Spain

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Overview

Spain - in full, the Kingdom of Spain - is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.

Spanish territory also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the African coast, and two autonomous cities in North Africa, Ceuta and Melilla, that border Morocco. With an area of 504,030 km², Spain is the second largest country in Western Europe after France.

Its population is 46,000,000 (2010 figure).

Its capital is Madrid.

Spain is a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy and has been a member of the European Union since 1986, and NATO since 1982.


Further information

For further general information see Wikipedia:Spain.

Autonomous communities and cities of Spain

Spain is divided in 17 parts called autonomous communities. "Autonomous" means that each of these autonomous communities has its own Executive Power, its own Legislative Power and its own Judicial Power. These are similar, but not the same, to states in the United States of America, for example.

Spain has fifty smaller parts called provinces. In 1978 these parts came together, making the autonomous communities. Before then, some of these provinces were together but were broken. The groups that were together once before are called "historic communities": Catalonia, Basque Country, Galicia and Andalusia.

The Spanish language is the official language in every autonomous commmunity but six autonomous communities have also other official languages:

  1. Catalonia (Catalan and Occitan)
  2. Valencian Community (Catalan, also called Valencian there)
  3. Balearic Islands (Catalan)
  4. Galicia (Galician)
  5. Basque Country (Basque)
  6. Navarre (Basque, but only in the north)

List of the autonomous communities, with their Capital city (the place where the government has its offices):

  1. Andalusia (its capital is Sevilla)
  2. Aragon (its capital is Zaragoza)
  3. Asturias (its capital is Oviedo)
  4. Balearic Islands (its capital is Palma de Mallorca)
  5. Basque Country (its capital is Vitoria)
  6. Canary Islands (they have two capitals - Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife)
  7. Cantabria (its capital is Santander)
  8. Castile-La Mancha (its capital is Toledo)
  9. Castile and León (its capital is Valladolid)
  10. Catalonia (its capital is Barcelona)
  11. Extremadura (its capital is Mérida)
  12. Galicia (its capital is Santiago de Compostela)
  13. La Rioja (its capital is Logroño)
  14. Madrid (its capital is Madrid)
  15. Murcia (its capital is Murcia)
  16. Navarre (its capital is Pamplona)
  17. Valencian Community (its capital is Valencia)

Spain also has two cities on the north coast of Africa: Ceuta and Melilla. They are called "autonomous cities" and have simultaneously the majority of the power of an autonomous community and also power of provinces and power of municipalities.

Education in Spain

For a general description of education in Spain see Education:Spain.


The education system in Spain is organised into mainstream education and Enseñanzas de Régimen Especial (specialised education). Primary education (6 to 12) and compulsory secondary education (12 to 16) correspond to basic education, which consists of ten years of free and compulsory schooling for all pupils. Mainstream education comprises:

Pre-primary education (Educación Infantil): it is the first stage in the education system and it is non-compulsory. It is divided into two stages: the first one, up to the age of 3, and the second, from 3 to 6 years of age

Primary education (Educación Primaria): it is the first compulsory stage of the system. It covers six years of instruction, divided into three two-year cycles. It is normally completed between the ages of 6 and 12.

Secondary education In the Spanish education system, secondary education is comprised of compulsory secondary and post-compulsory secondary. The former - Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO) it is divided into four courses and it is ordinarily completed from the ages of 12 to 16, it covers four school years and must be completed after finishing primary education. Successful students are awarded a Secondary Education Certificate, which is necessary for entering further optional education as is Bachillerato for their University or Formacion Professional (Vocational Studies).

Post-compulsory secondary education includes two options: the two-year Bachillerato (form 16 to 18), and intermediate vocational training ciclos formativos, the duration of which varies between one and a half or two years. Secondary education also includes artistic professional Music and Dance education, intermediate professional Sports and Plastic Arts and Design education, which belong to enseñanzas de régimen especial. This also covers language education. This provision, although not regarded as part of secondary education, belongs to Enseñanzas de Régimen Especial, which may be started at the age of 16 or 14 if the language to be studied is different from the one studied during ESO. Enseñanzas de Régimen Especial are non-compulsory and structured into different levels and degrees leading to different qualifications and certificates.

The vocational training is also a common possibility after ESO or after the Spanish Baccalaureate. There are two different types of programs: Middle Grade Training Cycles (Ciclos Formativos de Grado Medio), which have the ESO diploma as a requirement, and Superior-level Training Cycles (Ciclos Formativos de grado Superior), which have the Spanish Baccalaureate as the principal requirement. After completion of the Superior-level Training Cycle, students are entitled to direct entrance to several related University degrees (source wikipedia)

University education: Once students have finished their Bachillerato, they can take their University Entrance Exam (Pruebas de Acceso a la Universidad, popularly called Selectividad) which differs greatly from region to region. University in Spain is organised into three cycles, namely Bachelor, Masters and Doctorate, with variable duration and a minimum required number of ECTS credits.

Examinations in Spain

The Spanish Bachillerato is the post-16 stage of education, comparable to the A Levels/Higher (Scottish) in the UK, the French Baccalaureate in France or the International Baccalaureate.

There are two parts, a core curriculum with the compulsory subjects, and a specialist part with a few pre-selected branches to choose from.

The core curriculum is as follows:

  • Spanish Language and Literature: 1st and 2nd years
  • Co-official language (in case of Catalan, Basque and Galician): 1st and 2nd years
  • First foreign language (English, French, German or Italian; mostly English): 1st and 2nd years
  • Philosophy: 1st and 2nd years
  • Physical Education: Only 1st year
  • Spanish History: Only 2nd year
  • Science to the contemporary world: Only 1st year
  • Optional subject (2nd foreign language, psychology, information technology...): 1st and 2nd year
  • Catholic Religion/All World Religions Studies: Only 1st year (Optional)

The specialist part has up to four subjects (depending on the branch taken):

  • Arts:
    • Volume (sculpture) (optional on the 2nd year)
    • Artistic drawing
    • Technical drawing (optional on the 2nd year)
    • Audiovisual communication.(first year)
    • History of art (second year)
    • Design (second year and optional)
    • Plastic Graphic Expression Techniques (second year and optional)
    • Information and communication technologies. (Optional)
  • Nature and Health Sciences:
  • Sciences & Engineering:
    • Physics,
    • Maths,
    • Chemistry,
    • Technical Drawing
  • Social Sciences:
    • Applied Maths,
    • Economics,
    • Geography,
    • History of the Contemporany World (only 1st year)
  • Humanities:
    • Latin,
    • Greek,
    • History of Art/World Literature
    • History of the Contemporany World (only 1st year)

The existence of the Bachillerato implies that there could be economies of scale if a national or autonomous region government funded the development of OER content.


e-learning

For a description more focussed to e-learning see E-learning:Spain.


In Spain, Higher Education at distance is vested in the National University of Distance Education (UNED) created in 1973. It is currently the Spanish university with the highest number of students enrolled.

In 1997, the Grupo 9 Universidades was launched. It consists in a consortium between universities, in order to offer open election courses at distance, located in the following regions: Balearic Islands, Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Extremadura, La Rioja, Basque Country, Pública de Navarra, Oviedo and Zaragoza.was launched based in

In Catalonia, the Open University of Catalonia (UOC) was created in 1999 as the first completely online university making a more intensive use of the possibilities brought by Internet. For instance, the use of social media applications and the development of a virtual campus in order to ease the traditional socialization and exchanges processes proper of physical campuses into a virtual environment. Its educational offer is geared towards technical careers related to communication, computing and new technologies, without neglecting other more traditional teachings.

Since 2000, various other universities located in Catalonia such as the Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona (UAB), the University of Barcelona (UB) and the Universidad Politécnica de Catalunya (UPC) launched degrees that could be coursed online, or semi-virtually. Besides, the Universidad Privada Ramon Llul developed online and distance teaching courses through its center La Salle. Through video recorded courses and an Open Campus based on Learning by doing and Scenario Centred Curriculum methodologies they provide online courses centered on business or ICT careers.

In 2002, the Universidad de Málaga launched its fully virtual open election courses. Nowadays the offer of courses remains quantitatively limited (for the course 2012/2013 only 5 courses are offered fully on-line) but its territorial scope has been enlarged to nine Andalusian universities which currently offer all together 80 courses through the Andalusian Virtual Campus (CAV).

In 2001, the ADA Madrid (Aula a Distancia Abierta) project was launched with the financial support of the Education council of the Madrid Community. Its purpose is to offer students with an open election of courses not available in their own university. Some of the universities involved are: UniversidadAutónoma de Madrid (UAM), Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Carlos III, Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Universidad de Alcalá.

Always in Madrid, the Open University of Madrid (UDIMA) was approved in 2006 and is oriented towards the application of new technologies to education. Its main shareholder is the Business School's Center for Financial Studies. Besides, the Madrid Training Institute (IMF) focuses especially on administrative careers and sustainable energies.

In 2007, the Valencian International University (VIU) launched its online university focused on audiovisual careers. Finally, in 2008 the International University of La Rioja (UNITE) was launched mainly centered in information and communication technologies (ICT). Other public universities providing education at distance are: Universidad Virtual de Salamanca (USAL); Universidad de Sevilla (US); Instituto Universitario de Posgrado (IUP); Universidad de Cádiz (UCA); Universidad de Cantabria (UNICAN); Universidad de la Rioja (UNIR); Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC); Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF); Universitat de Valencia (UV); Universidad de Zaragoza (UNIZAR); Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (URJC) and Universitat Jaume I (UJI).

There are also currently 23 private universities providing education at distance. All of them are listed here.

According to this chronology, it appears that Spanish universities have been more actively involved with providing traditional education at distance rather than with implementing eLearning courses exploiting the full potential of ICT and Internet. However, this situation begin to change during the last decade because of the increasing rates of penetration of Internet, successful initiatives such as the UOC which model of completely virtual university has been exported into Colombian and Argentina universities, and last but not least because of the increasing engagement and experimentation of public and private organizations into the eLearning field.

Regarding public support to distance education and eLearning, the Ministry of Education created in 1992 the Center for Innovation and Development of Distance Education (CIDEAD) which is integrated in the General learning throughout life actions. Its purpose is to coordinate and organize the elements and processes of distance education, as well as to facilitate access to education for adults and school-age students who because of personal, social, geographical situations, are unable to continue learning in the education system through the regular classroom regime.

The CIDEAD through its Virtual Education Center, based on interactive learning and flexible training models, addresses Life Long Learners through its program “Aula mentor”, students of primary/secondary schools, universities and professional training through its “Enseñanza reglada a distancia” action in partnership with the UNED, and finally teachers and educators through its action Instituto Nacional de Tecnologías Educativas y de Formación del Profesorado (INTEF).

Last but not least, the Center for Virtual Higher Education (CSEV) was launched in 2010 in order to ease the knowledge transfer processes between Ibero-American universities. This organization is a partnership between the UNED, Telefónica, Banco Santander, (through its Santander Universities Global Division), Hispasat and the Ministries of Education, Foreign Affairs and Science and Innovation. Currently, its academic Council involves 21 Spanish universities in order to design innovative activities and boost eLearning and virtual training in the field of Spanish and Latin American Higher Education organisations.

Regarding the commercial sector, it has developed different eLearning initiatives through partnerships with universities, trade unions or organizations focused in providing Adult Education and Life Long learning activities. One study [2] developed by Association of eLearning providers ( ApeL) analyzed in 2003 the Spanish panorama of eLearning offer and estimated that only 7.2% of companies with more than 200 workers were providing eLearning to their employees and in the case of Small and Medium Enterprises, the use and offer of eLearning solutions was almost nonexistent with a rate of 0,2%.

ApeL was launched in 2001 and is currently composed by a partnership between 72 organizations engaged with eLearning provision. The complete list can be visited here. Its purpose is the promotion of the e-learning field and the defense of the interests of its providers in collaboration with organizations, agencies, public and private research and development centers, carrying out awareness, representation and negotiation activities.

Other interesting Spanish initiatives related to eLearning are:

  • The National Association of Distance Learning Centres (ANCED) is an organization for delivering Education and Training. Born non-profit association in 1977, it turned for profit in 1986 when a first agreement was signed with the National Agency for work (INEM) followed in 1998 with the signing of a new agreement with the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs in order to improve the offer of training to disadvantaged groups, achieve better corporate governance and facilitate the provision of open and distance learning on line.
  • The Association Asturiana for e-learning was created in 2005 for the development and access to eLearning training located in the community of Asturias.

Quality procedures

Universities

In the area of quality assurance, Spain has a multifaceted array of quality assurance (QA) schemes and agencies in place at the national, regional and institutional levels. They only deal with teaching activities of universities, since the evaluation of research is the responsibility of specialized agencies (which are currently being merged into a single one responsible for the evaluation of the National Plan for Research and Development). A separate set of QA mechanisms are also developed for higher vocational education.

In 2001, after 10 years' experience in quality assurance, the LOU formally introduced external quality assessment mechanisms based on objective criteria and transparent procedures. Degree courses and qualifications were to be regulated by guaranteeing the quality of recognised degrees and syllabuses. Article 13 of the LOU states that assessment and accreditation are the responsibility of the National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation (ANECA) and such other higher education quality-assurance bodies as may be established by regional legislation.

In 2002, in compliance with the LOU, the government created the National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation (ANECA). This agency is a Foundation whose aim is to provide external quality assurance for the Spanish Higher Education System and to contribute to its constant improvement. ANECA has developed several evaluation Programmes in order to perform its activities (evaluation, certification and accreditation), with the purpose of integrating the Spanish system into the European Higher Education Area (EHEA):

  1. Institutional and programme evaluation:
  • VERIFICA Programme: Evaluation of degree proposals designed according to the aims set for building the EHEA.
  • MONITOR Programme: Follow-up of an ex-ante accredited programme until it has to be submitted again in order to renew its accreditation.
  • AUDIT Programme: Guidance for Higher Education Institutions to establish their own internal quality assurance systems.
  • MENCION Programme: (Quality Label recognition of PhD programmes) Acknowledgement of the scientific, technical and educational high standards of Doctoral studies.
  1. Academic staff evaluation Programmes :
  • PEP Programme: (non-civil servant academic staff hiring) Evaluation of the teaching and research activities as well as the academic backgrounds of future applicants to positions of non-civil servant academic staff (PhD Lecturer , PhD assistant Lecturer , Non PhD assistant Lecturer and private universities Lecturer ) as defined by the LOMLOU.
  • ACADEMIA Programme: (national accreditation for civil servant academic staff): Evaluation of the applicants’ qualification to access the civil-service positions as University academic staff (Senior Lecturer and Professor).
  • DOCENTIA Programme: Support for Universities wishing to establish their own mechanisms to evaluate the quality of the teaching activity of their academic staff.

The main public universities providing education at distance and/or eLearning are using ANECA's QA in complement with their own certification and quality schemes. Some examples can be found in the UNED, the Universidad a distancia de Madrid (UDIMA), the Universidad de Sevilla,  Centro de Enseñanza Virtual de la Universidad de Granada (CEVUG),  Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Universidad de Cádiz (UCA), Universidad de la Rioja (UNIR) and the Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC).

Besides, the public Administration shall guarantee the quality of training offers and cooperate in the definition and implementation of the evaluation process of the National Qualification and Vocational Education and Training System after consultation with the General Council on Vocational Education, and taking into account the responsibilities of the Autonomous Communities. The Ministry of Education and Science is coordinating the establishment of a quality network with the participation of the administrations of the Autonomous Communities as since 1996 11 autonomous regions have created their own quality assurance agencies.

Finally, the Spanish association for Quality provides a quality certification for virtual trainings called the UNE 61681 (under the ISO 9001 quality certification scheme). It is a certification of quality for Virtual Training which clarifies the various training activities in key areas such as quality of content and resources used. Its use is limited to those training activities aimed at people wishing to enter the labor market and workers who want to improve their current employment status. It has therefore been developed for providers of non-formal training, self-education, e-learning and blended learning.

Schools

Mainly sourced from Eurydice

In Spain, the evaluation of the education system is viewed as an essential element in order to improve the quality of education, since it constitutes a valuable instrument for the monitoring and assessment of both the functioning and the results of the education system, as well as for the improvement of processes delivering these results. This is evidenced by the fact that the legal framework stresses the need to evaluate all the elements making up the education system: pupils' learning processes, educational results, curriculum, teachers' performance, teaching processes, the managerial function, the running of schools, educational inspection and education authorities themselves. The collection of objective data and their rigorous analysis facilitates the knowledge and appraisal of the achievements and deficiencies present in both the entire system and all its levels and elements. Thus, the necessary foundations are laid for an effective decision-making, which should have an effect on the process for the improvement of the education system.

The 2006 Ley Orgánica de Educación, LOE (Act on Education), devotes titles VI and VII to educational evaluation and inspection, respectively, and considers both to be key aspects to improve the education system. Thus, evaluation is an essential element to increase the education system’s transparency, which must be applied to all its areas, including inspection. In turn, with the aim of ensuring the compliance with regulations on education, the educational inspection takes part in the evaluation of the education system and its elements. Evaluation procedures of all areas and elements of the education system have been established, which has committed the relevant authorities and the different agents of the system to account for the current situation and its evolution. All these evaluation tasks are aimed at improving the quality of the education system.

The general evaluation of the education system at the non-university levels is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, through the National Institute of Education Evaluation (INEE). This body, reporting to the State Secretariat for Education and Vocational Training, works in collaboration with the relevant evaluation institutions of the different Autonomous Communities. The latter are responsible for the evaluation of the education system within their respective territory. The reports drafted since 2000 regarding the general evaluation of education can be found here. Those reports generally review different indicators structured along three main axes: Schooling and educational contexts, education financing and educational results and success rates. For more precise and targetted analysis (for instance primary education, or a specific region) please visit the following link.

Internet in Spain

According to ITU (International Telecommunications Union there were 30,654,678 Internet users in December 2011, corresponding to a 65.6% penetration and positioning Spain as the 17th most connected country in the world. In more detail, the review of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) latest data [6] indicates the following figures: Regarding household access to ICT, it shows that 68,7% has access to a computer at home (including PC or laptop). Regarding fixed (wired) broadband connection, it reaches 24.50% of the overall population and its penetration rate increased of 4,9% from 2010 to 2011. However the total percentage of fiber connections in total broadband is still low with a rate of only 1.55%.

Regarding specific ICT indicators put up by the Bank of Spain [3], it indicates for 2011 a level of business broadband penetration around 96%, and shows that 20% of businesses have used eCommerçe for at least 1% of their total purchase, on the other side 11% of businesses state to have reach at least 1% of their overall sale through this mean.

Regarding Mobile subscribers and subscribers using pre-paid cards, Spain is ranked above the OECD average showing a high level of penetration of both technologies. The Telecommunication Market Comission (Comisión del mercado de telecomunicaciones) yearly report indicates that in 2011, there was 52,6 millions mobiles lines from which 15,9 millions were connected to Internet broadband.

In relation to OECD statistics regarding trade of ICT goods, Spain exported in 2009 around 5.428 and imported for 28.238 millions of US dollars. Another interesting figure of 2006 from the OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard shows Spain ranking as the second country with more bot-infected computers with an overall rate of 4.7% computer infected per 100 computers connected to the Internet.

The Eurostat individuals' level of Internet skills survey shows that in 2011, 28% of the population aged 16 to 74 carried out 1 or 2 of the six Internet-related items used to group the respondents into levels of Internet skills. This results locates Spain just below the EU27 average which is 30% of the population. Finally according to ITU and its Internet users data disaggregated by gender, Spain had 65,7% male users in relation to 59,5% female users in 2009.

The Plan Avanza is the main ICT policy for the Information Society and has already gone through a first action plan of five years and it is currently launching its second action plan. The OECD analysis of the impact of the first Plan Avanza resumes its mission and strategy as follows: “Plan Avanza is Spain’s umbrella strategy for the advancement of the Information Society (IS). The Plan was approved in 2005 by the national Senate and launched early in the following year with its first 2006-2009 Action Plan. The Plan operates under the direct authority of the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITT), specifically under the State Secretariat of Telecommunications and the Information Society (SSTIS). Implementation responsibilities are shared by the SSTIS and red.es, a public enterprise also charged with managing two key departments which directly contribute to the Plan’s objectives: CENATIC (the National Centre for the Application of ICTs based in Open Source) and INTECO (the National Communications Technology Institute). The strategy’s objectives reflect both the technological and socio-economic dimensions necessary for consolidating the knowledge economy in Spain, as well as the need to converge with other EU member countries in key IS dimensions. While the Plan’s high-level objectives are inherited from those of the European Commission’s i2010 strategy: A European Information Society for growth and employment. These have been adapted to fit the specific challenges and needs of the Spanish context. Specifically, the three strategic objectives are: Increasing diffusion of ICTs in the Spanish economy; Closing the Digital Divide to improve quality of life for citizens; Increasing levels of ICT spending. The resulting objectives have translated into four pillars of activity, or action areas, which are: The digital citizenship, digital economy, digital public services and digital context”.

The implementation strategy of the Plan Avanza allowed the implementation of actions in cooperation with the different autonomous communities through cooperation agreements and performances in cofinancement. In 2006, 19 agreements were signed with 59 cities and all autonomous communities. A list of reports regarding the Plan Avanza development in each Autonomous Communities can be acceded here.

According to the current executive summary of the Plan Avanza2: “On July 16th 2010, the Council of Ministers approved the 2011-2015 Strategy for Plan Avanza 2. This second stage gives continuity to Plan Avanza’s course of action. It includes projects already in progress and updates initial objectives to adapt them to the new challenges of the network society […] The first stage of Plan Avanza aimed at catching up with de European Union average, especially regarding coverage and connectivity. The 2011-2015 Strategy of Plan Avanza 2 seeks placing Spain on a leading position in terms of development and use of advanced ICT products and services. […] Taking the Plan Avanza approved in 2005 and the European framework in which this kind of measures are included as the starting point, 34 key challenges have been defined in the field of ICT, which Spain has to face. Under the current framework, “Plan Avanza 2 - 2011-2015 Strategy” will focus on achieving the following 10 objectives, which will contribute to overcoming the challenges identified: 1. Promoting innovative ICT processes in the Public Administration. 2. Spreading ICT in healthcare and for the welfare. 3. Modernizing the education and training model through the use of ICT. 4. Spreading telecommunication networks and increasing their capacity. 5. Spreading trustworthy ICT among citizens and enterprises. 6. Increasing the advanced use of ICT solutions among citizens. 7. Spreading the use of ICT business solutions in enterprises. 8. Developing technological skills in the ICT sector. 9. Strengthening the digital content sector and intellectual property rights in the current technological context and within the Spanish and European legal framework. 10. Developing green ICT”.

Besides, it should be noted that different autonomous communities have also a specific ICT and information society development agenda and proper budget to promote its development. Some exemples are listed below: The Plan Andalucía Sociedad de la Información, the Plan Estratégico de la Sociedad de la Información en Extremadura, the plan Euskadi de la Sociedad de la Información, the Pla per la societat d'informació of Catalonia and the Agenda Digital de Galicia.

Internet in Education

Mainly sourced from EUN


All autonomous communities are fully responsible for the schools in their territory including the promotion of ICT in schools. ICT policies vary in emphasis and depth among the seventeen Autonomous Communities and the two Autonomous Cities (Ceuta and Melilla), although all plans address the common challenges that the adoption of ICT in school entails within that range of variation. As far as ICT use in school is concerned, there are periodic national and regional surveys that estimate how many teachers use ICTs and what they use them for. All schools entering pilot plans are closely monitored and they have detailed evaluation plans.

According to the data compiled by the Spanish Ministry of education the average number of students per computer devoted to learning and apprenticeship tasks was for the period 2010-2011, 3,5 students per computer. In comparison the average number was 8 student per computer in 2005-2006. Regarding educational centers connected to Internet with broadband, the Community of Madrid, Murcia, Valencia, and Navarra were the better connected. Canarias, Melilla, Catalunya, Galicia, Ceuta, Castilla Leon and La Rioja were located above the overall Spanish average and Aragon, Cantabria, Asturias, Balears, Castillam Andalucia and Extremadura were the Autonomous Communities with less educational centers connected to broadband.

Regarding connection to Internet in general, 86,9% of public educational centers are connected to Internet. In comparison in 2005-2006 only 45,4% were connected. More in detail, primary schools are connected at 83,7%, secondary and professional training centers at 95,6% and private centers at 96,2%.

Regarding the use of Internet by children between 10 and 15 years three months before being surveyed, it shows that 87,1% uses Internet at home (in comparison to 71,1% in 2006). Besides, 59,2% connected to Internet from school, 75,7% from home and 83,5% stated to use Internet to do their homework and 76% for entertainment.

Further information regarding indicators and monitoring of the use of ICT and Internet in education can be found in the 2011 report Indicadores del uso de las TIC en España y en Europa 2009-2010 put up by the Instituto de Tecnologías Educativas (ITE) on behalf of the Ministry of education.

In relation to specific ICT policies for education from autonomous communities, various initiatives to raise awareness and increase the access, uptake and use of ICT by teachers, educators, students and life long learners can be found in the following report developed by Telefonica in 2009. Some of those initiatives are detailed below:

  • National Level

The Spanish Ministry of Education still coordinates some initiatives at a national level in collaboration with the autonomous communities, like the ESCUELA 2.0.

Escuela 2.0 is a nationwide ICT plan for school building on the developments already achieved in each region and going further, trying to generalize the access to hardware and digital content in school in order to pedagogically integrate ICT into school life. The program had a budget of 200 million Euros for the 2009-2010 academic years, co-funded in equal parts by the Central Government of Spain and various Autonomous Regions (2010/2011). Currently the communities involved are: the Community of Madrid, Murcia, Valencia, Navarra, Canarias, Melilla, Catalunya, Galicia, Ceuta, Castilla Leon, Aragon, Cantabria, Asturias, Balears, Castilla, Andalucia and Extremadura.

The goal of the program is to transform the traditional fifth- and sixth-year Primary Education and first- and second-year Secondary Education classrooms into digital classrooms equipped with digital blackboards and wireless Internet connection, where the teacher has a laptop computer and each student work with an ultra-mobile personal computer. To that end, the Escuela 2.0 project is based on the following fundamental principles:

- Providing ICT resources to the students and the centers.
- Guaranteeing Internet connectivity in classrooms and homes.
- Ensuring the proper training for teaching staff.
- Generating and facilitating access to digital materials for teachers, students and families.

In complement to the previous, the EDA project is aimed at helping teachers incorporate ICT into their classroom activity by identifying advantages and disadvantages of using these new technologies and learning new approaches to teaching supported by ICT. Although initially started only for math tecahers, EDA has expanded in recent years to other areas. The program is promoted by the INTEF (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologías Educativas y de Formación del Profesorado) in agreement with some autonomous communities.

In relation to private organisations, EducaRed is the Telefónica Foundation program to promote the educational use of ICT in teaching, benefiting teachers, students, parents and which is being implemented in seven countries: Spain, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Peru. Founded in Spain in 1998, EducaRed has two main objectives: improving the quality of education and promoting equal opportunities through new technologies. It is also worth mentioning that Telefonica and the Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI) published in 2009 a report "La integración de las TIC en la escuela, indicadores cualitativos y metodología de investigación" [5] in order to evaluate and measure the integration of ICT inside education organisations highlighting main methodlogical and research challenges and how to best adress those.

  • Andalusia

In Andalusia, the department of education made in 2003 the use of open source software for all ICT equipments in public schools compulsory and develop a specific educational distribution entitled Gualalinex Edu. The global scope of the project involves 120.000 teachers and 1.800.000 students and cost-saving derivate from not using privative software have been estimated around 27 and 36 millions Euros per year. This estimation does not take into account cost-saving for teachers, administrators', servers, and in second instance for the families. The program has been increasingly enlarged and currently is being developed through the Escuela TIC 2.0 for Andalucia translating into providing 173.500 students of primary school with laptops installed with guadalinex.edu. The technical advice and support delivered towards teachers and students, and the administration of servers and software development is achieved by the Centro de Gestión Avanzado.

  • Catalonia

The Educational Telematic Network of Catalonia (XTEC) (Red Telemática Educativa de Cataluña) created in 1988 by the Catalan Department of Education provides Internet access to schools and educational services dependent on the department and also provides the entire educational community of Catalonia (at the exception of Higher Education organisations) a wide range of content, proposals and specific services. Besides, the portal Edu365.cat was created in 2001 to help structure the educational use of the Internet by students and provide specific content and services for them. Edu365 provides multimedia self-learning and teaching support, mainly for the curriculum areas of Elementary, primary and secondary Education.

  • Extremadura

Extremadura launched a pioneer plan back into 2001 when evaluating the expenses of operative systems for its intranet: “After calculating the expenses for each, it was determined that the cost of MS Windows licenses surpassed 20,000,000 Euros. And that figure did not include educational and administrative applications; those applications would have to be developed or bought and adapted to the local infrastructure. After an analysis of cost and adaptability, the government decided to develop a customized and regionalized version of GNU/Linux. It would be called LinEx. The installation of LinEx was gradual until it finally reached all of the high schools in Extremadura under the form of Linex edu” [4]. In 2011, its development was abandoned and legated to a national organization for the maintenance of the software, even tough the migration towards open source solution from institutional organizations has been kept in the agenda.

Since 2010-2011 the programe Escuela 2,0 has enabled the provision of schools with over 24,000 laptops (4,000 for teachers), 576 lockers for the care, custody and recharge of batteries of the equipment supplied, and 610 new digital whiteboards, along with numerous training activities oriented towards teachers in order to reap full benefit from the new digital classrooms. Besides, a pilot project around the use of digital textbooks is developed in five centers of primary and secondary education, to establish the best methodological option for educational profitability of new material resources available to schools.

Copyright law in Spain

The principal dispositions of Copyright law applicable in Spain are contained in Book One of the Intellectual Property Law of 11 November 1987. A consolidated version of this law was approved by Royal Legislative Decree 1/1996 of 12 April 1996  implementing European directive 93/98/CEE and harmonizing certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the Information society. The full text in Spanish can be accessed at the UNESCO collection of National Copyright Laws. The main limitations to the exclusive rights of exploitation are contained in Title III, Chapter 2.  For instance regrading the “Right to the private copying and home playing”, the law explicitly allows to make private copies of copyrighted work without the author's consent for published works if the copy is not for commercial use. To compensate authors, the law establishes a compensatory tax associated with certain recording media (CDs, DVDs, cassettes), managed through societies of authors and editors (as SGAE and CEDRO). Such private copies of a protected work must be made for the private use (not collective, nor lucrative) of the copier (2º of art. 31): the author is compensated by a tax on the means of reproduction (e.g. photocopiers, blank cassettes) determined at article 25. However, computer programs can not be copied except for a backup copy (art. 99.2): they can be modified for the sole use of the person performing the modification (art. 99.4). Any work can be played in a "strictly home" environment (art. 20.1) without the author's consent. The moral rights of the author can only be exercised in the respect of the rights of owners of copies of the work or of rights to its exploitation, as detailed in article 14. Besides, the “Right to receive and to impart information” states that lectures, addresses, judicial proceedings and other works of the same nature may be reproduced or communicated for the sole purpose of reporting on current events (art. 33.2). The proceedings of parliament and of public corporations may be reproduced or communicated for any purpose (art. 33.2). Works of news reporting may be reproduced in other news media, with identification of the author and remuneration (art. 33.1). Any work which can be seen or heard may be reproduced, distributed and publicly communicated for the purpose of, and only to the extent necessary for, providing information thereof in the context of reporting on current events (art. 34) Source: Wikipedia Copyright law of Spain.

Copyright law in Education

Regarding copyright law dispositions in relation to “Use for education and research”: Museums, libraries and similar public or cultural institutions may make reproductions of works for the purposes of research (art. 37). "Fragments" of written, sound or audiovisual works or "isolated" plastic, photographic, figurative or analogous works may be included in another original work for the purposes of teaching or research (fines docentes o de investigación) if the following conditions are met (art. 32): the source work has been published; it is included for citation or for analysis, commentary or critical judgement; it is included with a citation of the source and the name of the author; it is only included to the extent justified by the purposes of teaching or research. Press reviews and collections are expressly covered by the provisions of article 32. Source: Wikipedia Copyright law of Spain

It should be noted that the article that most affects teachers is the article 32.2 which states that no author's permission is needed by teachers in formal education to perform acts of reproduction, distribution and public communication of small fragments of works or individual works of plastic arts or photographic figurative character, excluding textbooks and university textbooks, when such acts are solely for illustration of its educational activities in the classroom, to the extent justified by the non-commercial purpose, provided that the works have already been disclosed and, except in cases where it is impossible to include the author's name and source. Besides, regarding licensing intellectual rights in the digital world, the article 32.2 raises an interesting debate about what should be ranged under the “classroom” banner. Should “classroom” be interpreted as only the physical classroom or should it enlarge its scope to the virtual classroom? [7]

The Intellectual Property Commission is also a specific agency set up as a national collegiate body attached to the Directorate General of Intellectual Property, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, with functions of mediation, arbitration and protection of rights in the intellectual property field. Despite the nature of the administrative body, it is not part of the organizational structure of the Ministry. Finally, the following project Authors copyrights in eLearning Platforms aims at delving into the reality of copyright in the digital environment, particularly in e-learning. It provides resources and guidance regarding the rights that affect the activities practiced in virtual education. It also specifies which are current copyright laws which can contradict eLearning aims and present possible solutions to some of these conflicts.

OER Initiatives in Spain

As an introductory note, according to the OECD latest survey respondents estimated that 90% of all publicly produced or financed learning materials are available in digital format [2], besides they stated that OER activities in Spain were mostly focused towards young children (ISCED sectors 1 to 3) and . However, the analysis of the OpenCourseWare consortium partners, one of the most widespread initiative of Open education for Higher Education organizations, reveals that in relation to EU27 member States there is a strong over-representation of Spanish universities, followed by UK and France. In relation to above OECD survey results, it is not clear whether there is a shared understanding and common definition of what is an OER initiative among civil servants from ministries of education which have been the main target of the above mentioned survey.

Indeed, as the detail of initiatives below will show there is a general misunderstanding of what are open and/or free licenses driving to confuse OER with Open Access. In order to identify Open Access initiatives and OER in Spain our research started from extracting from the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) the ones falling under the category “Spain”. DOAJ aims at being a directory of Open Access Journals in order to increase the visibility and ease of use of open access scientific and scholarly journals thereby promoting their increased usage and impact. According to them, Open Access journals refer to journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access. From the BOAI definition of "open access", it refers to the right of users to "read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles" as mandatory for a journal to be included in the directory. However, DOAJ also listed repositories of digitized contents put at disposition by public institutions and Higher Education universities.

Open Access initiatives in Spain: List of 78 OA initiatives identified

Departing from the idea that OER are defined by contents released under an open or free license, initiatives can be divided among:

  • Open Access initiatives which basically put at disposal contents on the Internet retaining all authors rights under strict copyright policies (e.g. most of the digitized contents repositories offered by public institutions fall into this category)
  • Mixed OA and OER, which are the ones that enable either the use of copyright, either the use of Creative Commons licenses (generally BY-No Commercial – No derivative) and which generally related to Phd, thesis and academic articles repositories piloted by HE organizations
  • OER initiatives using only Creative Commons license which are devided between the ones that promote open licenses (BY-NC-ND) and the ones tha tpromote free licenses (for instance CC BY-SA or GPL licenses).

In general, information regarding authors rights was available either in a specific section from the home page, either in the “legal disclaimer” or the “frequently Asked Questions” sections. It should be noted that among the reviewed initiatives many of them did not display clearly their Authors Rights policies driving us to categorize them as “unclear” initiatives. Regarding our sample, 19 initiatives used strict copyright, 20 had unclear policies, 28 offered the possibility to license either under strict copyright either using an open or free Creative Commons licenses, 10 allowed Creative Commons licenses and only one initiative had its contents released under the GPL free license. As a result among the 78 OA identified initiatives, almost the half (39 initiatives) could be labelled also as OER.

Finally, it is interesting to see that most of those initiatives used online platforms based on free software (mostly Dspace and Moodle) and many of them also stated to use open standards such as metadata for categorizing contents and easing their discoverability and retrieval.

International and national OER initiatives

Regarding OpenCourseWare initiatives delivered by Higher Education organisations some of the most known initiatives are listed below. It should be noted that because of Spanish is used in most countries in central and Latin America, there are several initiatives which are based among partnerships between Spanish and Higher Educations organizations located overseas.

Universia started in 2000 as an Internet initiative in the higher education sector. It is promoted by a group of Spanish universities with the support of the Spanish University Rectors' Board (CRUE), the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and sponsored by the Santander Group. It is coordinated by the Foundation Universia and its OpenCourseWare is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.5 ES. It is a network that consists of 1,1000 Universities in 15 countries: Andorra, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Spain, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela. It has 12 websites, one for each country, and another global site which offers information and contents from across the network. Universia network represents 10.1 million students, 8 million users and 850,000 university teaching staff .

The OCW from UOC (Universitat Oberta de Catalunya) was launched in 2008 and offers over 100 courses licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. The OCW from the EHU (Universidad del País Vasco) was also launched in 2008 and its contents are licensed under CC BY NC SA 2.5 ES. The OCW from the UPM (Universidia Politecnica de Madrid) offers over 80 courses under various Creative Commons license.

Other spanish universities providing OpenCourseWare are the: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (English,Spanish); Universidad de Alicante (Spanish); Universidad de Cadiz (Spanish); Universidad de Cantabria (Spanish); Universidad de Murcia (English,Spanish); Universidad de Navarra (Spanish); Universidad de Oviedo (Spanish); Universidad de Sevilla (Spanish); Universidad de Zaragoza (Spanish); Universidad Internacional de Andalucía (Spanish); Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (Spanish); Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena (Spanish); Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spanish); Universidad Politecnica Madrid (Spanish); Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Galician,Spanish); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spanish, Catalan); Universitat de Girona (Spanish, Catalan); Universitat Jaume I (Spanish, Catalan).

The first steps into Massive Open Online Courses were taken by the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid which launched a virtual course regarding cryptography in 2012 Crypt4you. Currently the Universidad Nacional Española a Distancia (UNED) in collaboration with the MIT which are launching the UnX platform in order to ease the provision of open contents and virtual training developped by the UNED and the MIT OpenCourseWare. UnX is therefore the Spanish equivalence for EdX created two years ago by the MIT and Harvard universities. UNED will provide formal certification through its CSEV (Centro superior para la Enseñanza virtual) in partnership with Telefonica and Universia. The First virtual training courses will focus in the development of phone applications for the Android mobile operative system.

Regarding other OER national initiatives targeting teachers of primary and secondary, young students, families and life long learners we found the following initiatives:

The portal of Recursos Educativos put up by the INTEF (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologías Educativas y de Formación del Profesorado) offers over one thousand educational resources oriented towards teachers, kids, young adults and parents. All its ressources are licensed under Creative Commons BY – NC – SA 3.0. They are organized around different targets and projects. For instance, WikiDidacTICa is a repository of best educational practices developped by teachers through collaborative and collective process. Its goal is to build a useful space facilitating the gradual incorporation of digital tools as teaching resources for all levels of education. Ressources are licensed under Creative Commons BY – NC – SA 3.0. They also offer a repository of images and sounds under Creative Commons BY-NC-SA.

The CEDEC (National Centre for Curriculum Development in Non privative operative systems) was founded in 2009 as an agency of the Ministry of Education through the Institute of Educational Technology and the Junta of Extremadura. Its aim is to design, promote and develop digital educational materials through the use of free software and to made them available to the entire educational community.

The Virtual school of Parents is a web portal for parents, aimed at supporting them in their role through useful documents and spaces for dialogue around the issues of children education and related problems. The portal include a specific session called “Escuela Virtual”, where materials can be downloaded and a forum is available.

[www.proyectoagrega.e The Agrega project] is a federation of learning Digital repository which is to be used by 19 educational authorities in Spain. Each educational authority will have its own repository loaded with curricular learning objects created according to standards, and each single repository will be able to integrate and interoperate with other learning systems locally and worldwide. The Agrega project has a clear focus on integration and interoperability between Agrega learning repositories and the rest of the world. Moreover, it is open to collaborative evolution based on a generic GPL licensing. It is the first step towards providing a nation-wide access to content generated by the education community in a consistent and interoperable way. Curricular content for Agrega is being developed under Creative Commons licensing schemes, can be experimented directly from a web site, offline or by an Learning Management System, and all the contents and application will be localised in Spanish, Euskera, Catalan, Valencian, Gallego and English.

WikimediaEducativa was launched in 2010 by students of some masters delivered by the private university Camilo José Cela (UCJC). It aims at offering a repository of educational contents for teachers and students from primary schools. Contents are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0.

Wikisaber was launched in 2007 by the foundation wWikisaber in partnership with various organisations (London Grid for Learning, la Universidad de Salamanca, la Fundación Pastor de Estudios Clásicos o la Fundación Germán Sánchez Ruipérez) and financed under a European fund for regional development.

Red educa is an initiative launched by an individual, Laura Soulié, between 2005-2008 and which aimed at providing educational contents under Creative Commons to all teachers and educators dealing with ICT use into their classrooms. Another OER initiative launched in 2007 by an individual, Marifé Lara Romero, also targets teachers in primary and secondary schools.

Regional OER initiatives

Most of the OER initiatives listed below have been extracted from the Open Access initiatives identified here: [List of 78 OA initiatives identified]

Academica-e

Organisation: Universidad Pública de Navarra, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. OAI-PMH: http://academica-e.unavarra.es/oai/request Software: DSpace Size: 2438 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Agriculture, Food and Veterinary; Technology General; Computers and IT Content: References; Theses Languages: Spanish; English Policies: License of distribution / Creative Commons.

Archivo Abierto Institucional de la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos

Organisation: Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain Description: This site is an institutional repository which provides open access to the publications produced by the members of our University, mainly theses. The whole site interface is in Spanish only. Registered users can set up email alerts in order to notify them new added materials. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. OAI-PMH: http://eciencia.urjc.es/dspace-oai/request Software: DSpace Size: 5305 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Theses; Unpublished; Books Languages: Spanish Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

Archivo Digital UPM

Organisation: Universidad Politecnica de Madrid. Biblioteca, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain Description: This is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institution. Primarily contains thesis. OAI-PMH: http://oa.upm.es/cgi/oai2 Software: EPrints Size: 9688 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Theses; Books; Patents Languages: Spanish Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

Arias Montano (Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Huelva)

Organisation: Biblioteca Universitaria, Universidad de Huelva, Spain Description: This site is an institutional repository which provides open access to the publications produced by the members of the University. The interface is in Spanish. OAI-PMH: http://rabida.uhu.es/dspace-oai/request Software: DSpace Size: 5433 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Theses; Books Languages: Spanish Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

e_buah (Biblioteca Digital de la Universidad de Alcalá)

Organisation: Universidad de Alcalá, Spain Description: This is an institutional repository for the Universidad de Alacalá, giving access to the publication output of the university. The site interface is in Spanish. OAI-PMH: http://dspace.uah.es/oai/request Software: DSpace Size: 7451 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Special Languages: Spanish Policies: Creative Commons BY-NC-ND

Biblioteca virtual de obras públicas de Andalucía (BviaL)

Organisation: Agencia de Obra Pública de la Junta de Andalucía, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish and English. Software: DSpace Size: 1009 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Law and Politics; Management and Planning Content: Articles; References; Conferences; Unpublished; Books; Multimedia; Special Languages: Spanish Policies: Creative Copmmons BY-ND-NC

Biblos-e Archivo

Organisation: Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain Description: This site is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. OAI-PMH: http://digitool-uam.greendata.es/OAI-PUB Software: DigiTool Size: 6662 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Theses; Books Languages: Spanish Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons BY-NC-ND

CEU Repositorio Institucional

Organisation: Universidad San Pablo CEU, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. OAI-PMH: http://dspace.ceu.es/oai/request Software: DSpace Size: 3552 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; References; Theses Languages: Spanish; English Policies: Creative Commons BY-NC_NC 3.0

citaREA Repositorio Electrónico Agroalimentario

Organisation: Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA), Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in Spanish. OAI-PMH: http://www2.cita-aragon.es/oai/request Software: DSpace Size: 1554 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Agriculture, Food and Veterinary Content: Articles; Theses; Books Languages: Spanish Policies: Creative Commons BY-NC_NC 3.0

Dehesa (Dehesa. Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Extremadura)

Organisation: Universidad de Extremadura (UNEX), Spain Description: This site provides access to the research students output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish, Portuguese and English. OAI-PMH: http://dehesa.unex.es:8080/oai/request Software: DSpace Size: 16 items (2012-10-19) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles Languages: Spanish Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

Digital.CSIC

Organisation: Unidad de Coordinación de la Red de Bibliotecas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Spanish National Research Council) (CSIC), Spain Description: This is the institutional repository of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) that provides access to the scientific output produced by CSIC researchers. OAI-PMH: http://digital.csic.es/dspace-oai/request Software: DSpace Size: 52898 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary; Science General; Agriculture, Food and Veterinary; Biology and Biochemistry; Chemistry and Chemical Technology; Ecology and Environment; Physics and Astronomy; Mechanical Engineering and Materials; Arts and Humanities General; Social Sciences General Content: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Datasets; Learning Objects; Multimedia; Patents Languages: Spanish; English Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

Dipòsit Digital de Documents de la UAB

Organisation: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain Description: this site provides access to the research and learning output of the institution. The interface is available in English, Catalan and Spanish. OAI-PMH: http://ddd.uab.cat/oai2d Software: invenio Size: 81930 items (2012-08-20) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; References; Unpublished; Books; Learning Objects; Multimedia Languages: Spanish; Catalan; English Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

Diposit Digital de la Universitat de Barcelona

Organisation: Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Spain Description: It is a university repository providing access to the digital output of the faculty and staff at the University of Barcelona. All material is made available under Creative Commons licenses. The interface is available in Catalan, English and Spanish. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. OAI-PMH: http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace-oai/request Software: DSpace Size: 7669 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Business and Economics; Management and Planning Content: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Learning Objects; Special Languages: Catalan Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

ACCEDA (Documentacion cientifica de la ULPGC en abierto)

Organisation: Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), Spain Description: This site provides access to the output of the institution. The interface is in Spanish. Software: DSpace Size: 5719 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Learning Objects Languages: Spanish; English Policies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined OpenDOAR ID: 1641 , Suggest an update for this record, Missing data is needed for: OAI-PMH & Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

DUGiDocs – Universitat de Girona

Organisation: Universitat de Girona, Spain Description: This site provides access to teaching and learning output of the institution. An RSS feed is available to keep users up to date with newly added materials. OAI-PMH: http://dugi-doc.udg.edu/dspace-oai/request Software: DSpace Size: 5970 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Theses; Unpublished; Books; Learning Objects Languages: Spanish; English Policies:Copyright / Creative Commons

DUGiFonsEspecials - Universitat de Girona

Organisation: Universitat de Girona, Spain Description: This site provides access to special collections deposited in the Library of the University of Girona. The interface is in a mixture of Spanish and English. An RSS feed is available to keep users up to date with newly added materials. Some items are not available as full-text. OAI-PMH: http://dugifonsespecials.udg.edu/dspace-oai/request Software: DSpace Size: 10232 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Special Languages: Spanish Policies:Copyright / Creative Commons

DUGiMedia – Universitat de Girona

Organisation: Universitat de Girona, Spain Description: This site provides access to the audio and video output of the institution. The interface is in a mixture of Spanish and English. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. Some items are not available as full-text. OAI-PMH: http://diobma.udg.edu/dspace-oai/request Software: DSpace Size: 2055 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Multimedia Languages: Spanish; English Policies:Copyright / Creative Commons

EducarEx

Initiative piloted by the council of education and culture of the community autonomous government of Extremadura between 2004 and 2012 and aimed at providing educational contents for all compulsory schooling cycle for teachers and students. Those contents were released under Creative Commons BY- Share alike - No Commercial.

e-IEO

Organisation: Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in Spanish.This repository covers Oceanography and related subjects. OAI-PMH: http://www.repositorio.ieo.es/dspace-oai/request Software: DSpace Size: 451 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Biology and Biochemistry; Ecology and Environment Content: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished; Books; Multimedia Languages: Spanish; English Policies:Creative Commons

EPrints Complutense (E-PrintsUCM)

Organisation: Biblioteca de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Universidad Complutense Madrid (UCM), Spain Description: This site is a university repository providing access to the publication output of the institution. The site interface is available in English or Spanish. Users may set up an Atom or RSS feed to be alerted to new content. OAI-PMH: http://eprints.ucm.es/cgi/oai2 Software: EPrints Size: 12336 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished; Books; Learning Objects; Multimedia Languages: English; Spanish Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

EMD (Euskal Memoria Digitala)

Organisation: Sancho el Sabio Foundation, Spain Description: This site provides access to digital scans of monographs relating to Basque culture. The interface is available in English, Spanish and Basque. OAI-PMH: http://www.memoriadigitalvasca.es/dspace-oai/request Software: DSpace Size: 3053 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Books Languages: English; Basque; Spanish Policies:Copyright / Creative Commons

GREDOS

Organisation: Universidad de Salamanca, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output and collections of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish, Portuguese or English. Software: DSpace Size: 92556 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Learning Objects; Multimedia Languages: Spanish; Portuguese; English Policies:Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 ES

Portal de Revistas Científicas Complutenses

Organisation: Universidad Complutense Madrid (UCM), Spain Description: This site provides access to the journal and research output of the institution. The interface is in Spanish. OAI-PMH: http://revistas.ucm.es/index.php/oai/oai/ Software: OJS Size: 31573 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles Languages: Spanish Policies:Licencia Pública General GNU

Recursos de Investigación de la Alhambra

Organisation: Patronato de la Alhambra y el Generalife, Spain Description: This site provides access to the digitised collections of the institution. The interface is in Spanish. Software: DSpace Size: 13358 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Books; Multimedia under copyright Creative Commons - Es (BY-NC-ND) Languages: Spanish Policies:Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 ES

Roderic (Repositori d'Objectes Digitals per a l'Ensenyament la Recerca i la Cultura)

Organisation: Universitat de Valencia, Spain Description: This site provides access to digitised collections including manuscripts and books, as well as research outputs of the institution. The interface is available in Valencià and Castellano Spanish. OAI-PMH: http://roderic.uv.es/oai/request Size: 6776 items (2012-08-20) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Books; Learning Objects Languages: Spanish; English Policies: Copyright /Creative Commons

Repositori Digital de la UPF

Organisation: Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Spain Description: The interface is in Spanish, Catalan and English. Many items are hosted on external sites. A few items are available as full-text. OAI-PMH: http://repositori.upf.edu/ Software: DSpace Size: 5960 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; References; Conferences; Theses Languages: Spanish; English Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

Repositori UJI (Repositori Institucional de la Universitat Jaume I)

Organisation: Universitat Jaume I, Spain Description: This site provides access to teaching, learning and institutional output of the institution. Also, this site provides access to Biblioteca Digital de Castellon, with materials which authors are from Castellon or they are relating to Castellon's province. The interface is available in Catalan, English, Spanish and German. OAI-PMH:http://repositori.uji.es Software: DSpace Size: 9369 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Multimedia Languages: Catalan; Spanish; English; German Policies:Copyright / Creative Commons

Repositori Obert UdL

Organisation: Universitat de Lleida, Spain. Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in English, Spanish or Catalan. Some items are held on external websites. OAI-PMH:http://repositori.udl.cat/Software: DSpace Size: 4098 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Theses; Unpublished; Learning Objects Languages: English Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

Repositorio da Universidade da Coruña(RUC)

Organisation: Universidade da Coruña, Spain Description: The interface is available in Spanish, Galician and English. This site replaces Universidade da Coruña UDCDspace. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content. OAI-PMH: http://ruc.udc.es Software: DSpace Size: 6523 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished Languages: Spanish Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

Repositorio de la UNIA

Organisation: Universidad Internacional de Andalucía (UNIA), Spain Description: This site provides access to the research and teaching outputs of the institution. Collections include historical collections: on relations Spain & Latin America (nineteenth and twentieth centuries); History of Andalusia (Southern Spain). The interface is available in Spanish. OAI-PMH:http://dspace.unia.esSoftware: DSpace Size: 2058 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Geography and Regional Studies; History and Archaeology; Language and Literature Content: Articles; Theses; Books; Special Languages: Spanish Policies: Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 2.5 ES

RODIN(Repositorio de Objetos de Docencia e Investigación de la Universidad de Cádiz)

Organisation: Universidad de Cádiz, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is in Spanish. OAI-PMH:http://rodin.uca.es Software: DSpace Size: 7139 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Theses; Books Languages: Spanish Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

Repositorio Digital de la Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena(Repositorio Digital UPCT)

Organisation: Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UCPT), Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in Spanish. OAI-PMH:http://repositorio.bib.upct.es Software: DSpace Size: 2531 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Theses; Special Languages: Spanish Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

SAVIA(Repositorio Digital EOI)

Organisation: EOI(Escuela de Organización Industrial), Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish, German, English and Japanese. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. Software: PubMan Size: 1724 items (2012-07-05) Subjects: Business and Economics Content: Theses; Unpublished; Books; Special Languages: Spanish Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

Repositorio Documental de la Universidad de Valladolid(UVADOC)

Organisation: Universidad de Valladolid, Spain Description: This site provides access to the theses output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in Spanish. OAI-PMH:http://uvadoc.uva.es Software: DSpace Size: 233 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Theses Languages: Spanish Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

Repositorio Institucional Arjona y Cubas de la Real Academia de Córdoba

Organisation: Real Academia de Ciencias, Bellas Letras y Nobles Artes de Córdoba, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. Software: DSpace Size: 169 items (2012-09-05) Subjects: Science General; Arts and Humanities General; History and Archaeology; Language and Literature Content: Articles Languages: Spanish Policies: Creative Commons BY NC ND

Repositorio Institucional de Asturias (RIA)

Organisation: Gobierno del Principado de Asturias, Universidad de Oviedo, Spain Description: This site is providing access to the output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. OAI-PMH:http://ria.asturias.es Software: DSpace Size: 774 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Books Languages: Spanish Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

E-Archivo(Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)

Organisation: Biblioteca, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain Description: This site is an institutional repository providing access to materials produced by the members of the university. The site is supported with background information on Open Access in general, and publisher copyright issues in particular. Registered users on the site can set up email alerts, to notify them of newly added relevant content. The interface is available in Spanish and English. OAI-PMH: http://e-archivo.uc3m.es Software: DSpace Size: 12760 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished; Books Languages: Spanish; English Policies: Creative Commons

Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Alicante (RUA)

Organisation: University of Alicante, Spain Description: This site is an institutional repository providing access to publications produced by the members of the university. The site interface is available partially in Spanish and partly in English. An RSS feed is available to keep users up to date with newly added materials. The site is well supported with guidance information, in Spanish only. OAI-PMH: http://rua.ua.es Software: DSpace Size: 20057 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; References; Conferences; Theses; Learning Objects Languages: Spanish Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Almería (Spain)

Organisation: Universidad de Almería, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the Institution. Interface available in Spanish and English. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. OAI-PMH:http://repositorio.ual.es Software: DSpace Size: 1169 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Theses Languages: Spanish Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

RIUMA (Repositorio Institucional Universidad de Málaga)

Organisation: Universidad de Málaga, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research outputs of the institution. The interface is in Spanish. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. OAI-PMH: http://riuma.uma.es Software: DSpace Size: 2021 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Learning Objects; Special Languages: Spanish Policies: Copyright / Creative Commons

Institutional OER initiatives

The EducaRed initiative was launched between 2008-2012 by the foundation Telefonica and aimed at offering ressources and methodologies to introduce the use of ICT and Internet inside educational organisations.

Edukateka is deliverred by the Foundation Gabriel Piedrahita Uribe (FGPU) and aims at providing for free quality materials for teachers, school managers and teacher trainers. It also offers virtual trainings in order to help them enrich their use of ICT inside their school environments. It also designs and implements interactive online spaces with useful and valuable resource for teachers (Classroom Project Manager, Collaborative Project Planner, Interactive Curriculum 2.0).

The Observatory for CyberSociety is an interdisciplinary space for debate and reflection, where digital technologies are assessed and analyzed from several perspectives, considering its value, its social impact. It has just recently reached ten years and all its contents are licensed under Creative Commons BY 3.0.

Goteo is a social network for crowdfunding and distributed collaboration for encouraging the independent development of creative and innovative initiatives that contribute to the common good, free knowledge, and open code.  It is a platform for investing in "feeder capital" that supports projects with social, cultural, scientific, educational, technological, or ecological objectives that generate new opportunities for the improvement of society and the enrichment of community goods and resources. All projects funded through Goteo reverts into the Commons by sharing its contents, design, ideas using open or free liceses.

Conclusions

Wrapping up, the analysis of previous spanish OER and OA initiatives shows that there is a need to increase awareness, understanding and training to what are Open and content licenses and to improve OER being used and reused. It should be noted that choosing a free/open license does not automatically translate into being a "truly" open resource. Other required aspects are availability, accessibility and responsiveness.

Open resources need to be available because if they can not be found they are as useless as if they were closed. Accessible means that they clearly set how they can be used and they are usable (from cleaerly stating their authors rights policies, being eAccesible for persons suffering disabilities to promoting cultural diversity by providing multilanguage options). Responsiveness entails that feed back is welcomed and channels are provided to facilitate it. All together they reinforce in one hand, recognition and crediting for the author(s) merits, and enable in the other hand, a culture of reciprocity and networking where the flow of ideas and knowledge results in added creativity

Finally, another important elements impeding further mainstreaming of Spanish OER initiatives relates to the issue of their discoverability and room for adaptation. Indeed the use of licenses allowing modifcatuions by third parties and open formats enabling to change, modify and adapt contents to new targets, contexts and pedagogical objectives appear to missing assignments for most of the reviewed OER initiatives. Last but not least, OER need to be accessible in the sense that they require to be found to be useful. This last element deal with deeper problems linked to Internet development and the indexing, storage and retrieval of resources. In relation to this dimension, OER initiatives need to go more in-depth in using open linked data and semantics in order to improve their visibility and thus overall usefulness,

In conclusion, Spain counts on many Open Acess initiatives and offers huge potential for boosting OER and Open Education consequently, either by convincing already digitized repositories to go for open/free licenses, either by systematizing links between HE platforms offering OpenCourseWare courses. However, more sensitization towards open standards and the use of open licenses enabling remix of contents and free licenses enabling commercial uses by thrid parties should also be promoted.

References

1. ReVica/VISCED page for Spain

2. Hylén, J. et al. (2012), “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing.

Main sources used to draft the eLearning section:

  • Wikipedia: Educación a distancia en España
  • "El e-learning en la Universidad española", Chasco Yrigoyen, Coro; López García, Ana; González Díaz-Caneja, Ignacio; Instituto L.R. Klein-Dpto. de Economía Aplicada; Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. (link)

Former sources:

  • [1] According to the [www.infodev.org/en/Document.15.pdf World Economic Forum] (February 2004)
  • [2] [www.telecentros.info/pdfs/estudio_apel.pdf “E-Learning En España. Diagnóstico Prospectivo Y Pautas De Desarrollo”], APEL, Inmark, Fundación Tripartita



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