal migrants in Thailand. Thailand has also attracted a small number of expatriates from developed countries in the West. The country's official language is Thai.
Thailand is one of the most devoutly Buddhist countries in the world. The national religion is Theravada Buddhism which is practiced by more than 94.7% of all Thais. Muslims make up 4.6% of the population and 0.7% belong to other religions. Culture and traditions in Thailand are significantly influenced by India, as are Burma, Laos and Cambodia.
Thailand is a constitutional monarchy with King Bhumibol Adulyadej, the ninth king of the House of Chakri, as the ruling monarch. The King has reigned for more than sixty-three years, making him the longest reigning Thai monarch and the longest reigning current monarch in the world. The King is recognized as the Head of State, the Head of the Armed Forces, the Upholder of the Buddhist religion, and Defender of the Faith. Thailand is the only country in Southeast Asia that has never been colonized by a European power.
Thailand experienced rapid economic growth between 1985 and 1995 and today is a newly-industrialized country with an emphasis in exports and a flourishing tourism industry, thanks to various world-famous tourist destinations such as Pattaya, Bangkok, and Phuket.
Thailand is divided into 75 provinces (จังหวัด, changwat) , which are gathered into 5 groups of provinces by location. There are also 2 special governed districts: the capital Bangkok (Krung Thep Maha Nakhon) and Pattaya, of which Bangkok is at provincial level and thus often counted as a 76th province.
Each province is divided into districts and the districts are further divided into sub-districts (tambons). As of 2006 there are 877 districts (อำเภอ, amphoe) and the 50 districts of Bangkok (เขต, khet). Some parts of the provinces bordering Bangkok are also referred to as Greater Bangkok (ปริมณฑล, pari monthon). These provinces include Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Samut Prakan, Nakhon Pathom and Samut Sakhon. The name of each province's capital city (เมือง, mueang) is the same as that of the province: for example, the capital of Chiang Mai province (changwat Chiang Mai) is Mueang Chiang Mai or Chiang Mai.
For further general information see Wikipedia:Thailand.
Education in Thailand
For a general description of education in Thailand see Education:Thailand.
Basic education in Thailand consists of six years of primary education, three years of lower secondary, and three years of upper secondary education.. Students can choose vocational tracks in upper secondary schools and sometimes also in lower secondary schools. Primary education is close to universal in Thailand. Education is compulsory up to and including Grade 9, and the government provides free education through to Grade 12.
Thailand enjoys a high level of literacy, and education is provided by a well organized school system of kindergartens, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary schools, numerous vocational colleges, and universities. The private sector of education is well developed and significantly contributes to the overall provision of education which the government would not be able to meet through the public establishments. The quality of education is a key policy issue, and teaching methods are moving from being heavily dependent on rote rather than on student centred methodology. Education is in major phases of expansion and development and still needs to overcome some major hurdles in order to ensure further expansion and improvement to its standards.
The establishment of reliable and coherent curricula for its primary and secondary schools has been subject to rapid changes, and schools and their teachers have not always been able to rely on a stable guidelines, and authors and publishers of textbooks have had difficulty with writing and printing new editions quickly enough to keep up with the changing situation. The school structure is divided into four key stages: the first three years in elementary school, Prathom 1 - 3, are for age groups 6 to 8, the second level, Prathom 4 through 6 are for age groups 9 to 11, the third level, Matthayom 1 - 3, is for age groups 12 to 14. The upper secondary level of schooling consists of Matthayom 4 - 6, for age groups 15 to 17 and is divided into academic and vocational streams. There are also academic upper secondary schools, vocational upper secondary schools and comprehensive schools offering both academic and vocational tracks. Students who choose the academic stream usually intend to enter a university. Vocational schools offer programs that prepare students for employment or further studies. Admission to an upper secondary school is through an entrance exam. On the completion of each level, students need to pass the NET (National Educational Test) to graduate. Children are required only to attend six years of elementary school and at least the first three years of high school. Those who graduate from the sixth year of high school are candidates for two decisive tests: O-NET (Ordinary National Educational Test) and A-NET (Advanced National Educational Test).
Public schools are administered by the government, and the private sector comprises schools run for profit and fee-paying non-profit schools which are often run by charitable organisations - especially by Catholic diocesan and religious orders that operate over 300 large primary/secondary schools throughout the country. Village and sub-district schools usually provide pre-school kindergarten (anuban) and elementary classes, while in the district towns, schools will serve their areas with comprehensive schools with all the classes from kindergarten to age 14, and separate secondary schools for ages 11 through 17.
Due to budgetary limitations, rural schools are generally less well equipped than the schools in the cities and the standard of instruction, particularly for the English language, is much lower, and many high school students will commute 60 - 80 kilometres to schools in the nearest city.
The school year in Thailand is divided into two semesters, and for primary and secondary schools generally begins on or around 15 May, to end in March, and from June to March for higher education. It has a two or three week break between the two terms in September. The long summer break coincides with the hottest part of the year and Songkran, the traditional Thai new year celebrations. Schools enjoy all public and Buddhist religious holidays and Christian and international schools usually close for the Christmas-New Year break.
The issue concerning university entrance has therefore also been in constant upheaval for a number of years. Nevertheless, education has seen its greatest progress in the years since 2001; most of the present generation of pupils and students are computer literate. Knowledge of English has also expanded and large investments have been made to improve the quantity of instruction with programs to recruit foreign teachers into secondary schools from the UK with the support of the British Council.
For a description more focussed to e-learning see E-learning:Thailand.
One Tablet Per Child
In 2013 Thailand will be completing shipment of the world’s largest education tablet distribution deal to date with the Chinese firm Shenzhen Scope, aiming to provide over 1.5 milllion tablets to 6 and 12 year old students as part of an initiative to deliver one tablet per child (OTPC) in schools. Current test projects such as the pilot ‘Braincloud solution’ involve cloud computing using tablet devices to access learning resources and courseware using virtual fibre technology. In this pilot project ‘Brain Tower’ stations will act as servers and provide a learning management system (LMS).
Distance learning support by TV for school students
Established in 1996, DLTV currently broadcasts a total of 15 educational channels from the Wang Klaikangwon Palace School, Hua-Hin. It combines primary and secondary curriculum from grade 1 to grade 12 and also includes vocational training, community education and university education. It provides educational benefits and equal opportunities to Thai students nationwide especially in the remote and far-reaching areas of the country where the lack of teachers is still a major challenge to the educational system. It broadcasts via the Ku-band beam on the THAICOM 5 satellite to more than 17,000 schools across the country and also to other viewers who subscribe to satellite providers of commercial television. In December 2008, the Thaicom Public Company Limited, Asia's leading commercial satellite operator and the operator of the IPSTAR satellite broadband system, announced it has renewed a 10-year contract with the Distance Learning Education via Satellite Foundation of Thailand (DLF) for three-quarters of one Ku-band transponder on the Thaicom 5 satellite to broadcast DLTV channels, The launch of the third phase of this project, the DLF eLearning network took place on 2 May 2002. It has more recently served as a model for distance learning systems in Papua New Guinea and its transmission is used in the nearby countries of Vietnam, Lao, Myanmar, Cambodia and China.
Thai Teachers TV:
Burapha University's Faculty of Education is the main agency tasked with preparing content for Thai Teachers TV under a project sponsored by the Office of the Higher Education Commission. Since it began in April 2010 it has expanded to a membership of 172,433 teachers in all 77 provinces, with 71 universities using Teachers TV along with 9 model universities in 9 regions. In 2012 approximately 30% of its content was developed by local teachers in Thailand while the rest was taken from the United Kingdom's Teachers TV.
Model ICT schools and Lab schools
During 2005-2006 Thaksin initiated a controversial "One District, One Dream School" project, aimed at developing the quality of schools to ensure that every district has at least one high-quality school. These included "Model ICT schools", each one supervised by a university and co-operating closely with the private sector. The initiative also upgraded schools to become "dream schools", also known as "lab schools", which are intended to lead the way in radical redesigns of curriculum, learning, and teaching. The project was criticized, with some schools also falling into debt in implementing the project, receiving less than adequate financial support from the central government at that time.
The Office for National Education Standards and Quality Assessment (ONESQA) is responsible for assessing all Thai educational institutions, both public and private and all levels of education from pre-school to graduate education, with the aim to assist educational to improving their performance and standards.
In 1999, the Ministry of Education set up a quality assurance and accreditation system covering both internal and external quality assurance in Higher Education. It has removed quality assurance from OHEC’s mandate, instead making ONESQA responsible for all external quality assurance.
Although internal quality assurance is the responsibility of each individual education institution, all institutions are required to submit to external assessment by ONESQA as part of a five-year cycle. Two previous five year cycles (2001–2005 and 2006–2010) have been completed, and the third cycle for 2011–2015 has begun. The MoE in 2003 also proposed a set of regulations for setting up internet-based programmes in universities.
Internet in Thailand
Internet hosts (2010) - 1.335 million
Internet users (2010) - 17.5 million: 26.3% of population (4)
5 million Thais have broadband access - 7.7% of the population, equating to 22.7% of all households. Many more have dialup connections, while the total number of mobile subscribers in Thailand is 90 million - 131.8% of the population.
Thailand’s Second Information and Communication Technology Master Plan (2009-2013) ensures continuity within the policy framework of IT 2010 and the First ICT Master Plan by continuing to emphasize the development and application of ICT for e-Commerce, e-Industry, e-Education, e-Society and e-Government. It focuses on infrastructure and knowledge building to bridge the digital divide and to facilitate a shift towards a knowledge-based economy. Initiatives seek to promote the creation of online creative communities and a learning society, creating web portals, diverse electronic content, and social groupings that are robust. For example learning networks have been set up among educational institutions, temples, libraries and community learning centers in order to facilitate access to useful learning and information resources.
Thailand’s National Broadband Policy aims to bring 80% of Thai people to access broadband within the year 2015 and 95% within the year 2020. The current ICT 2020 policy also focuses on e-Government, broadband for SMEs, schools, e-health. disaster warning via broadband services, and energy saving and green ICT.
In terms of infrastructure progress has been made by The Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (MICT) on grid computing, next-generation Internet Protocol (IPv6) development, broadband wireless, computer security, and Web 2.0 and Web services. By 2013 mobile users in Thailand were able to experience much faster data transfer speeds and improved access to multimedia services with the expansion of 3G mobile service deployment.
The most common way to connect to the internet is by dial-up. This still makes up more than 54% of all Thai internet connections. Followed behind dialup is school-leased lines at 33%. This means that more than a quarter of all internet access takes place from a school.
Thailand has not only provided all school with internet connections over the past 5 years but also fully equipped computer rooms. The average amount of time spent online has increased over during this time. The average today is about 10 hours per week per internet user. The most common usage was checking email, online chat and local new media websites.
Internet in Education
The development of distance learning in Thailand dates back to the 1970s. The first university in Thailand to provide formal instruction by distance was Ramkamhaeng University (RU), founded in 1971. The Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University (STOU), established in 1978, was the first single-mode distance education institution. A number of Thai universities offer distance learning programs. The main providers in the area are the two open universities: Ramkhamhaeng University and the Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University. RU offers both on-campus and distance learning programs, while the STOU remains a single mode DE institution. As the telecommunications infrastructure in Thailand develops, there is increasing interest in the use of e-learning. Although printed-based materials remain the primary medium of distance education delivery at the two open universities, a number of smaller institutions have begun to offer online courses. (1)
In the first year of its implementation in 1995, SchoolNet successfully achieved the target of getting 20 schools connected. Later on in 1999, this number gradually increased to 1,500, which was the maximum capacity of the access infrastructure in the first phase. By 2002, 4,600 schools were connected to SchoolNet.
Thailand Education and Research Network (UniNet) initiated in 1996 linking 24 universitiies and 25 IT campuses. It became encompassed within EdNET in 2001, and was expanded to include Rajabhat Universities and polytechnics. It comprises of a 50Gbps network between higher education institutions and links to research networks such as TEIN3 and JPN2.
From 2010 SchoolNet merged with Ednet. In 2012 it became NEDNet, integrating UniNet with all education networks including MoE Net (primary & secondary) and VEC Net (vocational education). NEDNet also hosts the Thai Library Integrated System (ThaiLIS). This is a database conecting the central university library system, regional libraries and records, with a reference database of theses and a digital collection of e-books. Academic and government institutions are connected through networks for research in education (ThaiREN) along with the Thai Social / Scientific Academic and Research Network (ThaiSARN).
Thai telecentres and community ICT learning centres constitute a wide informal learning network. They run information literacy projects and have expanded from 20 centers in 2007 to 2,500 Centers in 2012. The main purpose is to provide ICT skills and knowledge to marginalised groups, such as women, ethnic minorities and people living with HIV/AIDS. Examples of organisations supporting telecentres for different objectives include the Community Information Centre (supported by Healthcare Management College, Chulalongkorn University), Thai Rural Community Development Network (supported by the Student Telecentre Organisation).
Copyright law in Thailand
Thailand is governed by civil law rather than common law, so Thai courts are not bound by a rule of precedents although precedents by high-level courts may be persuasive in subsequent cases. In Thailand intellectual property rights are protected by the granting of patents and the registration of trademarks (including service marks, collective marks and certification marks). In addition, the law protects certain types of work as defined in the Thailand Copyright Act (B.E. 2537 (1994)). Copyright law in Thailand governs the legally enforceable rights of creative and artistic works under this act. It is generally extended for the life of author plus 50 years. When the author is a legal entity or an anonymous person, the copyright term is automatically 50 years from the date of publication; without the need for work to be registered with the Department of Intellectual Property (DIP). All disputes on copyright issues are first heard in the Intellectual Property and International Trade Court from which in some cases they may progress to the Supreme Court. In Thailand republication of works after the expiration of the copyright term does not reset the copyright term. Copyright law also excludes news and facts, constitution, legislations, regulations, notifications as well as judicial decisions and translations. So Thai state documents are public domain, although creative works produced by or commissioned by government offices are protected by copyright. Within the act there are a number of clauses that relate to the use of copyright materials, their adaptation or reproduction and use. For example “adaptation" is defined in different ways as a reproduction by transformation, improvement, modification or emulation of the essential part of an original work without creating a new work, whether in whole or in part; concerning a piece of literary work, it must include a translation, a transformation or a compilation by means of selection and arrangement; concerning a computer program, it must include a reproduction by means of transformation, improvement or modification of the program of the essential part without creating a new work; concerning a dramatic work, it must include the alteration of a non-dramatic work to a dramatic work or a dramatic work to a non-dramatic work, whether in the original language or another language; concerning an artistic work, it must include the alteration of a two-dimensional work or a three-dimensional work to a three-dimensional work or a two-dimensional work or the creation of a model based on the original work; concerning a musical work, it must include an arrangement of tunes or an alteration of lyrics or melody;
In contrast to a country such as Australia with stricter rulings, Thailand does not follow a specific model but adopts a flexible model of general copyright legislation ruling more on a case by case basis. Thai courts uphold broad interpretations of study and research, specifying that exceptions apply in the purpose of study and research that it does not involve commercial gain. Thailand imports intellectual work in a range of different ways. Due to limits on academic resources in some areas, and the need to expand public libraries, sponsorships and funds for education copyright laws that are more flexible in the description of exceptions exist to protect the public interest. This approach has not in fact led to more litigation, as it appears that this is generally in favorable to the public interest and relatively few cases are brought by Thai copyright owners on the grounds that educators used their copyright materials in contrary to their ownership. The policy trade-off in placing more weight on supporting a more flexible system may deter authors from creating new works, with greater variety and it can provide less consistency and judicial efficiency. However, Thai courts can more easily tailor the outcomes of cases to fit around changing social norms and intellectual property considerations in the future with reference particularly to the public interest. Thai legislation adopts a broader scope of exception that applies to all copyright materials, and so is not as specific to any particular type of work. Similarly a quantitative test on reasonableness of recitation, quotation, copying, emulation or reference is not specified in legislation. So for example it avoids the use of words such as ‘fair dealing’ and ‘fair use’, and unlike for example Australian legislation does not specify an inclusive set of factors, which need to be taken into account in determining a fairness of dealing for the purposes of research and study. Furthermore, according to Thai courts, the determination of quantity in considering exceptions also depends on whether copyrighted materials are published or unpublished. A copy of unpublished materials may for example be considered at any amount as long as it does not conflict with the economic interest of the copyright owner.
In Thailand greater weight is placed on the public interest versus the exclusive rights of the copyright holder. While other countries have denied an agent from claiming the exception of copyright, this position was taken differently by the Thai court (CIPITC) which expressed a more sympathetic view on public interest. Similarly a different onus is placed on copyright owners or their agents to provide facilities for public to obtain permission.
Acquisition of Copyright
The author is the owner of copyright in the work of authorship subject to the following conditions: In the case of unpublished work, the author must be a Thai national or reside in Thailand or be a national of or reside in a country which is a member of the Convention for the protection of copyright of which Thailand is a member, provided that the residence must be at all time or most of the time spent on the creation of the work. In the case of published work, the first publication must be made in Thailand or in a country which is a member of the Convention for the copyright protection of which Thailand is a member, or in the case the first publication is made outside Thailand or in a country which is not member of the Convention for the copyright protection of which Thailand is a member, if the publication of the said work is subsequently made in Thailand or in a country which is member of the Convention for the copyright protection of which Thailand is a member within thirty days as from the first publication, or the author has the qualifications as prescribed in copyright law at the time of the first publication. Copyright belongs to the author in cases where the work was created in the course of the employment unless otherwise agreed upon by the employer and the employee. However, copyright on commissioned work belongs to the person who commissioned the work unless there is a stipulation to the contrary. Copyright is assignable and except in cases of inheritance, the assignment of the copyright must be made in writing signed by the assignor and the assignee. Where the duration of the assignment is not stated in the contract, the same is fixed for 10 years.
Infringement and enforcement
The Copyright Act provides criminal penalties for copyright infringement. The most common form of infringement is reproduction without permission from the copyright owner. Thailand has a broad “fair use” exception, however, which may allow a limited amount of unauthorized use or reproduction without constituting infringement. The authorities increased suppression efforts of copyright infringement since the 1994 Copyright Act came into effect. This law is different from previous laws in that it covers computer programs, literary works and databases, and the rights of the performers were added among other laws to protect the copyright owners. Penalties for violators were also increased and currently music and other copyright violations are enforced in Thailand by the local police, the Economic Crime Suppression Division (ECD) and by the Department of Special Investigation (DSI). Copyright law in Thailand also allows the injured party to negotiate a settlement with the offender out of court. Some controversy was around copyright issues has arisen particularly concerning textbooks sold overseas, during the case of Kirtsaeng v. John Wiley & Sons Inc., which went to the Supreme Court. This involved the textbook resale business of Supap Kirtsaeng, a native of Thailand who came to the United States after making legal purchases of textbooks in Thailand. Recently the International Intellectual Property Alliance (IIPA) in the US has lobbied for the US government to recognise attempts by the Thai government to reverse abuse of intellectual property (IP) laws. Thailand has passed all WTO-mandated legislation on IPR as outlined in the WTO agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS). Thailand is a signatory to the Berne Convention, but not the Paris Convention, the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), or the World Intellectual Property Organization Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT). Currently, Thailand is not yet a party to the Madrid Protocol. However, with the establishment of a specialized Central Intellectual Property and International Trade Court in 1997, Thailand has put in place a solid legal and administrative infrastructure for intellectual property rights (IPR) protection.
IP Related Multilateral Treaties and International Cooperation on IP Laws:
May 22, 2005 Optical Disc Production Act B.E. 2548 (2005) December 9, 1994 Copyright Act of B.E. 2537 (1994) Related IP Laws:
April 30, 1979 Consumer Protection Act, B.E. 2522 (1979) WIPO Adminstered Treaties and IP Regional Treaties:
July 17 1931 Berne Convention December 25, 1989 WIPO Convention (No Date) ASEAN Framework Agreement on Intellectual Property Cooperation IP related Multilateral Treaties: January 1, 1995 Agreement establishing the World Trade Organization (WTO) September 18, 1951 Agreement on the Importation of Educational, Scientific and Cultural Materials January 1, 1995 Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) February 27, 1923 Convention and Statute on Freedom of Transit December 17, 1987 Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage August 2, 1958 Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict August 28, 2008 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities August 2, 1958 Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict
The text of the Copyright act BE 2537 (1994)can also be consulted here.
Creative Commons Thailand and ported license for Thailand
Thailand uses a specific CC license: CC-BY-NC-ND.It has an active local body administering the use of Thai Creative Commons licenses that can offer support to those seeking assistance with using this kind of license for their work. The substantive differences that apply to a ported Thai Creative Common license are detailed here. 
Copyright law in Education
OER Initiatives in Thailand
National OER initiatives
Established in 1996, DLTV currently broadcasts a total of 15 educational channels from Klaikangwon Palace School, Hua-Hin, providing educational benefits and equal opportunities to Thai students nationwide especially in the remote and far-reaching areas of the country where the lack of teachers is still a major challenge to the educational system. It broadcasts via the Ku-band beam on the THAICOM 5 satellite to more than 17,000 schools across the country and also to other viewers who subscribe to satellite providers of commercial television. In December 2008, the Thaicom Public Company Limited, Asia's leading commercial satellite operator and the operator of the IPSTAR satellite broadband system, announced it has renewed a 10-year contract with the Distance Learning Education via Satellite Foundation of Thailand (DLF) for three-quarters of one Ku-band transponder on the Thaicom 5 satellite to broadcast DLTV channels. (2)
One of the longest running e-learning initiatives in Thailand is SchoolNet Thailand@1509 (the name refers to the four-digit code for Internet access in Thailand). SchoolNet began in 1996 as a demonstration project in which 50 secondary schools in different parts of the country were provided with dial-up connection to the Internet. By 2008, SchoolNet hosted ADSL links for 4947 schools. SchoolNet includes a range of features: games, competitions, forums, an online library and hundreds of online courses on subjects from art to physical education. Although vibrant and successful, SchoolNet is still a work in progress. Growth slowed after 2003, when SchoolNet was turned over to the Ministry of Education and merged with the new EdNet project. Five out of six schools in Thailand still lack a SchoolNet connection. The main problem is the lack of funds and the parlous state of telecommunications infrastructure in rural Thailand. It was not until 2006 that all primary schools in Thailand had access to a basic phone line. As a result, it will probably be many years before the SchoolNet project reaches its conclusion. (3) (Not clear whether SchoolNet Thailand material can be considered OER)
The Distance Learning Television Station provides a broad range of educational programs aimed at school children. The station broadcasts on a separate channel for each of the twelve grades in Thai primary (Grade 1-6) and secondary (Grade 7-12) schools. Programs are broadcast 24 hours a day and reached 7,500 schools across Thailand in 2004. The Distance Learning Television Station is part of the Royal Thai Distance Learning Foundation (DLF). (3)
Regional OER initiatives
Institutional OER initiatives
The Thailand Cyber University (TCU) seeks to encourage the sharing of educational resources within the Thai university sector. At present the Thailand Cyber University Open Courseware site contains two courses available in OCW format: Accessible Courseware Development and e-Learning Thai Language. (3)
2. ReVica/VISCED page for Thailand (http://virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/Thailand)
3. ICDE Country Profile for Thailand (http://www.icde.org/projects/regulatory_frameworks_for_distance_education/country_profiles/thailand/)
4. Internet usage in Thailand (http://www.thailandinternet.com/internet-usage-in-thailand.html)
1. ICDE Report: 'Regulatory frameworks for distance education: A pilot study in the Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region - Final report'. December 2011. Prepared by the Project Team (Team leader, Dr. Rosalind James) (accessed at http://www.icde.org/filestore/Regulatory_Framework/RegulatoryFrameworksforDEfinalreport2.pdf on Wednesday 11th July 2012)