Difference between revisions of "Spain"

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== Overview ==
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''lead author for VISCED - Daniela Proli, [[SCIENTER]] - for general and university material based on Re.ViCa work by [[Paul Bacsich]], [[Nikki Cortoos]], [[Ilse Op de Beeck]] and other members of the Re.ViCa team''
  
<!-- copy material from VISCED/Re.ViCa wiki
 
Use the style [[Has population::7,600,000]] and [[Has capital::Sofia]] for population and capital. -->
 
  
''Spain'' - in full, the '''Kingdom of Spain''' - is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
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For entities in Spain see [[:Category:Spain]]
  
Spanish territory also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the African coast, and two autonomous cities in North Africa, Ceuta and Melilla, that border [[Morocco]]. With an area of 504,030 km², Spain is the second largest country in Western Europe after [[France]].
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For the autonomous communities and cities of Spain see [[:Category:Autonomous communities and cities of Spain]]
  
Its population is [[Has population::46,000,000]] (2010 figure).
 
  
Its capital is [[Has capital::Madrid]].
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== Experts situated in Spain ==
  
Spain is a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy and has been a member of the European Union since 1986, and NATO since 1982.
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* '''Begonia Arenas'''
  
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== Spain in a nutshell ==
  
=== Further information ===
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[[Image:Spain-map.gif|left|400mp]]
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Spain or the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
  
''For further general information see [[Wikipedia:{{PAGENAME}}]].''
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Spanish territory also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the African coast, and two autonomous cities in North Africa, Ceuta and Melilla, that border Morocco. With an area of 504,030 km², Spain is the second largest country in Western Europe after France.
  
==== Autonomous communities and cities of Spain ====
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After serving as a granary of the Roman Empire, much of Spain was later conquered by a Muslim people, the Moors. Christian kingdoms gradually rolled back Muslim rule, completing this Reconquista in 1492. Spain became the leading world power, with a global empire on a scale and world distribution that had never been approached by its predecessors and a legacy today of over 400 million Spanish-speakers worldwide.
  
Spain is divided in 17 parts called '''autonomous communities'''. "Autonomous" means that each of these autonomous communities has its own Executive Power, its own Legislative Power and its own Judicial Power. These are similar, but ''not'' the same, to states in the United States of America, for example.
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Napoleon's invasion of Spain in the early 19th century triggered independence movements that tore the empire apart and left the country politically unstable. In the 20th century it suffered a devastating civil war and came under the rule of a dictatorship, leading to years of stagnation. Democracy was restored in 1978 and the country has subsequently experienced a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth. Spain is now a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy and has been a member of the European Union since 1986, and NATO since 1982.
  
Spain has fifty smaller parts called provinces. In 1978 these parts came together, making the autonomous communities. Before then, some of these provinces were together but were broken. The groups that were together once before are called "historic communities": Catalonia, Basque Country, Galicia and Andalusia.
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== Education in Spain ==
  
The Spanish language is the official language in every autonomous commmunity but six autonomous communities have also other official languages:
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''Mainly sourced from Eurydice''
  
# [[Catalonia]] (Catalan and Occitan)
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The education system in Spain is organised into mainstream education and Enseñanzas de Régimen Especial (specialised education). Primary education (6 to 12) and  compulsory secondary education (12 to 16) correspond to basic education, which consists of ten years of free and compulsory schooling for all pupils.
# Valencian Community (Catalan, also called Valencian there)
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# [[Balearic Islands]] (Catalan)
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# [[Galicia]] (Galician)
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# [[Basque]] Country (Basque)
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# [[Navarre]] (Basque, but only in the north)
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List of the autonomous communities, with their Capital city (the place where the government has its offices):
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Mainstream education comprises:
  
# Andalusia (its capital is Sevilla)
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'''Pre-primary education''' (Educación Infantil):  it is non-compulsory. It is divided into two stages: the first one, up to the age of 3, and the second, from 3 to 6 years of age
# Aragon (its capital is Zaragoza)
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# Asturias (its capital is Oviedo)
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# Balearic Islands (its capital is Palma de Mallorca)
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# Basque Country (its capital is Vitoria)
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# Canary Islands (they have two capitals - Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife)
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# Cantabria (its capital is Santander)
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# Castile-La Mancha (its capital is Toledo)
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# Castile and León (its capital is Valladolid)
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# Catalonia (its capital is Barcelona)
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# Extremadura (its capital is Mérida)
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# Galicia (its capital is Santiago de Compostela)
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# La Rioja (its capital is Logroño)
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# Madrid (its capital is Madrid)
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# Murcia (its capital is Murcia)
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# Navarre (its capital is Pamplona)
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# Valencian Community (its capital is Valencia)
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Spain also has two cities on the north coast of Africa: [[Ceuta]] and [[Melilla]]. They are called "autonomous cities" and have simultaneously the majority of the power of an autonomous community and also power of provinces and power of municipalities.
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'''Primary education''' (Educación Primaria): it is the first compulsory stage of the system. It covers six years of instruction, divided into three two-year cycles. It is normally completed between the ages of 6 and 12.
  
== Education in {{PAGENAME}} ==
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'''Secondary education''' In the Spanish education system, secondary education is comprised of compulsory secondary and post-compulsory secondary.
  
''For a general description of education in {{PAGENAME}} see [[Education:{{PAGENAME}}]].''
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'''Post-compulsory secondary education''' includes two options: the two-year Bachillerato (form 16 to 18), and intermediate vocational training ciclos formativos, the duration of which varies between one and a half or two years.
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Secondary education also includes artistic professional Music and Dance education, intermediate professional Sports and Plastic Arts and Design education, which belong to enseñanzas de régimen especial. This also covers language education.
  
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The '''vocational training''' is also a common possibility after ESO or after the Spanish Baccalaureate. There are two different types of programs: Middle Grade Training Cycles (Ciclos Formativos de Grado Medio), which have the ESO diploma as a requirement, and Superior-level Training Cycles (Ciclos Formativos de grado Superior), which have the Spanish Baccalaureate as the principal requirement. After completion of the Superior-level Training Cycle, students are entitled to direct entrance to several related University degrees (source wikipedia)
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'''University education''': Once students have finished their Bachillerato, they can take their University Entrance Exam (Pruebas de Acceso a la Universidad, popularly called Selectividad) which differs greatly from region to region.  
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University in Spain is organised into three cycles, namely Bachelor, Masters and Doctorate, with variable duration and a minimum required number of ECTS credits.
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== Schools in Spain ==
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<!-- cover pre-primary, primary and secondary (all kinds including vocational)  -->
  
The education system in Spain is organised into mainstream education and Enseñanzas de Régimen Especial (specialised education). Primary education (6 to 12) and  compulsory secondary education (12 to 16) correspond to basic education, which consists of ten years of free and compulsory schooling for all pupils.
 
 
Mainstream education comprises:
 
Mainstream education comprises:
  
'''Pre-primary education''' (Educación Infantil): it is the first stage in the education system and it is non-compulsory. It is divided into two stages: the first one, up to the age of 3, and the second, from 3 to 6 years of age
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'''Pre-primary education'''
  
'''Primary education''' (Educación Primaria): it is the first compulsory stage of the system. It covers six years of instruction, divided into three two-year cycles. It is normally completed between the ages of 6 and 12.
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(Educación Infantil): it is the first stage in the education system and it is non-compulsory. It is divided into two stages: the first one, up to the age of 3, and the second, from 3 to 6 years of age
  
'''Secondary education''' In the Spanish education system, secondary education is comprised of compulsory secondary and post-compulsory secondary. The former - Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO) it is divided into four courses and it is ordinarily completed from the ages of 12 to 16, it covers four school years and must be completed after finishing primary education. Successful students are awarded a Secondary Education Certificate, which is necessary for entering further optional education as is Bachillerato for their University or Formacion Professional (Vocational Studies).
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'''Primary education'''
  
'''Post-compulsory secondary education''' includes two options: the two-year Bachillerato (form 16 to 18), and intermediate vocational training ciclos formativos, the duration of which varies between one and a half or two years.
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(Educación Primaria): it is the first compulsory stage of the system. It covers six years of instruction, divided into three two-year cycles. It is normally completed between the ages of 6 and 12.
Secondary education also includes artistic professional Music and Dance education, intermediate professional Sports and Plastic Arts and Design education, which belong to enseñanzas de régimen especial. This also covers language education. This provision, although not regarded as part of secondary education, belongs to Enseñanzas de Régimen Especial, which may be started at the age of 16 or 14 if the language to be studied is different from the one studied during ESO.
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Enseñanzas de Régimen Especial are non-compulsory and structured into different levels and degrees leading to different qualifications and certificates.
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The '''vocational training''' is also a common possibility after ESO or after the Spanish Baccalaureate. There are two different types of programs: Middle Grade Training Cycles (Ciclos Formativos de Grado Medio), which have the ESO diploma as a requirement, and Superior-level Training Cycles (Ciclos Formativos de grado Superior), which have the Spanish Baccalaureate as the principal requirement. After completion of the Superior-level Training Cycle, students are entitled to direct entrance to several related University degrees (source wikipedia)
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'''Secondary education'''
  
'''University education''': Once students have finished their Bachillerato, they can take their University Entrance Exam (Pruebas de Acceso a la Universidad, popularly called Selectividad) which differs greatly from region to region.
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In the Spanish education system, secondary education is comprised of compulsory secondary and post-compulsory secondary. The former - Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO) it is divided into four courses and it is ordinarily completed from the ages of 12 to 16, it covers four school years and must be completed after finishing primary education. Successful students are awarded a Secondary Education Certificate, which is necessary for entering further optional education as is Bachillerato for their University or Formacion Professional (Vocational Studies).  
University in Spain is organised into three cycles, namely Bachelor, Masters and Doctorate, with variable duration and a minimum required number of ECTS credits.
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==== Examinations in {{PAGENAME}} ====
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'''Post-compulsory secondary education'''
  
The Spanish '''Bachillerato''' is the post-16 stage of education, comparable to the [[A Levels]]/[[Higher (Scottish)]] in the [[UK]], the [[French Baccalaureate]] in [[France]] or the [[International Baccalaureate]].
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This includes two options: the two-year Bachillerato (form 16 to 18), and intermediate vocational training ciclos formativos, the duration of which varies between one and a half or two years.
  
There are two parts, a core curriculum with the compulsory subjects, and a specialist part with a few pre-selected branches to choose from.  
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Secondary education also includes artistic professional Music and Dance education, intermediate professional Sports and Plastic Arts and Design education, which belong to enseñanzas de régimen especial.  
  
The core curriculum is as follows:
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This also covers language education. This provision, although not regarded as part of secondary education, belongs to Enseñanzas de Régimen Especial, which may be started at the age of 16 or 14 if the language to be studied is different from the one studied during ESO.
  
* Spanish Language and Literature: 1st and 2nd years
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Enseñanzas de Régimen Especial are non-compulsory and structured into different levels and degrees leading to different qualifications and certificates.
* Co-official language (in case of Catalan, Basque and Galician): 1st and 2nd years
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* First foreign language (English, French, German or Italian; mostly English): 1st and 2nd years
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* Philosophy: 1st and 2nd years
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* Physical Education: Only 1st year
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* Spanish History: Only 2nd year
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* Science to the contemporary world: Only 1st year
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* Optional subject (2nd foreign language, psychology, information technology...): 1st and 2nd year
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* Catholic Religion/All World Religions Studies: Only 1st year (Optional)
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The specialist part has up to four subjects (depending on the branch taken):
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=== Qualifications ===
  
*Arts:
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The Certificate of Secondary Education is awarded at the end of compulsory secondary education after passing every subject but 2, and a student who achieves appropriate grades graduates from Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) and can apply for one of the different types of (Spanish) Bachillerato.
**Volume (sculpture)  (optional on the 2nd year)
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**Artistic drawing
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**Technical drawing  (optional on the 2nd year)
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**Audiovisual communication.(first year)
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**History of art (second year)
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**Design (second year and optional)
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**Plastic Graphic Expression Techniques (second year and optional)
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**Information and communication technologies. (Optional)
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*Nature and Health Sciences:
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The modalities of Bachillerato depend on each region, but are commonly, Arts & Letters (Bachillerato de Humanidades), Natural and Health Sciences (Bachillerato de Ciencias de la Naturaleza y la Salud), Technology (Bachillerato Tecnológico), Social Sciences (Bachillerato de Ciencias Sociales) and Arts (Bachillerato de Arte), having 3 different thematic subjects each, and several common subjects such as Spanish, Foreign Language, Philosophy, History, etc.
**Biology
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**Chemistry
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**Physics or [[Earth Sciences]]
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**Mathematics
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*Sciences & Engineering:
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**Physics,
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**Maths,
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**Chemistry,
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**Technical Drawing
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*Social Sciences:
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**Applied Maths,
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**Economics,
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**Geography,
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**History of the Contemporany World (only 1st year)
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*Humanities:
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**Latin,
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**Greek,
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**History of Art/World Literature
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**History of the Contemporany World  (only 1st year)
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''The existence of the Bachillerato implies that there could be economies of scale if a national or autonomous region government funded the development of OER content.''
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Middle or Superior Vocational training is also a common possibility after ESO or after Bachillerato, they are called Ciclos Formativos de Grado Medio for middle or Ciclos Formativos de grado Superior for Superior getting a Technician Degree, or it can be taken after Bachillerato, getting a Superior Technician diploma and direct entrance to several related University degrees, there are more than 200 different specialities.
  
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Students with appropriate qualifications and wishing to enroll in University in Spain must usually take an entrance exam called Selectividad, that consists in 6 tests, 3 for each subject and a test for each History or Philosophy, Foreign Language (commonly English) and Spanish grammar and literature (Autonomous communities that have a co-official language, have also another test about co-official language grammar and literature), after passing their Bachillerato. The Spanish School Leaving Certificate is equivalent to a number of GCSEs. The Bachillerato is equivalent to A levels. Therefore, Spanish students obtaining the appropriate grades required for entrance into universities in Europe, including England, are not precluded.
  
=== e-learning ===
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== Further and Higher education ==
  
''For a description more focussed to e-learning see [[E-learning:{{PAGENAME}}]].''
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Higher education includes university studies as well as higher vocational education and training. Universities are the main institutions that provide university studies, while higher vocational education is usually linked to secondary schools and to special vocational institutions. Vocational education and training can be delivered in both public and private schools. The latter can be subsidized. This educational level can also be delivered through distance courses.
  
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Over the past three decades, the number of students and universities has increased three-fold, attaining one of the highest rates of university education in Europe: 30% of women and 22% of men between 24 and 34 years of age have graduated from university. The process of decentralising the university system in physical terms has been accompanied by political and administrative decentralisation: powers have been handed over to the autonomous regions in the area of tertiary education. Moreover, in the last years university research has developed and research output indicators have increased dramatically. Another outstanding fact is the increase in the international mobility of academic staff and students.
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In the last two decades, the number of universities in Spain has doubled. At present Spain has 50 public universities. Two are special universities focused on continuing education and summer courses. One is a distance learning institution. There are 23 private universities; one of them is a distance learning university. Seven of the private institutions belong to the Catholic Church.
  
In Spain, Higher Education at distance is vested in the [http://portal.uned.es/  National University of Distance Education (UNED)] created in 1973. It is currently the Spanish university with the highest number of students enrolled. 
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=== Universities in Spain ===
  
In 1997, the [https://www.uni-g9.net/portal/index.jsp Grupo 9 Universidades]  was launched. It consists in a consortium between universities, in order to offer open election courses at distance, located in the following regions: Balearic Islands, Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Extremadura, La Rioja, Basque Country, Pública de Navarra, Oviedo and Zaragoza.was launched based in
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There are 50 public and 23 private universities in Spain. They are distributed throughout the country but the cities with the highest number of universities are Madrid (13), Barcelona (8) and Valencia (4).
  
In Catalonia, the [http://www.uoc.edu/  Open University of Catalonia (UOC)] was created in 1999 as the first completely online university making a more intensive use of the possibilities brought by Internet. For instance, the use of social media applications and the development of a virtual campus in order to ease the traditional socialization and exchanges processes proper of physical campuses into a virtual environment. Its educational offer is geared towards technical careers related to communication, computing and new technologies, without neglecting other more traditional teachings.  
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According to the legal form the typography of Spanish universities is the following one:
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• Public University. - It grants university official and accredited titles. It is financed by the State.
  
Since 2000, various other universities located in Catalonia such as the Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona (UAB), the University of Barcelona (UB) and the Universidad Politécnica de Catalunya (UPC) launched degrees that could be coursed online, or semi-virtually. Besides, the Universidad Privada Ramon Llul developed online and distance teaching courses through its center [http://www.salleurl.edu  La Salle]. Through video recorded courses and an Open Campus based on Learning by doing and Scenario Centred Curriculum methodologies they provide online courses centered on business or ICT careers.  
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• Private University. - It grants official and accredited titles. It is financed by the registered students themselves. It is ruled by its norms of organization and operation.
  
In 2002, the Universidad de Málaga launched its fully virtual open election courses. Nowadays the offer of courses remains quantitatively limited  (for the course 2012/2013 only 5 courses are offered fully on-line) but its territorial scope has been enlarged to nine Andalusian universities which currently offer all together 80 courses through the [http://www.campusandaluzvirtual.es/views/asignaturas  Andalusian Virtual Campus (CAV)].  
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• University of the Church. - It grants official and accredited titles. It is financed by the registered students themselves and the Church. It is ruled by its norms of organization and operation.In addition to the official degrees, they grant ecclesiastical titles.
  
In 2001, the [http://moodle.upm.es/adamadrid/  ADA Madrid (Aula a Distancia Abierta)] project was launched with the financial support of the Education council of the Madrid Community. Its purpose is to offer  students with an open election of courses not available in their own university. Some of the universities involved are: UniversidadAutónoma de Madrid (UAM), Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Carlos III, Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Universidad de Alcalá.  
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Madrid has the highest number of private universities located there. These universities are very interested in the admission of foreign students to a wide range of undergraduate and graduate programs.
  
Always in Madrid, the [http://www.udima.es/  Open University of Madrid (UDIMA)] was approved in 2006 and is oriented towards the application of new technologies to education. Its main shareholder is the Business School's Center for Financial Studies. Besides, the [http://www.imf-formacion.com/  Madrid Training Institute (IMF)] focuses especially on administrative careers and sustainable energies.
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There are four different types of university establishments in Spain:  
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* university schools (escuelas universitarias), where ‘short-term’ three-year courses are offered;
  
In 2007, the [http://www.viu.es/web/guest/inicio Valencian International University (VIU)] launched its online university focused on audiovisual careers. Finally, in 2008 the [http://www.unir.net/  International University of La Rioja (UNITE)] was launched mainly centered in information and communication technologies (ICT). Other public universities providing education at distance are:
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* university colleges (colegios universitarios) where the first three years of study leading to a licenciado is completed;  
Universidad Virtual de Salamanca (USAL); Universidad de Sevilla (US); Instituto Universitario de Posgrado (IUP); Universidad de Cádiz (UCA); Universidad de Cantabria (UNICAN); Universidad de la Rioja  (UNIR); Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC); Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF); Universitat de Valencia (UV); Universidad de Zaragoza (UNIZAR); Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (URJC) and Universitat Jaume I (UJI).
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There are also currently 23  private universities providing education at distance. All of them are listed [http://www.altillo.com/universidades/universidades_espol.asp here].
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* faculties (facultades) where long-term courses are offered in all academic disciplines (except technical courses) and
  
According to this chronology, it appears that Spanish universities have been more actively involved with providing traditional education at distance rather than with implementing eLearning courses exploiting the full potential of ICT and Internet. However, this situation begin to change during the last decade because of the increasing rates of penetration of Internet, successful initiatives such as the UOC which model of completely virtual university has been exported into Colombian and Argentina universities, and last but not least because of the increasing engagement and experimentation of public and private organizations into the eLearning field.  
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* higher technical schools of engineering and architecture (escuela superior de ingeniería y arquitectura) where long-term technical courses are completed.
  
Regarding public support to distance education and eLearning, the Ministry of Education created in 1992 the [http://cidead.cnice.mec.es/present.htm Center for Innovation and Development of Distance Education (CIDEAD)] which is integrated in the General learning throughout life actions. Its purpose is to coordinate and organize the elements and processes of distance education, as well as to facilitate access to education for adults and school-age students who because of personal, social, geographical situations, are unable to continue learning in the education system through the regular classroom regime.  
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The Spanish university system is rigidly structured and students must choose a fixed curriculum and aren’t permitted to change universities during their studies.
  
The CIDEAD through its [https://centrovirtual.educacion.es/Visitas/inicio.html/  Virtual Education Center], based on interactive learning and flexible training models, addresses Life Long Learners through its program [http://www.mentor.mec.es/ “Aula mentor”], students of primary/secondary schools, universities and professional training through its [http://www.educacion.gob.es/fponline.html “Enseñanza reglada a distancia”] action in partnership with the UNED, and finally teachers and educators through its action  [http://formacionprofesorado.educacion.es/ Instituto Nacional de Tecnologías Educativas y de Formación del Profesorado (INTEF)].
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Undergraduate university studies are divided into different stages known as cycles. There are three types of programs:
  
Last but not least, the [http://www.csev.org/ Center for Virtual Higher Education (CSEV)] was launched in 2010 in order to ease the knowledge transfer processes between  Ibero-American universities. This organization is a partnership between the UNED, Telefónica, Banco Santander, (through its Santander Universities Global Division), Hispasat and the Ministries of Education, Foreign Affairs and Science and Innovation. Currently, its academic Council involves [http://portal.uned.es/portal/page?_pageid=93,24587308&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL 21 Spanish universities] in order to design innovative activities and boost eLearning and virtual training in the field of Spanish and Latin American Higher Education organisations.  
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* Single-cycle programs (or short-cycle studies): These studies do not continue to the second cycle and degrees awarded are the Diplomatura (Bachelor degree). These are normally three-year programs.
  
Regarding the commercial sector, it has developed different eLearning initiatives through partnerships with universities, trade unions or organizations focused in providing Adult Education and Life Long learning activities. For instance, [http://www.apel.es/portal/contportal.asp Asscoiation of eLearning Providers (ApeL)] was launched in 2001 and is currently composed by a partnership between 72 organizations engaged with eLearning provision. The complete list can be visited [http://www.apel.es/portal/quiensomos.asp here]. Its purpose is the promotion of the e-learning field and the defense of the interests of its providers in collaboration with organizations, agencies, public and private research and development centers, carrying out awareness, representation and negotiation activities.
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* Two-cycle studies with an intermediate diploma: The first cycle leads to the award of the Diplomatura (Bachelor), or Arquitectura Técnica and Ingeniería Técnica (Bachelor degree in Architecture or Engineering), and students have the option of continuing to the second cycle for the award of the degree of Licenciatura (Masters degree), or Arquitecto and Ingeniero (Architect and Engineer). These are five or six-year programs.  
  
Other interesting Spanish initiatives  related to eLearning are:
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* Two-cycle studies without an intermediate diploma (or long-cycle studies): These studies are divided into two cycles but it is necessary to complete both to be eligible for the award of the Licenciatura(Masters Degree). These are four or five-year programs.
* The [http://www.anced.es/i National Association of Distance Learning Centres (ANCED)] is an organization for delivering Education and Training. Born non-profit association in 1977, it turned for profit in 1986 when a first agreement was signed with the National Agency for work (INEM) followed in 1998 with the signing of a new agreement with the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs in order to improve the offer of training to disadvantaged groups, achieve better corporate governance and facilitate the provision of open and distance learning on line.  
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* The [http://www.asociacionelearning.com/ Association Asturiana for  e-learning]  was created in 2005 for  the development and access to eLearning training located in the community of Asturias.
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=== Quality procedures ===
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In addition to these official degrees or diplomas, each university offers a wide range of unofficial degrees (Maestrias) as well as graduate programs in a wide range of subjects that qualify for the award of the degree of Doctor (Ph.D.). The unofficial degrees are typically one or two years and usually require having attained an undergraduate or graduate degree and are widely recognized for their labour market value, as these qualifications are highly practical in scope and geared to specialized sectors of the different professions. Spanish universities' offer of doctoral degree programs typically require four years of study and research.
  
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The universities cover the whole spectrum of official degrees offered in Spain with the official recognition of its Ministry of Education, as well as a wide variety of non-official degrees in a large number of professional fields.
  
==== Universities ====
 
  
In the area of quality assurance, Spain has a multifaceted array of quality assurance (QA) schemes and agencies in place at the national, regional and institutional levels. They only deal with teaching activities developed within of universities, since the evaluation of research is the responsibility of specialized agencies (which are currently being merged into a single one responsible for the evaluation of the National Plan for Research and Development). A separate set of  quality assessment (QA) mechanisms are also developed for higher vocational education.
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=== Polytechnics in Spain ===
  
In 2001, after 10 years' experience in quality assurance, the [http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2001/12/24/pdfs/A49400-49425.pdf  Ley Organica de Universidades (LOU)] formally introduced external QA mechanisms based on objective criteria and transparent procedures. Degree courses and qualifications were to be regulated by guaranteeing the quality of recognised degrees and syllabuses. Article 13 of the LOU states that assessment and accreditation are the responsibility of the [http://www.aneca.es/eng/ANECA/Presentation National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation (ANECA)] and such other higher education QA bodies as may be established by regional legislation.
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<!-- cover public and private -->
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=== Colleges in Spain ===
  
In 2002, in compliance with the LOU, the government created the ANECA. This agency is a Foundation whose aim is to provide external quality assurance for the Spanish higher education system and to contribute to its constant improvement. ANECA has developed several evaluation programmes in order to perform its activities (evaluation, certification and accreditation), with the purpose of integrating the Spanish system into the [http://www.ehea.info/ European Higher Education Area (EHEA)]:
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Advanced vocational training studies constitute non-university post-secondary level of education. These studies can be provided either in compulsory secondary education and Bachillerato institutions, which are called secondary education institutes, the so-called national reference centres, or vocational training integrated institutions.
  
# Institutional programmes evaluation:
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Access to advanced vocational training may be obtained in the following ways:
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* Through direct access, for which it is necessary to hold the Bachiller certificate.
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* Through an entrance examination when candidates do not hold the Bachiller certificate. The examination is regulated by the Autonomous Communities and its objective is to prove that the candidate’s maturity is appropriate to the objectives of Bachillerato and to assess his/her skills for the advanced ciclo formativo of the relevant professional field.
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In the event that there are not sufficient places, admission will be prioritised according to the following criteria:
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* Having followed any of the types of Bachillerato determined for each ciclo formativo.
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* The academic record of the student, taking into account, firstly, the average mark and, secondly, having passed the Bachillerato subjects related to the ciclo formativo being applied for.
  
* VERIFICA Programme: Evaluation of degree proposals designed  according to the aims set for building the EHEA.
+
== Education reform ==
* MONITOR Programme: Follow-up of an ex-ante accredited programme until it has to be submitted again in order to renew its accreditation.
+
* AUDIT Programme: Guidance for Higher Education Institutions to establish their own internal quality assurance systems.
+
* MENCION Programme: (Quality Label recognition of PhD programmes) Acknowledgement of the scientific, technical and educational high standards of Doctoral studies.
+
  
# Academic staff evaluation programmes :
 
  
* PEP Programme: (non-civil servant academic staff hiring) Evaluation of the teaching and research activities as well as the academic backgrounds of future applicants to positions of non-civil servant academic staff (PhD Lecturer , PhD assistant Lecturer , Non PhD assistant Lecturer and private universities Lecturer ) as defined by the LOMLOU.
+
=== Schools ===
* ACADEMIA Programme: (national accreditation for civil servant academic staff): Evaluation of the applicants’ qualification to access the civil-service positions as University academic staff (Senior Lecturer and Professor).
+
''Mainly sourced from Eurydice and European Schoolnet''
* DOCENTIA Programme: Support for Universities wishing to establish their own mechanisms to evaluate the quality of the teaching activity of their academic staff.
+
  
The main public universities providing education at distance and/or eLearning services are using ANECA's QA in complement with their own certification and quality schemes. Some examples can be found in the [http://portal.uned.es/portal/page?_pageid=93,22103018,93_22103019&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL UNED], [http://www.udima.es/es/calidad.html the Universidad a distancia de Madrid (UDIMA)], [http://www.sav.us.es/recursoscomunes/imagenes/calidad/DIPLOMA_ANECA_US_SAV.jpg the Universidad de Sevilla], [http://microsites.aprendemas.com/Cevug/p5.asp Centro de Enseñanza Virtual de la Universidad de Granada (CEVUG)], [http://www.uc3m.es/portal/page/portal/prog_mejora_calidad/sistema_garantia/comite_calidad Universidad Carlos III de Madrid], [http://campusvirtual.uca.es/index.php/categories/documentacion/evaluacion-de-la-calidad-guia-fortic Universidad de Cádiz (UCA)], [http://www.unir.net/politica-objetivos-calidad.aspx Universidad de la Rioja (UNIR)] and the [http://www.webs.ulpgc.es/calidad/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4&Itemid=93&lang=es Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC)].
+
The latest law reform in the Spanish System is the Ley Orgánica de Educación (LOE), dating from 2006, and it builds on the previous law, named Ley Orgánica de Ordenación General del Sistema Educativo (LOGSE), from 1990. The LOGSE radically restructured the Spanish educational system prior to University education, as it raised the school-leaving age from 14 to 16, among other things. '''The LOE retains the system introduced by the LOGSE but tries to establish the legal framework for improving the quality of the system by addressing the new challenges facing Spanish society.''' In particular, it addresses the challenges of a more heterogeneous student population and more developed regional control in all autonomous communities, which by 2000 had all been given full responsibilities in education. It also strives to '''align the national educational objectives with those established by the European Union, which aims to achieve a leading position for Europe in our present international knowledge society'''.
  
Besides, the public administration shall guarantee the quality of training offers and cooperate with the definition and implementation of the evaluation process of the National Qualification and Vocational Education and Training System after consultation with the General Council on Vocational Education, and taking into account the responsibilities of the Autonomous Communities. The Ministry of Education and Science is coordinating the establishment of a quality network with the participation of the administrations of the Autonomous Communities as since 1996 and 11 autonomous regions have created their own quality assurance agencies.
+
The following points are priorities for education:
  
Finally, the [http://www.aec.es/web/guest/centro-conocimiento/norma-une-66181 Spanish association for Quality] provides a quality certification for virtual trainings called  the UNE 61681 (under the ISO 9001 quality certification scheme). It is a certification of quality which clarifies the various training activities in key areas such as quality of content and resources used. Its use is limited to those training activities aimed at people wishing to enter the labor market and workers who want to improve their current employment status. It has therefore been developed to target providers of non-formal training, self-education, e-learning and blended learning.
+
# A National Political Agreement on Education among all political parties to guarantee the legal stability of the system in the long run as well as across the territories of different Autonomous Communities.
 +
# To lower the drop-out rates in the compulsory educational levels (pupils under the age of 16).
 +
# To promote quality in education while preserving an inclusive system with a strong emphasis on economic aid to compensate for social inequalities.
 +
# To promote vocational training through an increase in quality and social recognition and through flexible schemes that allow students to enter the system and transfer credits easily.
 +
# '''To enhance the use of ICT in schools by means of the plan Escuela 2.0 http://www.ite.educacion.es/es/escuela-20) which is aimed at transforming the way we teach and learn.'''
  
==== Schools ====
+
The LOE and the royal decrees which develop it have being gradually implemented, starting in the academic year 2006/07 and finishing in 2009/10.
  
''Mainly sourced from Eurydice''
+
Within the LOE framework, it bears mentioning that the Ministry of Education and the Autonomous Communities approved in 2008 the 'Plan para Reducir el Abandono Escolar' (Plan for the reduction of early school leaving), aimed at reducing the still high early school leaving rates to half between school years 2008/09 and 2012/13. The following measures are among the ones approved by this plan:
 +
* To increase the offer of places in initial vocational qualification programmes (PCPI)
 +
* To increase the offer of intermediate vocational training, Plastic Arts and Design and Sports Education, in order to fully meet the demand of this education.
 +
* To offer PCPI students who do not hold the Graduado en Educación Secundaria Obligatoria certificate the possibility of taking a personal aptitude test to access intermediate vocational training.
 +
* Likewise, to offer intermediate vocational training graduates the possibility of enrolling in advanced vocational training.
 +
* To promote reinforcement programmes, such as the reinforcement, guidance and support programmes, in order to increase the number of ESO graduates. Likewise, measures will be launched for young people between 16 and 22 years of age to take reinforcement and extra classes in order to obtain the Graduado en Educación Secundaria Obligatoria certificate in the minimum possible time.
 +
* To extend and reinforce counselling departments, in order to give students advice on the decisions they have to make at post compulsory levels. Moreover, guidance and monitoring services will be promoted for young people who left the education system with no qualification.
 +
* To develop teacher training programmes on techniques to make the most of pupils’ potential, as well as techniques for early diagnosing difficulties, educational attention and monitoring students at risk of early school leaving.
 +
* To create support resources for teachers and other stuff involved in the educational attention of low achievers at risk of early school leaving.
 +
* To promote measures that enable parents’ attendance at meetings with their children’s teachers.
 +
* To create family support centres, or 'schools for parents', to promote a higher involvement and monitoring in children’s education, as well as the cooperation of the administrations with the parents’ associations.
 +
* '''To promote new technologies in all spheres of the education system, especially for unqualified people under 25, in order to promote the offer of distance and part-attendance courses.'''
 +
* To promote an education-work culture in which holding at least the Graduado en Educación Secundaria Obligatoria or an initial vocational qualification prevails for the access of young people to employment.
 
 
 
 
In Spain, the evaluation of the education system is viewed as an essential element in order to improve the quality of education, since it constitutes a valuable instrument for the monitoring and assessment of both the functioning and the results of the education system, as well as for the improvement of processes delivering these results. This is evidenced by the fact that the legal framework stresses the need to evaluate all the elements making up the education system: pupils' learning processes, educational results, curriculum, teachers' performance, teaching processes, the managerial function, the running of schools, educational inspection and education authorities themselves. The collection of objective data and their rigorous analysis facilitates the knowledge and appraisal of the achievements and deficiencies present in both the entire system and all its levels and elements. Thus, the necessary foundations are laid for an effective decision-making, which should have an effect on the process for the improvement of the education system.
+
Some other new aspects which should be mentioned are the implementation of the ‘School 2.0 Programme’ and the ‘Social and Political Pact for Education’.
 +
In September 2009, the Cabinet passed the ‘'''School 2.0 Programme’''', an educational innovation initiative aimed at implementing the digital classrooms of the 21st century. The plan envisages that, for the 2009/10 academic year, 392,000 students and 20,000 teachers in more than 14,400 fully digitalised classrooms in all Spain would have a laptop they can use to be better educated. This programme will be developed through agreements between the Autonomous Communities and the Ministry of Education. Its '''objective is the transformation, in the next four years, of the traditional classrooms of the 5th and 6th years of primary education and the 1st and 2nd years of secondary education into digital classrooms equipped with interactive whiteboards and wireless Internet connection, where teachers will have laptops and each student will also work with his/her own laptop'''.
 +
The ‘School 2.0 Programme’ is based on the following principles:
 +
* Digital classrooms. Equip students and educational institutions with ICT resources: laptops for both students and teachers and digital classrooms with standardized efficient equipments.
 +
* Guarantee Internet connectivity and interconnectivity in the classroom regarding all equipments and facilitate Internet access from students’ homes during special hours.
 +
* Ensure teacher training in technological, as well as in the methodological and social aspects of the integration of these resources into daily teaching practice.
 +
* Involve students and their families in the acquisition, custody and use of these resources.
  
The 2006 Ley Orgánica de Educación, LOE (Act on Education), devotes titles VI and VII to educational evaluation and inspection, respectively, and considers both to be key aspects to improve the education system. Thus, evaluation is an essential element to increase the education system’s transparency, which must be applied to all its areas, including inspection. In turn, with the aim of ensuring the compliance with regulations on education, the educational inspection takes part in the evaluation of the education system and its elements. Evaluation procedures of all areas and elements of the education system have been established, which has committed the relevant authorities and the different agents of the system to account for the current situation and its evolution. All these evaluation tasks are aimed at improving the quality of the education system.
+
As regards the ‘'''Social and Political Pact for Education’''', from the beginning of the 2009/10 academic year, the Ministry of Education has held a series of conversations and meetings with the Autonomous Communities, the educational community, social and political groups, as well as the Sectorial Committee, with the main aim of providing the education system with stability regarding regulations. The Ministry of Education has drawn up a document with 104 specific proposals for action which constitutes the basis upon which work is to be continued. The following proposals should be mentioned:
 +
* The Pact has a clear and determining horizon: 2015-20. It is not only a pact for 2020, but there must also be an explicit commitment on the immediate measures to be taken. There must be an annual  proposal which includes the specific measures to be taken, so that they are also linked to a report and an economic commitment.
 +
* The commitment to citizens that possible present and future changes on regulations which might be adopted regarding different questions which might be agreed will require a parliamentary majority of two thirds.
 +
* An improvement in the funding of Spanish education  
 +
* The objective that all the population between 0 and 18 is receiving education.
 +
* A greater flexibility in the education system. A greater permeability between the different educational levels, both vertically and horizontally. One of the key elements where this rigidity is to be eradicated is the last stage of compulsory education.
  
The general evaluation of the education system at the non-university levels is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, through the [http://www.educacion.gob.es/inee National Institute of Education Evaluation (INEE)]. This body, reporting to the State Secretariat for Education and Vocational Training, works in collaboration with the relevant evaluation institutions of the different Autonomous Communities. The latter are responsible for the evaluation of the education system within their respective territory. The reports drafted since 2000 regarding the general evaluation of education can be found [http://www.educacion.gob.es/inee/publicaciones/indicadores-educativos/Sistema-Estatal.html here].  Those reports generally review different indicators structured along three main axes:  Schooling and educational contexts, education financing and educational results and success rates.  For more precise and targeted analysis (for instance primary education, or a specific region) please visit the following [http://www.educacion.gob.es/inee/publicaciones/evaluacion-sistema.html link].
+
The preparation of specific measures for vocational training to constitute a comprehensive training and a key instrument in order to move towards a new sustainable economic model.
  
== Internet in {{PAGENAME}} ==
+
=== Post-secondary ===
  
According to the [http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/ International Telecommunications Union (ITU)] there were 30,654,678 Internet users in December 2011, corresponding to a 65.6% penetration and positioning Spain as the 17th most connected country in the world. In more detail, the review of [http://www.oecd.org/sti/oecdsciencetechnologyandindustryscoreboard2011innovationandgrowthinknowledgeeconomies.htm Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)] latest data indicates the following figures:
+
==== Universities - and the Bologna Process ====
  
Regarding household access to ICT, it shows that 68,7% has access to a computer at home (including PC or laptop). Regarding fixed (wired) broadband connection, it reaches 24.50% of the overall population and its penetration rate increased 4,9% from 2010 to 2011.  However the total percentage of fiber connections in total broadband is still low with a rate of only 1.55%.
+
Since 1999, Spain has been immersed in a transformation of its higher education system, along with more than 30 European countries, with the aim of creating a European Higher Education Space (EHES). This process will culminate in 2010 and its objectives are to harmonize qualification frameworks and the credit system (units for measuring academic achievement), as well as to guarantee the standards and recognition of qualifications, in order to increase student mobility and facilitate the integration of graduates into the European labor market.
  
Regarding specific ICT indicators put up by the Bank of Spain [1], it indicates for 2011 a level of business broadband penetration around 96%, and shows that 20% of businesses have used eCommerçe for at least 1% of their total purchase. On the other side 11% of businesses state to have reach at least 1% of their overall sale through this mean.  
+
Spain is implementing legal measures for the adoption of the European credit and qualifications system, as well as the European qualification supplements. This facilitates the recognition of official Spanish qualifications in over 30 countries participating in the EHES project, as well as the official recognition of Spanish qualifications in other countries outside the European framework, such as the United States, Asia and Latin America.
  
Regarding Mobile subscribers and subscribers using pre-paid cards, Spain is ranked above the OECD average showing a high level of penetration of both technologies. The [http://cmtdata.cmt.es/cmtdata/jsp/inf_anual.jsp?tipo=1&openid=8509 Telecommunication Market Comission (Comisión del mercado de telecomunicaciones)] yearly report indicates that in 2011, there was 52,6 millions mobiles lines from which 15,9 millions were connected to Internet broadband.  
+
The recent past of Spanish universities has taken place within the framework of university reforms, the first of these under the University Reform Law (LRU), which came into force n 1983, and the second under the Organic Law of Universities (LOU), which was introduced in 2001. The first of these focused on universities‘ social embeddedness, democratic organisation and scientific modernisation. The LOU‘s main concerns were the instrumentalisation of quality assurance policies and preparations for the Spanish university system‘s entry into the EHEA. Other measures envisaged in this law, such as regulations governing the functioning of universities, have been the centre of debate on education. The organic law that amends the LOU was approved in April of the current year.
  
In relation to [http://www.oecd.org/internet/interneteconomy/oecdkeyictindicators.htm OECD statistics] regarding trade of ICT goods, Spain exported in 2009 around 5.428 and imported for 28.238 millions of US dollars. Another interesting figure of 2006 from [http://www.oecd.org/science/innovationinsciencetechnologyandindustry/oecdsciencetechnologyandindustryscoreboard2007.htm the OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard] show Spain ranking as the second country with more bot-infected computers with an overall rate of 4.7% computer infected per 100 computers connected to the Internet.  
+
One of the main challenges faced by the Spanish higher education system is its full integration into the European Higher Education Area. It is hoped that this process will improve coordination and make the system more competitive and allow it to improve quality, without detriment to the measures already in place aimed at fostering closer links with the social environment and guaranteeing equity in access.
  
The [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?ab=table&plugin=0&language=en&pcode=tsdsc470 Eurostat individuals' level of Internet skills survey] shows that in 2011, 28% of the population aged 16 to 74 carried out 1 or 2 of the six Internet-related items used to group the respondents into levels of Internet skills. This results locates Spain just below the EU27 average which is 30% of the population. Finally according to [http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/Gender/index.html ITU] and its Internet users data disaggregated by gender, Spain had 65,7% male users in relation to 59,5% female users in 2009.
+
The participation of Spanish students in mobility programmes such as Socrates/Erasmus is increasingly high. Between 1994-1995 and 2004-2005, the number of students from Spanish universities on this programme rose from 8,537 to 21,350. The main destination countries were Italy (4,250), France (3,412), the United Kingdom (2,974) and Germany (2,553). The number of Socrates/Erasmus students studying in Spain in the 2003-2004 academic year was 24,076 - 83% more than five years earlier. Italy (5,688), France (5,115) and Germany (4,325) sent the greatest numbers of students.
 +
Mobility is very low in Spain. Most students do not move to another region to study (or to another city if they can study their desired choice of degree in their own city). In this sense, all Spanish universities have a strong regional dimension, something which is not necessarily positive. The same situation can be applied to vocational education and training, as theses studies are strongly linked to the place of residence.
  
The [https://www.planavanza.es/ Plan Avanza] is the main ICT policy for the Information Society and has already gone through a first action plan of five years and is currently launching its second action plan. The [http://www.oecd.org/gov/planavanzainformationsocietystrategyforspain.htm OECD analysis of the impact of the first Plan Avanza] resumes its mission and strategy as follows: “Plan Avanza is Spain’s umbrella strategy for the advancement of the Information Society (IS). The Plan was approved in 2005 by the national Senate and launched early in the following year with its first 2006-2009 Action Plan. The Plan operates under the direct authority of the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITT), specifically under the State Secretariat of Telecommunications and the Information Society (SSTIS). Implementation responsibilities are shared by the SSTIS and red.es, a public enterprise also charged with managing two key departments which directly contribute to the Plan’s objectives: CENATIC (the National Centre for the Application of ICTs based in Open Source) and INTECO (the National Communications Technology Institute). The strategy’s objectives reflect both the technological and socio-economic dimensions necessary for consolidating the knowledge economy in Spain, as well as the need to converge with other EU member countries in key IS dimensions. While the Plan’s high-level objectives are inherited from those of the European Commission’s i2010 strategy: A European Information Society for growth and employment. These have been adapted to fit the specific challenges and needs of the Spanish context. Specifically, the three strategic objectives are: Increasing diffusion of ICTs in the Spanish economy; Closing the Digital Divide to improve quality of life for citizens; Increasing levels of ICT spending. The resulting objectives have translated into four pillars of activity, or action areas, which are: The digital citizenship, digital economy, digital public services and digital context”.
+
== Administration and finance ==
  
The implementation strategy of the Plan Avanza allowed the implementation of actions in cooperation with the different autonomous communities through cooperation agreements and performances in cofinancement. In 2006, 19 agreements were signed with 59 cities and all autonomous communities. A list of reports regarding the Plan Avanza development in each  Autonomous Communities can be acceded [https://www.planavanza.es/informaciongeneral/evaluacionseguimiento/paginas/informesplanavanzaccaa.aspx here].
+
=== Schools ===
  
According to the current executive summary of the [https://www.planavanza.es/InformacionGeneral/Executive/Paginas/ExecutiveSummary.aspx Plan Avanza2]: “On July 16th 2010, the Council of Ministers approved the 2011-2015 Strategy for Plan Avanza 2. This second stage gives continuity to Plan Avanza’s course of action. It includes projects already in progress and updates initial objectives to adapt them to the new challenges of the network society […] The first stage of Plan Avanza aimed at catching up with de European Union average, especially regarding coverage and connectivity. The 2011-2015 Strategy of Plan Avanza 2 seeks placing Spain on a leading position in terms of development and use of advanced ICT products and services. […] Taking the Plan Avanza approved in 2005 and the European framework in which this kind of measures are included as the starting point, 34 key challenges have been defined in the field of ICT, which Spain has to face. Under the current framework, “Plan Avanza 2 - 2011-2015 Strategy” will focus on achieving the following 10 objectives, which will contribute to overcoming the challenges identified:
+
''Mainly sourced from Eurydice''
1. Promoting innovative ICT processes in the Public Administration.
+
2. Spreading ICT in healthcare and for the welfare.
+
3. Modernizing the education and training model through the use of ICT.
+
4. Spreading telecommunication networks and increasing their capacity.
+
5. Spreading trustworthy ICT among citizens and enterprises.
+
6. Increasing the advanced use of ICT solutions among citizens.
+
7. Spreading the use of ICT business solutions in enterprises.
+
8. Developing technological skills in the ICT sector.
+
9. Strengthening the digital content sector and intellectual property rights in the current technological context and within the Spanish and European legal framework.
+
10. Developing green ICT”.
+
  
Besides, it should be noted that different autonomous communities have also a specific ICT and information society development agenda and proper budget to promote its development. Some exemples are listed below:  The [http://www.sandetel.es/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=64&Itemid=116 Plan Andalucía Sociedad de la Información], the [http://www.coeba.es/joomla/files/Acuerdos%20pactos%20planes/Plan%20estrategico%20Sociedad%20informacion%20Extremadura/Plan%20Estrategico%20de%20la%20Sociedad%20de%20la%20Informacion%20en%20Extremadura%202010_2013.pdf Plan Estratégico de la Sociedad de la Información en Extremadura], the plan [http://www.innova.euskadi.net/ Euskadi de la Sociedad de la Información], the [http://www20.gencat.cat/portal/site/societat-informacio/ Pla per la societat d'informació of Catalonia] and the [http://imit.xunta.es/portal Agenda Digital de Galicia].  
+
Schools in Spain may be owned by an education administration or by a private party, either a person or a legal entity (mostly catholic organisations). Non-university publicly-funded schools provide the second cycle of Pre-primary education (3-6 years of age) and compulsory education free of charge. Private non-university schools may be financially independent or government dependent (''centros concertados'') and may offer any level of education. Publicly funded private schools are funded via educational agreements, which are signed with the education administration of the corresponding Autonomous Community. Schools may sign these agreements provided that the requirements laid down in the educational legislation are met.  
  
=== Internet in Education ===
+
In Spain, the education administration decentralized model distributes the education responsibilities among the State, the Autonomous Communities, local administrations and schools. The responsibilities corresponding to each of these levels are set out below:
 +
 +
{| class="prettytable" border="1"  style="border-collapse: separate; border-spacing: 0;"
 +
|-
 +
| colspan="2" |
 +
<center>'''Distribution of responsibilities in Education (Non University education)'''</center>
  
''Mainly sourced from EUN''
+
|-
 +
|  style="padding: 4px;" |
 +
'''Central government'''
  
  
All autonomous communities are fully responsible for the schools in their territory including the promotion of ICT in schools. ICT policies vary in emphasis and depth among the seventeen Autonomous Communities and the two Autonomous Cities (Ceuta and Melilla), although all plans address the common challenges that the adoption of ICT in school entails within that range of variation.  As far as ICT use in school is concerned, there are periodic national and regional surveys that estimate how many teachers use ICT and what they use them for. All schools entering pilot plans are closely monitored through detailed evaluation plans.
 
  
According to the data compiled by the [http://www.educacion.gob.es/horizontales/estadisticas/indicadores-publicaciones-sintesis/datos-cifras.html  Spanish Ministry of education] the average number of students per computer devoted to learning and apprenticeship tasks was for the period 2010-2011, 3,5 students per computer. In comparison the average number was 8 student per computer in 2005-2006. Regarding educational centers connected to Internet with broadband, the Community of Madrid, Murcia, Valencia, and Navarra were the better connected. Canarias, Melilla, Catalunya, Galicia, Ceuta, Castilla Leon and La Rioja were located above the overall Spanish average and Aragon, Cantabria, Asturias, Balears, Castillam Andalucia and Extremadura were the Autonomous Communities with less educational centers connected to broadband.  
+
|
 +
General organization of the education system, minimum requirements for schools, minimum core curriculum, international cooperation in education, policies to encourage and coordinate research. The central government also organizes the general planning of education and regulation of academic and professional qualifications, core curricula guaranteeing the right and duty to know the Spanish language (notwithstanding the Autonomous Communities’ competence regarding the establishment of regulations to guarantee citizens’ rights to use and know their own languages), High Inspectorate (whose duty is to monitor the observance of minimum requirements for education set by the State for the entirety of the national territory), state-wide general diagnostic evaluations, policies on financial aids for studies, ownership and administration of public schools abroad, establishment of the legal basis for foreign schools in Spain, education statistics for State purposes, etc.  
  
In relation to Internet connection in general,  86,9% of public educational centers are now connected to Internet, in comparison for 2005-2006 with only 45,4% connected ones. More in detail, primary schools are connected at 83,7%, secondary and professional training centers at 95,6% and private centers at 96,2%. Regarding the use of Internet by children between 10 and 15 years, it shows that 87,1% uses Internet at home (in comparison to 71,1% in 2006). Besides, 59,2% connected to Internet from school, 75,7% from home and 83,5% stated to use Internet to do their homework and 76% for entertainment.
+
|-
 +
| style="padding: 4px;" |
 +
'''Autonomous Communities'''
  
Further information regarding indicators and monitoring of the use of ICT and Internet in education can be found in the  2011 report [http://recursostic.educacion.es/blogs/europa/index.php/2011/05/11/indicadores-del-uso-de-las-tic-en-espana-y-en-europa-2009-2010 Indicadores del uso de las TIC en España y en Europa 2009-2010] put up by the [http://www.ite.educacion.es/ Instituto de Tecnologías Educativas (ITE)] on behalf of the Ministry of education.  
+
|
 +
Administrative responsibility within their territories; schools creation, authorization and management; development of State regulations regarding syllabuses and regulation of levels, branches, grades and specializations; guidance and support for pupils; staff management; educational inspection; supervision of textbooks and other materials; diagnostic assessment in schools within their territory; facilitating information exchange and the promotion of good educational or management practices; providing the necessary data to the State to elaborate national and international educational statistics; publishing data and indicators contributing to facilitate transparency, good educational management and educational research; negotiation and awarding of subsidies to private schools; administration of scholarships and aids; regulation of the relevant Autonomous Community’s School Council composition and functions, etc.  
  
In relation to specific ICT policies for education from autonomous communities, various
+
|-
initiatives have raised awareness and increased the access, uptake and use of ICT by teachers, educators, students and life long learners. The complete picture can be found in the [http://www.slideshare.net/catedrastelefonica/las-tic-y-la-educacin following report developed by Telefonica] in 2009. Some of those initiatives are detailed below:
+
| style="padding: 4px;" |
 +
'''Local Administrations'''
  
* National Level
+
|
 +
Provision of sites for building public schools; maintenance and refurbishment of Pre-primary, Primary and special education schools; planning extra-curricular and supplementary activities, monitoring compulsory schooling; creation of School Councils within their municipality, representation at the Autonomous Communities’ School Councils and at the schools’ School Councils, etc.
  
The Spanish Ministry of Education still coordinates some initiatives at a national level in collaboration with autonomous communities, like the [http://www.ite.educacion.es/escuela-20 ESCUELA 2.0].
+
|-
 +
|  style="padding: 4px;" |
 +
'''Schools'''
  
Escuela 2.0 is a nationwide ICT plan for schools which is trying to generalize the access to hardware and digital contents in order to pedagogically integrate ICT into school life. The program counted with a budget of 200 million Euros for the 2009-2010 academic years and co-funded in equal parts by the Central Government of Spain and various Autonomous Regions (2010/2011). Currently the communities involved are: the Community of Madrid, Murcia, Valencia, Navarra, Canarias, Melilla, Catalunya, Galicia, Ceuta, Castilla Leon, Aragon, Cantabria, Asturias, Balears, Castilla, Andalucia and Extremadura.
+
|
 +
Schools are autonomous in organizational, educational and financial matters, within the framework of current regulations, with the aim of achieving a better adequacy and use of the assigned resources, as well as the adjustment of the pedagogic action to pupils’ specific needs and to the characteristics of the school environment.  
  
The goal of the program is to transform the traditional fifth- and sixth-year Primary Education and first- and second-year Secondary Education classrooms into digital classrooms equipped with digital blackboards and wireless Internet connection, where the teacher has a laptop computer and each student work with an ultra-mobile personal computer. To that end, the Escuela 2.0 project is based on the following fundamental principles:
+
|}
: - Providing ICT resources to the students and the centers.
+
: - Guaranteeing Internet connectivity in classrooms and homes.
+
: - Ensuring the proper training for teaching staff.
+
: - Generating and facilitating access to digital materials for teachers, students and families.
+
  
In complement to the previous, the [http://recursostic.educacion.es/eda/web/ EDA project] is aimed at helping  teachers incorporate ICT into their classroom activity by identifying advantages and disadvantages of using these new technologies and learning new approaches to teaching supported by ICT. Although initially started only for math teachers, EDA has expanded in recent years to other areas. The program is promoted by the [http://formacionprofesorado.educacion.es/ Instituto Nacional de Tecnologías Educativas y de Formación del Profesorado (INTEF)] in agreement with some autonomous communities.
+
==== Costs ====
  
In relation to private organisations, [http://encuentro.educared.org/ EducaRed] is the Telefónica Foundation program to promote the educational use of ICT in teaching, benefiting teachers, students, parents. It us currently being implemented in seven countries: Spain, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Peru. Founded in Spain in 1998,  EducaRed has two main objectives: improving the quality of education and promoting equal opportunities through new technologies. It is also worth mentioning that Telefonica and the Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI) published in 2009 a report "La integración de las TIC en la escuela, indicadores cualitativos y metodología de investigación" [2] in order to evaluate and measure the integration of ICT inside education organisations highlighting main methodological and research challenges and how to best address those.
+
All non-university state education is free in Spain, but parents have to buy all of their children's books and materials. There also are private schools for all the range of compulsory education, and also Bachillerato. At them, parents must pay a monthly/termly/yearly fee. Most of these schools are run by religious orders, and include single-sex schools.
  
* Andalusia
+
Schools supply a list of what is required at the start of each school year and which will include art and craft materials as well as text and exercise books. Expect to spend a minimum of around ninety pounds (GBP) per child,[citation needed] but in some regions, the autonomous government is giving tokens to exchange them in book shops for free, this is being adapted in 2006 in regions, such as Andalucia, where kids from 3 to 10 will get the books for free, on the following years it is expected for all compulsory years. School uniform is not normally worn in state schools but is usually worn in private schools.
  
In Andalusia, the department of education made in 2003  the use of open source software for all ICT equipments in public schools compulsory and developed a specific educational distribution entitled [http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/educacion/cga/portal/info/guadalinex-edu  Gualalinex Edu]. The global scope of the project involves 120.000 teachers and 1.800.000 students and cost-saving derivative from not using privative software have been estimated to be around 27 and 36 millions euros per year.  The program has been increasingly enlarged and is currently being developed through the [http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/educacion/nav/contenido.jsp?pag=/Contenidos/TemasFuerza/nuevosTF/300909_EscuelaTIC20/texto_tic Escuela TIC 2.0 for Andalucia] translating into providing 173.500 students of primary school with laptops installed with guadalinex.edu.  The technical advice and support delivered towards teachers and students, and the administration of servers and software development is achieved by the [http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/educacion/cga/portal/ Centro de Gestión Avanzado]. 
+
=== Post-secondary ===
  
* Catalonia
+
==== Universities ====
  
The [http://www.xtec.cat/web/guest/home Educational Telematic Network of Catalonia (XTEC)] was created in 1988 by the Catalan Department of Education. Its aims are to provide Internet access to schools inasmuch as educational services dependent on the department and also to the entire educational community of Catalonia (at the exception of Higher Education organisations) a wide range of content, proposals and specific services. Besides, the portal [http://www.edu365.cat/ Edu365.cat] was created in 2001 to help structuring the educational use of the Internet by students and providing those with specific content and services such as multimedia self-learning and teaching support, mainly for the curriculum areas of Elementary, primary and secondary Education.
+
'''''This information is out of date'''''
  
* Extremadura
+
The scholarship system is regulated by the MEC. It establishes a maximum limit of family per capita income, above which students are not entitled to the established benefits and also quantifies the required academic performance. There is a minimum threshold of academic performance, expressed in the form of average marks, below which students are not entitled to receive grants. The norm establishes that the selection process for grant-holders should benefit the students with the highest academic performance. The autonomous communities also offer study grants and scholarships that are generally complementary to those offered by MEC or aimed at promoting certain areas of study.
  
Extremadura launched a pioneer plan back into 2001 when evaluating the expenses of operative systems for its intranet: “After calculating the expenses for each, it was determined that the cost of MS Windows licenses surpassed 20,000,000 Euros. And that figure did not include educational and administrative applications; those applications would have to be developed or bought and adapted to the local infrastructure. After an analysis of cost and adaptability, the government decided to develop a customized and regionalized version of GNU/Linux. It would be called LinEx. The installation of LinEx was gradual until it finally reached all of the high schools in Extremadura under the form of  [http://linexedu.educarex.es/web/guest;jsessionid=1771F68118E494EA7695EDF5FA6896AB.liferay1 Linex edu]". In 2011, its development was abandoned and legate to a national organization for the maintenance of the software. Even tough the migration towards open source solutions from institutional organizations has been kept in the agenda.  
+
The total amount of money spent on tertiary education in Spain increased by 47% from 1995 to 2001. This was the highest growth rate in the EU, where the average was 26%.
  
Since 2010-2011 the programme Escuela 2,0 has enabled the provision of schools with over 24,000 laptops (4,000 for teachers), 576 lockers for the care, custody and recharge of batteries of the equipment supplied, and 610 new digital whiteboards, along with numerous training activities oriented towards teachers in order to reap a full benefit from the  new digital classrooms. Besides, a pilot project around the use of digital textbooks is being developed in five centers of primary and secondary education, to establish the best methodological option for educational profitability of new material resources available to schools.
+
The Spanish public university system has four main sources of funding:
  
== Copyright law in {{PAGENAME}} ==
+
Regional government subsidies. Each autonomous region is responsible for the general funding and investments of the public universities in its region.
  
The principal dispositions of Copyright law applicable in Spain are contained in the book one of the [http://www.boe.es/diario_boe/txt.php?id=BOE-A-1987-25628 Intellectual Property Law of 11 November 1987]. A consolidated version of this law was approved by [https://www.boe.es/diario_boe/txt.php?id=BOE-A-1996-8930 Royal Legislative Decree 1/1996 of 12 April 1996]  implementing European directive 93/98/CEE and harmonizing certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the Information society. The [http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=15285&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html full text in Spanish] can be accessed at the UNESCO collection of National Copyright Laws.
+
Student aid. The central government is responsible for most grants and scholarships. The student aid system only represents 0.09% of GDP.
The main limitations to the exclusive rights of exploitation are contained in Title III, Chapter 2.  For instance regrading the “Right to the private copying and home playing”, the law explicitly allows to make private copies of copyrighted work without the author's consent for published works if the copy is not for commercial use. To compensate authors, the law establishes a compensatory tax associated with certain recording media (CDs, DVDs, cassettes), managed through societies of authors and editors (as SGAE and CEDRO). Such private copies of a protected work must be made for the private use (not collective, nor lucrative) of the copier (2º of art. 31): the author is compensated by a tax on the means of reproduction (e.g. photocopiers, blank cassettes) determined at article 25. However, computer programs can not be copied except for a backup copy (art. 99.2): they can be modified for the sole use of the person performing the modification (art. 99.4). Any work can be played in a "strictly home" environment (art. 20.1) without the author's consent. The moral rights of the author can only be exercised in the respect of the rights of owners of copies of the work or of rights to its exploitation, as detailed in article 14.
+
Besides, the “Right to receive and to impart information” states that lectures, addresses, judicial proceedings and other works of the same nature may be reproduced or communicated for the sole purpose of reporting on current events (art. 33.2). The proceedings of parliament and of public corporations may be reproduced or communicated for any purpose (art. 33.2). Works of news reporting may be reproduced in other news media, with identification of the author and remuneration (art. 33.1). Any work which can be seen or heard may be reproduced, distributed and publicly communicated for the purpose of, and only to the extent necessary for, providing information thereof in the context of reporting on current events (art. 34) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright_law_of_Spain Source: Wikipedia Copyright law of Spain].
+
  
=== Copyright law in Education ===
+
Tuition fees. Student fees are not particularly high (on average, 631€ per academic year) and they represent around 18% of total costs.
  
Regarding copyright law dispositions in relation to “Use for education and research”: Museums, libraries and similar public or cultural institutions may make reproductions of works for the purposes of research (art. 37). "Fragments" of written, sound or audiovisual works or "isolated" plastic, photographic, figurative or analogous works may be included in another original work for the purposes of teaching or research (fines docentes o de investigación) if the following conditions are met (art. 32):
+
Revenue from research activities and other services. These funds come mainly from knowledge transfer, continuing education, contracts, patents, collaboration agreements with other institutions or individuals and the creation of foundations and other entities. Central government and the European Union, through their competitive Call for Proposals are an important part of these sources.
the source work has been published;
+
it is included for citation or for analysis, commentary or critical judgment;
+
it is included with a citation of the source and the name of the author;
+
it is only included to the extent justified by the purposes of teaching or research.
+
Press reviews and collections are expressly covered by the provisions of article 32.
+
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright_law_of_Spain Source: Wikipedia Copyright law of Spain]
+
  
It should be noted that the article that most affects teachers is the article 32.2 which states that  no author's permission is needed by teachers in formal education to perform acts of reproduction, distribution and public communication of small fragments of works or individual works of plastic arts or photographic figurative character, excluding textbooks and university textbooks, when such acts are solely for illustration of its educational activities in the classroom, to the extent justified by the non-commercial purpose, provided that the works have already been disclosed and, except in cases where it is impossible to include the author's name and source. Besides, regarding licensing intellectual rights in the digital world, the article 32.2 raises an interesting debate about what should be ranged under the “classroom” banner. Should “classroom” be interpreted as only the physical classroom or should it enlarge its scope to the virtual classroom? [7]
+
Public funds are the main source of funding for university R&D&I, and accounted for 71% of the total funds in 2003. There are two types of public funding: general university funds, and funds allocated to specific R&D&I projects.
  
[http://www.mcu.es/propiedadInt/CE/InformacionGeneral/ComisionMediadora.html The Intellectual Property Commission] is also a specific agency set up as a national collegiate body attached to the Directorate General of Intellectual Property, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, with functions of mediation, arbitration and protection of rights in the intellectual property field. Despite the nature of the administrative body, it is not part of the organizational structure of the Ministry. Finally, the following project [http://www.ugr.es/~derechosdeautor/index.html Authors copyrights in eLearning Platforms] aims at delving into the reality of copyright in the digital environment, particularly in e-learning. It provides resources and guidance regarding the rights that affect the activities practiced in virtual education. It also specifies which are current copyright laws which can contradict eLearning aims and present possible solutions to some of these conflicts.
+
== Quality assurance ==
  
== OER Initiatives in  {{PAGENAME}} ==
+
=== Schools ===
  
As an introductory note, according to the OECD latest survey entitled “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, respondents for Spain estimated that 90% of all publicly produced or financed learning materials were available in a digital format [3]. Besides they stated that OER activities in Spain were mostly focused towards young children (ISCED sectors 1 to 3) and . However, the analysis of the [http://www.ocwconsortium.org/en/members OpenCourseWare consortium partners], one of the most widespread initiative of Open education for Higher Education organizations, reveals that in relation to EU27 member States there is a strong over-representation of Spanish universities, followed respectively by the UK and France. In relation to above survey results, it it should be noted that is not clear whether there was a shared understanding and common definition of what stood as OER initiatives among the civil servants targeted by the above mentioned survey.  
+
''Mainly sourced from Eurydice''
 +
 +
In Spain, the evaluation of the education system is viewed as an essential element in order to improve the quality of education, since it constitutes a valuable instrument for the monitoring and assessment of both the functioning and the results of the education system, as well as for the improvement of processes delivering these results. This is evidenced by the fact that the legal framework stresses the need to evaluate all the elements making up the education system: pupils' learning processes, educational results, curriculum, teachers' performance, teaching processes, the managerial function, the running of schools, educational inspection and education authorities themselves. The collection of objective data and their rigorous analysis facilitates the knowledge and appraisal of the achievements and deficiencies present in both the entire system and all its levels and elements. Thus, the necessary foundations are laid for an effective decision-making, which should have an effect on the process for the improvement of the education system.
  
Indeed, as the detail of initiatives below will show there is a general misunderstanding of what are open and/or free licenses driving to confuse OER initiatives with Open Access ones. In order to identify Open Access initiatives  our research started from extracting from the [http://www.doaj.org Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)] the ones falling under the category “Spain”. DOAJ aims at being a directory of Open Access Journals in order to increase the visibility and ease of use of open access scientific and scholarly journals thereby promoting their increased usage and impact. According to their definition, Open Access journals refer to  journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access. The [http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/boaifaq.htm#openaccess  BOAI definition] of "open access" refers to the right of users to "read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles" as mandatory for a journal to be included in the directory. However, DOAJ also listed repositories of digitized contents put at disposition by public institutions and Higher Education universities.
+
The 2006 Ley Orgánica de Educación, LOE (Act on Education), devotes titles VI and VII to educational evaluation and inspection, respectively, and considers both to be key aspects to improve the education system. Thus, evaluation is an essential element to increase the education system’s transparency, which must be applied to all its areas, including inspection. In turn, with the aim of ensuring the compliance with regulations on education, the educational inspection takes part in the evaluation of the education system and its elements. Evaluation procedures of all areas and elements of the education system have been established, which has committed the relevant authorities and the different agents of the system to account for the current situation and its evolution. All these evaluation tasks are aimed at improving the quality of the education system.
  
Open Access initiatives in Spain: [[List of 78 OA initiatives identified]]
+
The general evaluation of the education system at the non-university levels is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, through the Institute of Evaluation (IE) (http://www.institutodeevaluacion.mec.es/).
 +
This body, reporting to the State Secretariat for Education and Vocational Training, works in collaboration with the relevant evaluation institutions of the different Autonomous Communities. The latter are responsible for the evaluation of the education system within their respective territory.
  
Departing from the idea that OER are defined by contents released under an open or free license, initiatives can be divided among:
+
As far as ICT use in school is concerned, there are periodic national and regional surveys that estimate how many teachers use ICTs and what they use them for. All schools entering pilot plans are closely monitored and they have detailed evaluation plans.
* Open Access initiatives which basically put at disposal contents on the Internet retaining all authors rights under strict copyright policies (e.g. most of the digitized contents repositories offered by public institutions fall into this category)
+
* Mixed OA and OER, which are the ones that enable either the use of copyright, either the use of Creative Commons licenses (generally BY-No Commercial – No derivative) and which generally relate to Phd, thesis and academic articles repositories piloted by Higher Education organizations
+
* OER initiatives using only Creative Commons license which are divided between the ones that promote open licenses (BY-No Commercial – No derivative) and the ones that strictly promote free licenses (for instance CC BY-Share Alike or GPL- Gnu Public Licenses).  
+
  
In general, information regarding authors rights was available either in a specific section from the home page, either in the “legal disclaimer” or in the “frequently Asked Questions” section. It should be noted that among the reviewed initiatives many of them did not display clearly their Authors Rights policies driving us to categorize them as “unclear” initiatives.  Regarding our sample,  19 initiatives used strict copyright, 20 had unclear policies, 28 offered the possibility to license either under strict copyright either using an open or free Creative Commons licenses, 10 allowed Creative Commons licenses and only one initiative had its contents released under the GPL free license. As a result among the 78 OA identified initiatives, almost the half (39 initiatives) could be also labeled as OER. 
 
  
Finally, it is interesting to see that most of those initiatives used online platforms based on free software (mostly [http://www.dspace.org/introducing Dspace] and [https://moodle.org/ Moodle]) and many of them also stated to use open standards such as metadata for categorizing contents and easing their discoverability and retrieval.
+
=== Post-secondary ===
 +
<!-- subdivide as necessary - QA for HE is usually very different from QA for colleges  -->
  
=== International and national OER initiatives ===
+
==== Universities ====
  
Regarding OpenCourseWare initiatives delivered by Higher Education organisations some of the most known initiatives are listed below. It should be noted that because of Spanish is used in most central and latin american countries, several initiatives  are based among partnerships between Spanish and Higher Educations organizations located overseas.  
+
In the area of quality assurance, the main strength is that Spain already has a multifaceted array of quality assurance (QA) schemes and agencies in place at the national, regional and institutional levels. They deal only with teaching activities of universities, since the evaluation of research is the responsibility of specialised agencies (which are currently being merged into a single one responsible for the evaluation of the National Plan for Research ,and Development). A separate set of QA mechanisms are also developed for higher vocational education.
  
[http://ocw.innova.uned.es/ocwuniversia  Universia] started in 2000 as an Internet initiative in the Higher Education sector. It is promoted by a group of Spanish universities with the support of the Spanish University Rectors' Board (CRUE), the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and sponsored by the Santander Group. It is coordinated by the Foundation Universia and its OpenCourseWare courses are licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.5 ES.  The network is composed by 1.1000 Universities located in 15 countries: Andorra, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Spain, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela. The initiative counts with 12 websites, one for each country, and another global site which offers information and contents from across the network. Universia reach out 10.1 million students, 8 million users and 850,000 university teaching staff .
+
In 2001, after 10 years' experience in quality assurance, the LOU formally introduced external quality assessment mechanisms based on objective criteria and transparent procedures. Degree courses and qualifications were to be regulated by guaranteeing the quality of recognised degrees and syllabuses. Article 13 of the LOU states that assessment and accreditation are the responsibility of the National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation (ANECA) and such other higher education quality-assurance bodies as may be established by regional legislation. In 2002, in compliance with the LOU, the government created the National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation (ANECA). Since 1996, 11 autonomous regions have created their own quality assurance agencies.
  
The OCW from [http://ocw.uoc.edu/ UOC (Universitat Oberta de Catalunya)] was launched in 2008 and offers over 100 courses licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. The OCW from the [http://ocw.ehu.es/ EHU (Universidad del País Vasco)] was also launched in 2008 and its contents are licensed under  CC BY NC SA 2.5 ES. The OCW from the [http://ocw.upm.es/  UPM (Universidia Politecnica de Madrid)] offers over 80 courses under a various range of Creative Commons license.  
+
As regards quality, the public Administration shall guarantee the quality of training offers and cooperate in the definition and implementation of the evaluation process of the National Qualification and Vocational Education and Training System after consultation with the General Council on Vocational Education, and taking into account the responsibilities of the Autonomous Communities. The Ministry of Education and Science is coordinating the establishment of a quality network with the participation of the administrations of the Autonomous Communities.
  
Other Spanish universities providing OpenCourseWare are the: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (English,Spanish); Universidad de Alicante (Spanish); Universidad de Cadiz (Spanish); Universidad de Cantabria (Spanish); Universidad de Murcia (English,Spanish);
+
== Information society ==
Universidad de Navarra (Spanish); Universidad de Oviedo (Spanish); Universidad de Sevilla (Spanish); Universidad de Zaragoza (Spanish); Universidad Internacional de Andalucía (Spanish); Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (Spanish); Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena (Spanish); Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spanish); Universidad Politecnica Madrid (Spanish); Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Galician,Spanish); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spanish, Catalan); Universitat de Girona (Spanish, Catalan); Universitat Jaume I (Spanish, Catalan).
+
  
Regarding Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC), the first steps were taken by the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid which launched in 2012 a virtual course on cryptography [http://www.crypt4you.com/ Crypt4you].  Currently the Universidad Nacional Española a Distancia  (UNED), in collaboration with the Massachusetts Institute Technology (MIT), is launching the [http://www.redunx.org UnX platform] in order to ease the provision of open contents and virtual training developed by the UNED and the MIT OpenCourseWare. UnX is therefore the Spanish equivalence for [https://www.edx.org/ EdX] created two years ago by the MIT and Harvard universities. UNED will provide formal certification through its [http://www.csev.org/ CSEV (Centro superior para la Enseñanza virtual)] in partnership with Telefonica and Universia. The First virtual training courses will focus in the development of phone applications for the Android mobile operative system.
+
http://www.giswatch.org/reports/country/Spain
  
Regarding other OER national initiatives targeting teachers of primary and secondary, young students, families and life long learners we found the following initiatives:
+
=== Towards the information society ===
  
The portal of [http://www.ite.educacion.es/es/recursos Recursos Educativos] put up by the INTEF (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologías Educativas y de Formación del Profesorado) offers over one thousand educational resources oriented towards teachers, kids, young adults and parents. All its resources are licensed under Creative Commons BY – NC – SA 3.0. They are organized around different targets and projects. For instance, [http://recursostic.educacion.es/apls/informacion_didactica/1441 WikiDidacTICa] is a repository of best educational practices developed by teachers through collaborative processes. Its main goal is to build a useful space facilitating the gradual incorporation for all educational levels of digital tools as  teaching resources. Those are licensed under Creative Commons BY – NC – SA 3.0 andthey also offer a [http://recursostic.educacion.es/bancoimagenes/web/ repository of images and sounds] under Creative Commons BY-NC-SA.
+
We were at crucial moments for the taking off of an wide application of the TIC in the university education, that reaches the critical volume able to initiate a true process of change.the Conference of Directors of Spanish Universities (www.crue.org) indicated a series of important processes for the Spanish universities:
  
The [http://cedec.ite.educacion.es/ CEDEC (National Centre for Curriculum Development in Non privative operative systems)] was founded in 2009 as an agency of the Ministry of Education through  the Institute of Educational Technology and the Junta of Extremadura. Its aim is to design, promote and develop digital educational materials through the use of free software and made them available to the entire educational community.
+
• An increasing tendency to bring the academic world closer to society (as the proliferation of the number and relevance of the University-Enterprise foundations shows), including the general concern towards the need of an improvement of linguistic, communicational and computer-related competences within the university community;
  
[http://www.web-familias.com/princip.html The Virtual school of Parents] is a web portal for parents, aimed at supporting them in their role through useful documents and spaces for dialogue around the issues of children education and related problems. The portal include a specific session called “Escuela Virtual”, where materials can be downloaded and a forum is available.
+
• A clear invitation to shift the traditional teaching-oriented paradigm to a more flexible learning-oriented one;
  
[www.proyectoagrega.e The Agrega project] is a federation of learning Digital repositories used by 19 educational authorities in Spain. Each one of them has its own repository loaded with curricular learning objects with a clear focus towards integration and interoperability between Agrega learning repositories and other repositories located worldwide thanks to the use of generic GPL licensing. Regarding the curricular contents, those are being developed under Creative Commons licensing schemes, and can be experimented directly from a web site, offline or through a Learning Management System. Contents and applications are available in Spanish, Euskera, Catalan, Valencian, Gallego and English.
+
• A determined will to reform the system of postgraduate studies and foster its importance in the education and better qualification of the professionals;
  
[http://wikimediaeducativa.wikispaces.com/home  WikimediaEducativa] was launched in 2010 by some master’s students of the private university Camilo José Cela (UCJC). It aims at offering a repository of educational contents for teachers and students from primary schools. Contents are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0.
+
• The stress on the role that virtual education is to play according to the prospects of a lifelong learning kind of society.
 +
The three wide areas of the university environment where the impact of ICT was to be perceived were:
  
[http://www.wikisaber.es Wikisaber] was launched in 2007 by the foundation Wikisaber in partnership with various organisations (London Grid for Learning, Universidad de Salamanca, Fundación Pastor de Estudios Clásicos and the Fundación Germán Sánchez Ruipérez) and has been financed under a European fund for regional development.
+
the production and distribution of contents, both in education and in research,
  
[http://rededuca.wikispaces.com/ Red Educa] is an initiative launched by an individual, Laura Soulié, between 2005-2008 and which aimed at providing educational contents under Creative Commons to all teachers and educators dealing with ICT use into their classrooms. Another [http://marife.wordpress.com/ OER initiative] launched in 2007 by an individual, Marifé Lara Romero, also targets teachers in primary and secondary schools.
+
• the teaching/learning models, and
  
=== Institutional OER initiatives ===
+
• the organisational model.
  
The [http://www.educared.org/ EducaRed] initiative was launched between 2008-2012 by the foundation Telefonica and aimed at offering resources and methodologies to introduce the use of ICT and Internet inside educational organisations.
 
  
[http://www.eduteka.org/OER.php Edukateka] is delivered by the Foundation Gabriel Piedrahita Uribe (FGPU) and aims at providing for free quality materials to teachers, school managers and trainers. It also offers virtual trainings in order to help them enrich their use of ICT inside their school environments. It also designs and implements interactive online spaces with useful and valuable resource for teachers (Classroom Project Manager, Collaborative Project Planner, Interactive Curriculum 2.0).
+
Among the most symptomatic issues and observations raised by this text, we would like to underline the following:
  
[http://www.cibersociedad.net/ The Observatory for CyberSociety] is an interdisciplinary space for debate and reflection, where digital technologies are assessed and analyzed from several perspectives, considering their value and social impact. It has just recently reached ten years and all its contents are licensed under [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ Creative Commons BY 3.0].
+
The ‘pressure’ or competition from the non-academic providers of ICT in higher education,become increasingly intensive in these organisations;
  
[http://goteo.org/ Goteo] is a social network for crowdfunding and distributed collaboration  for encouraging the independent development of creative and innovative initiatives that contribute to the common good, free knowledge and open source software development. It is a platform for investing in "feeder capital" that supports projects with social, cultural, scientific, educational, technological, or ecological objectives that generate new opportunities for the improvement of society and the enrichment of communities. All projects funded through Goteo reverts into the Commons by sharing its contents, design and ideas under open or free licenses.
+
• The many actions taken by traditional universities concerning the integration of ICT, are not well supported by explicit and clear institutional general policies. In this sense, it is very much recommended to have a clear educational policy, based on the screening of addressees and the identification of the goals and the choice of the kind of technology to be used;
  
In general, it should be noted that the main bulk of institutional OER initiatives have a regional scope as they are being promoted by specific Higher Education organisations or public administrations with a regional scope. All the initiatives identified under those criteria are listed below:
+
• The strong resistance of teaching and administrative staff to the introduction of ICT in the academic pedagogical and organisational model;
  
=== Regional OER initiatives ===
+
• The recommendation of the search for models combining traditional face-to-face
 +
teaching with distance learning modules (blended formulas);
  
It should also be noted that most of the OER initiatives listed below have been extracted from the Open Access initiatives identified here: [List of 78 OA initiatives identified]
+
• The prospects of future growth for higher education will emerge from the continuous
 +
professional education needs;
  
[http://academica-e.unavarra.es/ Academica-e]
+
• In order to maximise the investments needed in this process of innovation, the
 +
engagement of universities in larger networks or consortiums with other universities
 +
in an international framework, and/or with public institutions and/or with private
 +
organisations was promoted. ICT is perceived as a means to facilitate the organisation and implementation of international ICT based courses. The idea of a virtual Erasmus is already into motion and one of the major challenges in this process.
  
Organisation:
+
== ICT in education initiatives ==
Universidad Pública de Navarra, Spain
+
Description:
+
This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish.
+
OAI-PMH:
+
http://academica-e.unavarra.es/oai/request
+
Software:
+
DSpace
+
Size:
+
2438 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Agriculture, Food and Veterinary; Technology General; Computers and IT
+
Content:
+
References; Theses
+
Languages:
+
Spanish; English
+
Policies:
+
[http://academica-e.unavarra.es/xmlui/themes/unavarra-hasi/lib/derechos_autor_acceso_abierto_upna.pdf License of distribution / Creative Commons].
+
  
[http://eciencia.urjc.es/dspace/ Archivo Abierto Institucional de la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos]
 
  
Organisation:
+
=== Virtual initiatives in schools ===
Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain
+
Description:
+
This site is an institutional repository which provides open access to the publications produced by the members of our University, mainly theses. The whole site interface is in Spanish only. Registered users can set up email alerts in order to notify them new added materials. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.
+
OAI-PMH:
+
http://eciencia.urjc.es/dspace-oai/request
+
Software:
+
DSpace
+
Size:
+
5305 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Multidisciplinary
+
Content:
+
Articles; Theses; Unpublished; Books
+
Languages:
+
Spanish
+
Policies:
+
[http://eciencia.urjc.es/dspace/help/derechosautor.html Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
  
[http://oa.upm.es/ Archivo Digital UPM]
+
''Mainly sourced from EUN''
  
Organisation:
+
All autonomous communities are fully responsible for the schools in their territory and that includes the promotion of ICT in schools. ICT policies vary in emphasis and depth among the seventeen Autonomous Communities and the two Autonomous Cities (Ceuta and Melilla), although all plans address the common challenges that the adoption of ICT in school entails within that range of variation. It is worth mentioning, for instance, that '''Extremadura has become known worldwide for its commitment to open software and its excellent rates of computers per pupil''', and that all communities have their own plan to promote connectivity and hardware deployment, although open software may not play such a relevant role. For instance, Aragon has pilot plans for introducing tablet PCs and Interactive White Boards, and Catalonia for introducing netbooks in schools.
Universidad Politecnica de Madrid. Biblioteca, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain
+
Description:
+
This is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institution. Primarily contains thesis.
+
OAI-PMH:
+
http://oa.upm.es/cgi/oai2
+
Software:
+
EPrints
+
Size:
+
9688 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Multidisciplinary
+
Content:
+
Articles; Theses; Books; Patents
+
Languages:
+
Spanish
+
Policies:
+
[http://oa.upm.es/publicar.html Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
  
[http://rabida.uhu.es/dspace/ Arias Montano (Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Huelva)]
+
The Spanish Ministry of Education still coordinates some initiatives at a national level in collaboration with the autonomous communities, like the [http://www.proyectoagrega.es National repository for digital resources],  federating content from nodes in each Autonomous Community, and the project ESCUELA 2.0.
  
Organisation:
+
Whilst there are relatively few fully virtual schools, an increasing number of schools offer the Bachillerato online, often with other online courses which may be targeted at adults, but are available for young people also. The Autonomous Region of Murcia, in particular, includes several of these.
Biblioteca Universitaria, Universidad de Huelva, Spain
+
Description:
+
This site is an institutional repository which provides open access to the publications produced by the members of the University. The interface is in Spanish.
+
OAI-PMH:
+
http://rabida.uhu.es/dspace-oai/request
+
Software:
+
DSpace
+
Size:
+
5433 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Multidisciplinary
+
Content:
+
Theses; Books
+
Languages:
+
Spanish
+
Policies:
+
[http://www.uhu.es/biblioteca/RepositorioDspace/Dspace_preguntas_mas_frecuentes.pdf Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
  
[http://dspace.uah.es/dspace/ e_buah (Biblioteca Digital de la Universidad de Alcalá)]
+
==== ESCUELA 2.0 ====
  
Organisation:
+
Escuela 2.0 is a nationwide ICT plan for school building on the developments already achieved in each region and going further, trying to generalize the access to hardware and digital content in school in order to pedagogically integrate ICT into school life.  
Universidad de Alcalá, Spain
+
The program had a budget of 200 million euros for the 2009-2010 academic year, co-funded in equal parts by the Central Government of Spain and the various Autonomous Regions (2010/2011??’).
Description:
+
This is an institutional repository for the Universidad de Alacalá, giving access to the publication output of the university. The site interface is in Spanish.
+
OAI-PMH:
+
http://dspace.uah.es/oai/request
+
Software:
+
DSpace
+
Size:
+
7451 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Multidisciplinary
+
Content:
+
Articles; Conferences; Theses; Special
+
Languages:
+
Spanish
+
Policies:
+
[http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/deed.es Creative Commons BY-NC-ND]
+
  
[http://infodigital.opandalucia.es/bvial/ Biblioteca virtual de obras públicas de Andalucía (BviaL)]
+
'''The goal of the program is to transform the traditional fifth- and sixth-year Primary Education and first- and second-year Secondary Education classrooms into digital classrooms equipped with digital blackboards and wireless Internet connection, where the teacher will have a laptop computer and where each student will work with an ultra-mobile personal computer.'''
  
Organisation:
+
To that end, the Escuela 2.0 project is based on the following fundamental principles:
Agencia de Obra Pública de la Junta de Andalucía, Spain
+
# '''Providing ICT resources''' to the students and the centres.  
Description:
+
# Guaranteeing '''Internet connectivity in classrooms and homes.'''
This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish and English.
+
# Ensuring the '''proper training for teaching staff'''.
Software:
+
# Generating and facilitating '''access to digital materials for teachers, students and families.'''
DSpace
+
Size:
+
1009 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Law and Politics; Management and Planning
+
Content:
+
Articles; References; Conferences; Unpublished; Books; Multimedia; Special
+
Languages:
+
Spanish
+
Policies:
+
[http://infodigital.opandalucia.es/bvial/# Creative Copmmons BY-ND-NC]
+
  
[http://digitool-uam.greendata.es/R Biblos-e Archivo]
+
==== Proyecto Agrega====
  
Organisation:
+
The Agrega project (Agrega is the Spanish word for "add") is a federation of learning Digital repository which is to be used by 19 educational authorities in Spain. Each educational authority will have its own repository loaded with curricular learning objects created according to standards, and each single repository will be able to integrate and interoperate with other learning systems locally and worldwide. The Agrega project has a clear focus on integration and interoperability between Agrega learning repositories and the rest of the world. Moreover, it is open to collaborative evolution based on a generic GPL licensing. It is the first step towards providing a nation-wide access to content generated by the education community in a consistent and interoperable way. Curricular content for Agrega is being developed under Creative Commons licensing schemes, can be experimented directly from a web site, offline or by an LMS, and all the contents and application will be localised in Spanish, Euskera, Catalan, Valencian, Gallego and English.
Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain
+
Description:
+
This site is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish.
+
OAI-PMH:
+
http://digitool-uam.greendata.es/OAI-PUB
+
Software:
+
DigiTool
+
Size:
+
6662 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Multidisciplinary
+
Content:
+
Theses; Books
+
Languages:
+
Spanish
+
Policies:
+
[http://biblioteca.uam.es/sc/biblose_archivo_derechos.html Copyright / Creative Commons BY-NC-ND]
+
  
[http://dspace.ceu.es/ CEU Repositorio Institucional]
+
==== RTE-Extremadura.org ====
 +
http://www.unesco-ci.org/cgi-bin/portals/information-society/search.cgi?d=1&type=phrase&query=Spain
  
Organisation:
+
The Educational Technological Network represents the access of Extremadura (a region in Western Spain) School System (kindergarten, primary, secondary and high school) to the Information Society. This access includes the development of infrastructures (software, hardware and Intranet) and the establishment of an area where research, capacity building and innovation will be promoted in the domain of ICT. This will guarantee to all the citizens of the region the use of information resources and the access to opportunities.
Universidad San Pablo CEU, Spain
+
Description:
+
This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish.
+
OAI-PMH:
+
http://dspace.ceu.es/oai/request
+
Software:
+
DSpace
+
Size:
+
3552 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Multidisciplinary
+
Content:
+
Articles; References; Theses
+
Languages:
+
Spanish; English
+
Policies:
+
[http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/deed.es Creative Commons BY-NC_NC 3.0]
+
  
[http://www2.cita-aragon.es/citarea/ citaREA Repositorio Electrónico Agroalimentario]
 
  
Organisation:
+
==== Catalan Blog project "Escoles en Xarxa" ====
Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA), Spain
+
Description:
+
This site provides access to the research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in Spanish.
+
OAI-PMH:
+
http://www2.cita-aragon.es/oai/request
+
Software:
+
DSpace
+
Size:
+
1554 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Agriculture, Food and Veterinary
+
Content:
+
Articles; Theses; Books
+
Languages:
+
Spanish
+
Policies:
+
[http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/es/ Creative Commons BY-NC_NC 3.0]
+
  
[http://dehesa.unex.es:8080/xmlui Dehesa (Dehesa. Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Extremadura)]
+
The idea of the Catalan project "Escoles en Xarxa" ([http://escolesenxarxa.vilaweb.com Schools on the Net]), originates from an initiative of a secondary school in Barcelona willing to establish a blog for their news service. Adapting journalism practices in high schools from printed newsletters to the web and then to blogs has been a logical evolution and a constant demand from Catalan schools. The project received support by the Catalan Department of education in charge of the coordination of ICT educational projects with two goals in mind. Firstly, to create a community based on the Catalan language in secondary schools, and secondly to spread social values using ICT. Fifty three schools are now connected to the project in the Catalan speaking Community (Andorra, Balearic Islands, French Eastern Pyrenees, Catalonia and Valencia). Escoles en Xarxa permitted the establishment of a community and network to promote a minority language.
  
Organisation:
 
Universidad de Extremadura (UNEX), Spain
 
Description:
 
This site provides access to the research students output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish, Portuguese and English.
 
OAI-PMH:
 
http://dehesa.unex.es:8080/oai/request
 
Software:
 
DSpace
 
Size:
 
16 items (2012-10-19)
 
Subjects:
 
Multidisciplinary
 
Content:
 
Articles
 
Languages:
 
Spanish
 
Policies:
 
[http://dehesa.unex.es:8080/static/ourcontent/faq_es.pdf Copyright / Creative Commons]
 
  
[http://digital.csic.es/ Digital.CSIC]
+
==== Use of learning platform in teaching/learning ====
  
Organisation:
+
Moodle is widely used for online teacher training, but only a limited number of schools have also adopted it for their own purposes. Most Autonomous Communities provide their teachers with a virtual learning environment to upload and share resources with their pupils; they are hosted centrally, not at school, and often happen to be custom-made by software companies. They have been the most successful solutions for VLE since they are centrally administered and in this way schools do not have to devote resources (people and machines) to maintaining them. There is also regional support for schools in order to have a school portal and intranet; in those cases central servers host the school web sites, which the school manages through a pre-installed content management system. Sometimes, an open software solution like Joomla! is used, as in the case of the community of Castilla la Mancha.
Unidad de Coordinación de la Red de Bibliotecas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Spanish National Research Council) (CSIC), Spain
+
Description:
+
This is the institutional repository of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) that provides access to the scientific output produced by CSIC researchers.
+
OAI-PMH:
+
http://digital.csic.es/dspace-oai/request
+
Software:
+
DSpace
+
Size:
+
52898 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Multidisciplinary; Science General; Agriculture, Food and Veterinary; Biology and Biochemistry; Chemistry and Chemical Technology; Ecology and Environment; Physics and Astronomy; Mechanical Engineering and Materials; Arts and Humanities General; Social Sciences General
+
Content:
+
Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Datasets; Learning Objects; Multimedia; Patents
+
Languages:
+
Spanish; English
+
Policies:
+
[http://digital.csic.es/copyright/ Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
  
[http://ddd.uab.cat/ Dipòsit Digital de Documents de la UAB]
 
  
Organisation:
+
==== [[Epysteme]] ====
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain
+
Description:
+
this site provides access to the research and learning output of the institution. The interface is available in English, Catalan and Spanish.
+
OAI-PMH:
+
http://ddd.uab.cat/oai2d
+
Software:
+
invenio
+
Size:
+
81930 items (2012-08-20)
+
Subjects:
+
Multidisciplinary
+
Content:
+
Articles; References; Unpublished; Books; Learning Objects; Multimedia
+
Languages:
+
Spanish; Catalan; English
+
Policies:
+
[http://serveis.uab.cat/ddd/content/normativa Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
  
[http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/ Diposit Digital de la Universitat de Barcelona]
+
 +
[[Epysteme]] is a virtual school offering support for homeschooling, from primary to secondary education for those who needs a qualification but cannot obtain it through attending school in presence. It is linked to US qualifications.
  
Organisation:
+
==== [[CIDEAD]] ====
Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Spain
+
A distance learning education centre which offers an online Bachillerato, online courses for primary and secondary pupils and some online vocational training.
Description:
+
It is a university repository providing access to the digital output of the faculty and staff at the University of Barcelona. All material is made available under Creative Commons licenses. The interface is available in Catalan, English and Spanish. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.
+
OAI-PMH:
+
http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace-oai/request
+
Software:
+
DSpace
+
Size:
+
7669 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Business and Economics; Management and Planning
+
Content:
+
Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Learning Objects; Special
+
Languages:
+
Catalan
+
Policies:
+
[http://www.bib.ub.edu/fileadmin/arxius/diposits/UB_OA_politica.pdf Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
  
[http://acceda.ulpgc.es/ ACCEDA (Documentacion cientifica de la ULPGC en abierto)]
+
==== [[CEAC]] ====
 +
A private education centre, which offers an online Bachillerato and other online courses.  It is a founder member of the [http://www.anced.es/ National Association of Distance Education Centres].
  
Organisation: Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), Spain Description: This site provides access to the output of the institution. The interface is in Spanish. Software: DSpace Size: 5719 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Learning Objects Languages: Spanish; English Policies: Metadata re-use policy explicitly undefined; Full data item policies explicitly undefined; Content policies explicitly undefined; Submission policies explicitly undefined; Preservation policies explicitly undefined OpenDOAR ID: 1641 , Suggest an update for this record, Missing data is needed for: OAI-PMH & Policies: [http://acceda.ulpgc.es/popup.jsp?id=aviso_legal Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
==== [[Aula Aragon]] ====
 +
A distance learning project of the Aragon government, this centre offers an online Bachillerato, online informal courses, some online vocational education and online teacher training through its Moodle virtual campus.
  
[http://dugi-doc.udg.edu/ DUGiDocs – Universitat de Girona]
+
==== [[Bachillerato a Distancia Colegio de Madrid]] ====
 +
Although this organisation is linked to the National Autonomous University of Mexico and has a Mexican website address, it has a centre in Madrid which offers an online Bachillerato.
  
Organisation:
+
==== [[IES Francisco Salinas]] ====
Universitat de Girona, Spain
+
A public secondary school in Salamanca offering an online Bachillerato through its Moodle virtual campus.
Description:
+
This site provides access to teaching and learning output of the institution. An RSS feed is available to keep users up to date with newly added materials.
+
OAI-PMH:
+
http://dugi-doc.udg.edu/dspace-oai/request
+
Software:
+
DSpace
+
Size:
+
5970 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Multidisciplinary
+
Content:
+
Articles; Theses; Unpublished; Books; Learning Objects
+
Languages:
+
Spanish; English
+
Policies:[http://dugi-doc.udg.edu/page/disclaimer Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
  
[http://dugifonsespecials.udg.edu/ DUGiFonsEspecials - Universitat de Girona]
+
==== Secondary Schools in Murcia ====
 +
At least five public secondary schools in the Murcia region offer an online Bachillerato: [[IES Isaac Peral]], [[IES J. Ibanez Martin]], [[IES Juan Carlos I de Murcia]], [[IES Jose L. Castillo Puche de Yecla]] and [[IES San Juan de la Cruz - Caravaca de la Cruz]].
  
Organisation:
+
==== Escuela Virtual de Padres ====
Universitat de Girona, Spain
+
Description:
+
This site provides access to special collections deposited in the Library of the University of Girona. The interface is in a mixture of Spanish and English. An RSS feed is available to keep users up to date with newly added materials. Some items are not available as full-text.
+
OAI-PMH:
+
http://dugifonsespecials.udg.edu/dspace-oai/request
+
Software:
+
DSpace
+
Size:
+
10232 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Multidisciplinary
+
Content:
+
Articles; Special
+
Languages:
+
Spanish
+
Policies:[http://dugifonsespecials.udg.edu/page/disclaimer Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
  
[http://diobma.udg.edu/ DUGiMedia – Universitat de Girona]
+
The [http://www.web-familias.com/ Virtual school of Fathers] is a Spanish web portal for parents, aimed at supporting them in their role through useful documents and spaces for dialogue around the issues of children education and related problems. The portal include a specific session called “Escuela Virtual”, where materials can be downloaded and a forum is available.
  
Organisation:
+
=== Virtual initiatives in post-secondary education ===
Universitat de Girona, Spain
+
Description:
+
This site provides access to the audio and video output of the institution. The interface is in a mixture of Spanish and English. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. Some items are not available as full-text.
+
OAI-PMH:
+
http://diobma.udg.edu/dspace-oai/request
+
Software:
+
DSpace
+
Size:
+
2055 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Multidisciplinary
+
Content:
+
Articles; Conferences; Theses; Multimedia
+
Languages:
+
Spanish; English
+
Policies:[http://dugifonsespecials.udg.edu/page/disclaimer Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
  
[http://www.educarex.es/ EducarEx]
+
<!-- include virtual campuses and virtual universities (distance education) as well as on-campus initiatives -->
  
Initiative piloted by the council of education and culture of the community autonomous government of Extremadura between 2004 and 2012 and aimed at providing educational contents for all compulsory schooling cycle for teachers and students. Those contents were released under Creative Commons BY- Share alike - No Commercial.
+
==== Re.ViCa Case-study - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid ====
  
[http://www.repositorio.ieo.es/e-ieo/ e-IEO]
+
See [[Universidad Politécnica de Madrid - case study]]
  
Organisation:
+
==== Interesting Virtual Campus Initiatives ====
Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Spain
+
Description:
+
This site provides access to the research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is available in Spanish.This repository covers Oceanography and related subjects.
+
OAI-PMH:
+
http://www.repositorio.ieo.es/dspace-oai/request
+
Software:
+
DSpace
+
Size:
+
451 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Biology and Biochemistry; Ecology and Environment
+
Content:
+
Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished; Books; Multimedia
+
Languages:
+
Spanish; English
+
Policies:[http://www.repositorio.ieo.es/e-ieo/animacion/ Creative Commons]
+
  
[http://eprints.ucm.es/ EPrints Complutense (E-PrintsUCM)]
+
The eLearning in Higher Education education can be constituted more as a complement of the traditionalforms of education or as a strategic pillar of the university. According to the academic director of the UOC, A Sangrá, there are five forms of application of e-learning in the universities:
  
Organisation:
+
* Current University that introduces virtual elements in its educational dynamics. Examples of this model is the Polytechnic University of Catalonia ([[UPC]]), the Complutensian University of Madrid ([[UCM]]), University of Oviedo (UNIOVI), Pompeu-Fabra University ([[UPF]]) or the University Carlos III of Madrid ([[UC3M]])
Biblioteca de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Universidad Complutense Madrid (UCM), Spain
+
* Current University with virtual university extension: a widely extended model at universities.
Description:
+
* Virtual University based on the traditional university: The incorporation in a traditional university of a virtual university working along with the traditional one. It can be the case of the University Ramon-Llull (URL), with masters exclusively online or the MBAs of universities like Stanford or Harvard.
This site is a university repository providing access to the publication output of the institution. The site interface is available in English or Spanish. Users may set up an Atom or RSS feed to be alerted to new content.
+
* Common interuniversity virtual Spaces are based on having an unique virtual point of contact to several universities. According to Auna Foundation, examples in Spain are:
OAI-PMH:
+
**G9 Group: It is a virtual space located in the north of Spain.
http://eprints.ucm.es/cgi/oai2
+
**ADA Madrid: This virtual Campus is related to the region of Madrid.
Software:
+
**Intercampus: Is located in Barcelona and other cities around Barcelona.
EPrints
+
**“Instituto universitario de postgrado”: Are included three important universities and Santillana group.
Size:
+
**Universia: This is very important because in this site are included more than 750 universities from Spain and [[Portugal]].
12336 items (2012-09-21)
+
* Virtual University as virtual organization the representative model is the distant learning [[ Universitat Oberta de Catalunya]] (UOC) or universities like the [[Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia]].
Subjects:
+
Multidisciplinary
+
Content:
+
Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished; Books; Learning Objects; Multimedia
+
Languages:
+
English; Spanish
+
Policies: [http://eprints.ucm.es/derechos.html Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
  
[http://www.memoriadigitalvasca.es/ EMD (Euskal Memoria Digitala)]
+
In Spain, the distant educational offer is concentrated in two institutions: the National University of remote Education, UNED, a public university with more than thirty years of existence, and the most modern one “Universitat Oberta de Catalunya” (UOC). They are two forms to understand remote education, the relation with the student and the use of the Network.
  
Organisation:
+
Reference: http://www.fnm-austria.at/stategie/Dateiablage/view/nml-nib/11-nml-nib-international-laenderbericht-spanien.pdf
Sancho el Sabio Foundation, Spain
+
Description:
+
This site provides access to digital scans of monographs relating to Basque culture. The interface is available in English, Spanish and Basque.
+
OAI-PMH:
+
http://www.memoriadigitalvasca.es/dspace-oai/request
+
Software:
+
DSpace
+
Size:
+
3053 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Multidisciplinary
+
Content:
+
Books
+
Languages:
+
English; Basque; Spanish
+
Policies:[http://www.fsancho-sabio.es/aviso_legal.asp Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
  
[http://gredos.usal.es/jspui/ GREDOS]
+
===== [[ Universitat Oberta de Catalunya]]=====
  
Organisation:
+
The prime objective of the UOC is to enable people to achieve their learning needs with maximum access to knowledge. To this end, the University employs the intensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and offers an educational model based on the personalization and constant accompaniment of the student, beyond the limitations of time and space.
Universidad de Salamanca, Spain
+
Description:
+
This site provides access to the research output and collections of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish, Portuguese or English.
+
Software:
+
DSpace
+
Size:
+
92556 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Multidisciplinary
+
Content:
+
Articles; Learning Objects; Multimedia
+
Languages:
+
Spanish; Portuguese; English
+
Policies:[http://gredos.usal.es/jspui/ Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 ES]
+
  
[http://revistas.ucm.es/ Portal de Revistas Científicas Complutenses]
+
The UOC leads the emergence of the new model of online education of the knowledge society.
  
Organisation:
+
The educational model of the UOC facilitates access to learning resources from any place and at any time, in a way that permits education to be integrated in people's lives.
Universidad Complutense Madrid (UCM), Spain
+
Description:
+
This site provides access to the journal and research output of the institution. The interface is in Spanish.
+
OAI-PMH:
+
http://revistas.ucm.es/index.php/oai/oai/
+
Software:
+
OJS
+
Size:
+
31573 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Multidisciplinary
+
Content:
+
Articles
+
Languages:
+
Spanish
+
Policies:[http://revistas.ucm.es/index.php/index/about/aboutThisPublishingSystem Licencia Pública General GNU]
+
  
[http://www.alhambra-patronato.es/ria Recursos de Investigación de la Alhambra]
+
The educational model of the UOC revolves around society's needs and is based on:
  
Organisation:
+
* the quality of academic activity
Patronato de la Alhambra y el Generalife, Spain
+
* research surrounding the ICT
Description:
+
* the dissemination of knowledge
This site provides access to the digitised collections of the institution. The interface is in Spanish.
+
Software:
+
DSpace
+
Size:
+
13358 items (2012-09-21)
+
Subjects:
+
Multidisciplinary
+
Content:
+
Books; Multimedia under copyright Creative Commons - Es (BY-NC-ND)
+
Languages:
+
Spanish
+
Policies:[http://www.alhambra-patronato.es/ria/themes/Alhambra/static/help_es/index.html Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 ES]
+
  
[http://roderic.uv.es Roderic (Repositori d'Objectes Digitals per a l'Ensenyament la Recerca i la Cultura)]
+
The UOC has received international awards in recognition of its educational model and the quality of its academic activity.
  
Organisation:
 
Universitat de Valencia, Spain
 
Description:
 
This site provides access to digitised collections including manuscripts and books, as well as research outputs of the institution. The interface is available in Valencià and Castellano Spanish.
 
OAI-PMH:
 
http://roderic.uv.es/oai/request
 
Size:
 
6776 items (2012-08-20)
 
Subjects:
 
Multidisciplinary
 
Content:
 
Articles; Books; Learning Objects
 
Languages:
 
Spanish; English
 
Policies: [http://roderic.uv.es/derechos_ca.html Copyright /Creative Commons]
 
  
[http://repositori.upf.edu/ Repositori Digital de la UPF]
+
'''Educational model'''
  
Organisation: Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Spain Description: The interface is in Spanish, Catalan and English. Many items are hosted on external sites. A few items are available as full-text. OAI-PMH: http://repositori.upf.edu/ Software: DSpace Size: 5960 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; References; Conferences; Theses Languages: Spanish; English Policies: [http://repositori.upf.edu/ajuda#a8 Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
At the UOC, the student is the protagonist of an educational process, which, thanks to the use of new technologies, is unlimited in both time and space. The student manages their own time, plans how long they take to complete the studies and builds their own academic itinerary.
  
[http://repositori.uji.es/xmlui Repositori UJI (Repositori Institucional de la Universitat Jaume I)]
+
* The counsellor guides the student through their learning process in a personalised way.  
 +
* The tutor supervises the student's progress in each of their subjects.
 +
* The course plan of each subject defines the learning process, the method of working and the evaluation criteria.
 +
* The continuous assessment guarantees the academic process and the development of the course.
 +
* The Virtual Campus is the support and learning area from where the student can access resources and interact with the university community.
 +
* The multimedia didactic materials complement the specific material for each subject.
 +
* The virtual library gives access to all of the information resources.
 +
* The university community services include resources, activities and advantages to assist with the student's integration into the UOC.
 +
* The support centres personalised attention, study resources and a place to meet with other students.
  
Organisation: Universitat Jaume I, Spain Description: This site provides access to teaching, learning and institutional output of the institution. Also, this site provides access to Biblioteca Digital de Castellon, with materials which authors are from Castellon or they are relating to Castellon's province. The interface is available in Catalan, English, Spanish and German. OAI-PMH:http://repositori.uji.es Software: DSpace Size: 9369 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Multimedia Languages: Catalan; Spanish; English; German Policies:[http://repositori.uji.es/xmlui/nota-legal?locale-attribute=es Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
====  [[Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia]] =====
  
[http://repositori.udl.cat/ Repositori Obert UdL]
+
The Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED) is the public Spanish Open University, based in Madrid, Spain. It was founded in 1972 following the idea of the UK's Open University to provide quality higher and continuing education opportunities to all through the distance education system.
  
Organisation: Universitat de Lleida, Spain. Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in English, Spanish or Catalan. Some items are held on external websites. OAI-PMH:http://repositori.udl.cat/Software: DSpace Size: 4098 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Theses; Unpublished; Learning Objects Languages: English Policies: [http://www.sbd.udl.cat/repositoris-digitals/drets-autor Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
UNED is similar to other Spanish public Universities. It awards the same qualifications, which are equally valid and it is run under the same general legislation. However, the special features of UNED make it different from most other Spanish Universities. This is due to the fact that it is nationwide in scope, uses different methodology, and has a wide social influence.
  
[http://ruc.udc.es  Repositorio da Universidade da Coruña(RUC)]
+
The University Reform Law in Spain ensures UNED the same degree of autonomy as the rest of Spanish universities. The law states that UNED is to provide distance education throughout the country.
  
Organisation: Universidade da Coruña, Spain Description: The interface is available in Spanish, Galician and English. This site replaces Universidade da Coruña UDCDspace. Users may set up an RSS feed to be alerted to new content. OAI-PMH: http://ruc.udc.es Software: DSpace Size: 6523 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://ruc.udc.es/dspace/udc/faq_en.html Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
It is UNED's teaching methodology, what actually makes it special within the spectrum of Spanish higher education. The keystones of this methodology are printed and audiovisual teaching material, tutorial teaching, and an ever-increasing use of new information and communications technologies.
  
[http://dspace.unia.es/ Repositorio de la UNIA]
+
UNED’s mission is to be present as a centre of excellence throughout the world. In line with a policy of quality growth based on coexistence and cooperation with local universities and institutions, it now has centres in the following countries:Argentina (Rosario and Buenos Aires), Belgium (Brussels),Brazil (Sao Paulo), Ecuatorial Guinea (Bata and Malabo), France (Paris), Germany (Bonn), México (México D.F.), Morroco (Tangiers), Portugal (Lisbon), Switzerland (Bern), Venezuela (Caracas), United Kingdom (London), United States (Miami and Washington, D.C.)
  
Organisation: Universidad Internacional de Andalucía (UNIA), Spain Description: This site provides access to the research and teaching outputs of the institution. Collections include historical collections: on relations Spain & Latin America (nineteenth and twentieth centuries); History of Andalusia (Southern Spain). The interface is available in Spanish. OAI-PMH:http://dspace.unia.esSoftware: DSpace Size: 2058 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Geography and Regional Studies; History and Archaeology; Language and Literature Content: Articles; Theses; Books; Special Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://dspace.unia.es/ Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 2.5 ES]
+
All of these UNED centres are in constant communication with the central headquarters in Madrid, so that students can make full use of UNED’s logistic and academic network. From these centres, the students have easy access to a network of tutors, in depth administrative support, counselling, enormous library collections, meeting places for professors and students, and examination and consultation points, in short, a complete university environment.
  
[http://rodin.uca.es RODIN(Repositorio de Objetos de Docencia e Investigación de la Universidad de Cádiz)]
+
UNED is also fully committed with the creation of an Ibero-American university space, which allows for the growing international relevance of the teaching and scientific research that is carried out in Spanish and Portuguese.
  
Organisation: Universidad de Cádiz, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is in Spanish. OAI-PMH:http://rodin.uca.es Software: DSpace Size: 7139 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Theses; Books Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://rodin.uca.es:8081/xmlui/themes/Reference-uca/manual/manual.html#licencia Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
===== More examples =====
  
[http://repositorio.bib.upct.es Repositorio Digital de la Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena(Repositorio Digital UPCT)]
+
* La [[Universidad a distancia de Madrid]]
 +
* CEVUG, Centro de Enseñanza Virtual de la Universidad de Granada http://cevug.ugr.es/
 +
* Campus Virtual de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid https://www.ucm.es/campusvirtual/CVUCM/index.php
 +
* [[Asociación Nacional de Centros de e-Learning y Distancia]] http://www.anced.es/
 +
* Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria http://www.ulpgc.es
 +
* [[ÉLOGOS]] http://www.elogos.es
 +
* University of Valladolid http://www.uva.es/ - see Palliative Care
 +
* University of Salamanca http://www.usal.es
 +
* [[Instituto de formación de postgrado]] http://www.iup.es/
  
Organisation: Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UCPT), Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in Spanish. OAI-PMH:http://repositorio.bib.upct.es Software: DSpace Size: 2531 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Theses; Special Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://repositorio.bib.upct.es/dspace/ayuda/derechos.pdf Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
See also http://www.usal.es/grial/  
  
[http://www.eoi.es/savia/ SAVIA(Repositorio Digital EOI)]
+
More initiatives are collected in the [[MegaTrends|MEGATRENDS project]]:
 +
http://nettskolen.nki.no/in_english/megatrends/Spain.pdf
  
Organisation: EOI(Escuela de Organización Industrial), Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish, German, English and Japanese. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. Software: PubMan Size: 1724 items (2012-07-05) Subjects: Business and Economics Content: Theses; Unpublished; Books; Special Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://www.eoi.es/portal/guest/aviso-legal Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
The book "Buenas Prácticas de e-learning" by Ana Landeta Etxeberrí gives an overview of interesting e-learning and distance learning initiatives and projects in Spain (and some other countries). Available in Spanish at http://www.buenaspracticas-elearning.com/
  
[http://uvadoc.uva.es Repositorio Documental de la Universidad de Valladolid(UVADOC)]
+
A paper on "The conditions and challenges of e-learning in Spain" is available at http://www.easy-elearning.net/downloads/e-learning_in_Spain.pdf
  
Organisation: Universidad de Valladolid, Spain Description: This site provides access to the theses output of the institution. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. The interface is in Spanish. OAI-PMH:http://uvadoc.uva.es Software: DSpace Size: 233 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Theses Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://uvadoc.uva.es/help/uvadocDerAutor.html Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
A "country brief on e-learning in Spain" of the eUSER project is available on http://euser-eu.org/eUSER_eLearningCountryBrief.asp?CaseID=2243&CaseTitleID=1084&MenuID=117
  
[http://repositorio.racordoba.es:8080/jspui/ Repositorio Institucional Arjona y Cubas de la Real Academia de Córdoba]
+
==  Lessons learnt ==
  
Organisation: Real Academia de Ciencias, Bellas Letras y Nobles Artes de Córdoba, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. Software: DSpace Size: 169 items (2012-09-05) Subjects: Science General; Arts and Humanities General; History and Archaeology; Language and Literature Content: Articles Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://repositorio.racordoba.es:8080/jspui/ Creative Commons BY NC ND]
 
  
[http://ria.asturias.es Repositorio Institucional de Asturias (RIA)]
+
=== General lessons ===
  
Organisation: Gobierno del Principado de Asturias, Universidad de Oviedo, Spain Description: This site is providing access to the output of the institution. The interface is available in Spanish. OAI-PMH:http://ria.asturias.es Software: DSpace Size: 774 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Books Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://ria.asturias.es/RIA/derechosAutor Copyright / Creative Commons]
 
  
[http://e-archivo.uc3m.es E-Archivo(Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)]
+
=== Notable practices ===
  
Organisation: Biblioteca, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain Description: This site is an institutional repository providing access to materials produced by the members of the university. The site is supported with background information on Open Access in general, and publisher copyright issues in particular. Registered users on the site can set up email alerts, to notify them of newly added relevant content. The interface is available in Spanish and English. OAI-PMH: http://e-archivo.uc3m.es Software: DSpace Size: 12760 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished; Books Languages: Spanish; English Policies: [http://e-archivo.uc3m.es/help/derechos-autor.html Creative Commons]
+
<!-- include exemplar practices (ones to follow) as well as practices to avoid  -->
  
[http://rua.ua.es Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Alicante (RUA)]
 
  
Organisation: University of Alicante, Spain Description: This site is an institutional repository providing access to publications produced by the members of the university. The site interface is available partially in Spanish and partly in English. An RSS feed is available to keep users up to date with newly added materials. The site is well supported with guidance information, in Spanish only. OAI-PMH: http://rua.ua.es Software: DSpace Size: 20057 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; References; Conferences; Theses; Learning Objects Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://rua.ua.es/dspace/derechos?locale=en Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
== References ==
  
[http://repositorio.ual.es Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Almería (Spain)]
+
=== Schools and colleges ===
  
Organisation: Universidad de Almería, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research output of the Institution. Interface available in Spanish and English. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. OAI-PMH:http://repositorio.ual.es Software: DSpace Size: 1169 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Theses Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://repositorio.ual.es/jspui/help/faq.pdf Copyright / Creative Commons]
+
*[http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/eurybase/structures/041_ES_EN.pdf Eurydice, Structures of Education and Training Systems in Europe, Spain 2009/10 Edition]
 +
*[http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/eurybase/national_summary_sheets/047_ES_EN.pdf Eurydice, National system overviews on education systems in Europe and ongoing reforms, 2010 Edition]
 +
*[http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/eurybase/eurybase_full_reports/ES_EN.pdf Eurydice, Organisation of the education system in Spain, 2009/2010 ]
 +
*[http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/eurybase/eurybase_full_reports/ES_EN.pdf Eurybase, The Information Database on Education Systems in Europe: The Education System in Spain, 2009/10]
 +
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Spain Wikipedia, Education in Spain]
 +
*[http://cms.eun.org/shared/data/pdf/cr_spain_2009_arleady_proofread_2_columns.pdf EUN, Country report on ICT in Education, Spain 2009/2010]
 +
*[http://www.educa2.madrid.org/c/document_library/get_file?p_l_id=419778&folderId=439834&name=DLFE-21416.pdf UNESCO Observatory on the Information Society]
  
[http://riuma.uma.es RIUMA (Repositorio Institucional Universidad de Málaga)]
+
=== Universities ===
  
Organisation: Universidad de Málaga, Spain Description: This site provides access to the research outputs of the institution. The interface is in Spanish. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content. OAI-PMH: http://riuma.uma.es Software: DSpace Size: 2021 items (2012-09-21) Subjects: Multidisciplinary Content: Articles; Learning Objects; Special Languages: Spanish Policies: [http://riuma.uma.es/xmlui/static/ayuda/autor.htm Copyright / Creative Commons]
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Bricall, J. Informe Universidad 2000. (Report commissioned by the CRUE, Conferencia de Rectores de las
 +
Universidades Españolas). Available at http://www.crue.org/informeuniv2000.htm.
  
=== Conclusions ===
+
Sánchez-Mesa Martínez D.,Virtual Education and the European Accreditation System. In: Boonen A. & W. Van Petegem (eds.). European Networking and Learning for the Future. The EuroPACE Approach. 2007, Garant, Antwerp-Apeldoorn. p. 137-146.
  
Wrapping up, the analysis of previous Spanish OER and OA initiatives shows there is a need to increase awareness, understanding and training to what are open and free content licenses and to improve the use and reuse of existing OER. It should be noted that choosing a free/open license does not automatically translate into becoming a "truly" OER. Other required aspects are availability, accessibility and responsiveness.  
+
Landeta Etxeberría A., Buenas Prácticas de e-learning. 2007, @nced, Spain.  
  
Open resources need to be available because if they can not be found they are as useless as if they were closed. Accessible means that they clearly set how they can be used and reused (from clearly stating their authors rights policies and being eAccesible for persons suffering disabilities until promoting cultural diversity by providing multilanguage options). Responsiveness entails that feed back is welcomed and channels are provided to facilitate it. All together they reinforce in one hand, recognition and crediting for the author(s) merits, and enable in the other hand, a culture of reciprocity and networking where the flow of ideas and knowledge results in added creativity.
+
http://www.tostudyinspain.com/
  
Finally, another important elements impeding further mainstreaming of Spanish OER initiatives relates to the issue of their discoverability and room for adaptation. Indeed the use of licenses allowing modifications by third parties and open formats enabling to change, modify and adapt contents to new targets, contexts and pedagogical objectives appear as missing assignments for most of the reviewed spanish OER initiatives. Last but not least, OER need to be accessible in the sense that they require to be found to be useful. This last element deal with deeper problems linked to Internet development and the indexing, storage and retrieval of resources. In relation  to this dimension, OER initiatives need to go more in-depth in using open linked data and semantics in order to improve their visibility and thus overall usefulness,
+
http://www.expatica.com/es/survival/education/higher-education-in-spain-1896.html
  
In conclusion, Spain counts on many Open Access initiatives and offers huge potential for  boosting OER and Open Education consequently, either by convincing already digitized repositories to go for open/free licenses, either by systematizing links between HE platforms offering OpenCourseWare courses. However, more sensitization towards open standards and the use of open licenses enabling remix of contents and free licenses enabling commercial uses by third parties should also be promoted.
+
elearning country report: http://www.fnm-austria.at/stategie/Dateiablage/view/nml-nib/11-nml-nib-international-laenderbericht-spanien.pdf
  
== References ==
+
OECD Country Report: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/18/46/41014632.pdf
  
[1] Banco de España, Specific ICT indicators. Spain, EU and United States, 2011. [Consult. 2012-01-19] Available in WWW: <URL: www.bde.es/webbde/es/estadis/infoest/si_1_5e.pdf
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[http://www.fnm-austria.at/stategie/Dateiablage/view/nml-nib/11-nml-nib-international-laenderbericht-spanien.pdf| NML-NIB im internationalen Kontext Länderbericht: Spanien (PDF - EN)] by [http://www.fnm-austria.at/ FNM-Austria]
  
[2] Padilha, Marcia, Aguirre, Solange, La integración de las TIC en la escuela. Indicadores cualitativos y metodología de investigación, 2011. [Consult. 2012-01-19] Available in WWW: <URL: http://www.oei.es/noticias/spip.php?article9607
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http://www.eenovate.info/documents/Developing%20e-learning_Spain.pdf
  
[3]  Hylén, Jaan. et al, Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing,  2012, [Consult. 2012-01-19] Available in WWW: <URL: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/open-educational-resources_5k990rjhvtlv-en
 
  
 
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> [[Countries]]
 
<br>
 
> [[POERUP]]
 
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>> [[Main Page]]
 
  
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&gt; [[Countries]] <br> &gt;&gt; [[Main Page]]
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[[Category:Spain| ]]
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[[Category:Europe]]
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[[Category:European_Union]]
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[[Category:OECD]]
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[[Category:Spanish-speaking_countries|Spanish-speaking_countries]]
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[[Category:Country_reports]]
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[[Category:Countries_with_Programmes]]
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[[Category:Countries_in_merged_template]]
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[[Category:Tier 2]]
  
[[Category:POERUP content]]
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[[Category:VISCED]]

Revision as of 18:00, 29 January 2013

lead author for VISCED - Daniela Proli, SCIENTER - for general and university material based on Re.ViCa work by Paul Bacsich, Nikki Cortoos, Ilse Op de Beeck and other members of the Re.ViCa team


For entities in Spain see Category:Spain

For the autonomous communities and cities of Spain see Category:Autonomous communities and cities of Spain


Experts situated in Spain

  • Begonia Arenas

Spain in a nutshell

Spain or the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.

Spanish territory also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the African coast, and two autonomous cities in North Africa, Ceuta and Melilla, that border Morocco. With an area of 504,030 km², Spain is the second largest country in Western Europe after France.

After serving as a granary of the Roman Empire, much of Spain was later conquered by a Muslim people, the Moors. Christian kingdoms gradually rolled back Muslim rule, completing this Reconquista in 1492. Spain became the leading world power, with a global empire on a scale and world distribution that had never been approached by its predecessors and a legacy today of over 400 million Spanish-speakers worldwide.

Napoleon's invasion of Spain in the early 19th century triggered independence movements that tore the empire apart and left the country politically unstable. In the 20th century it suffered a devastating civil war and came under the rule of a dictatorship, leading to years of stagnation. Democracy was restored in 1978 and the country has subsequently experienced a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth. Spain is now a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy and has been a member of the European Union since 1986, and NATO since 1982.

Education in Spain

Mainly sourced from Eurydice

The education system in Spain is organised into mainstream education and Enseñanzas de Régimen Especial (specialised education). Primary education (6 to 12) and compulsory secondary education (12 to 16) correspond to basic education, which consists of ten years of free and compulsory schooling for all pupils.

Mainstream education comprises:

Pre-primary education (Educación Infantil): it is non-compulsory. It is divided into two stages: the first one, up to the age of 3, and the second, from 3 to 6 years of age

Primary education (Educación Primaria): it is the first compulsory stage of the system. It covers six years of instruction, divided into three two-year cycles. It is normally completed between the ages of 6 and 12.

Secondary education In the Spanish education system, secondary education is comprised of compulsory secondary and post-compulsory secondary.

Post-compulsory secondary education includes two options: the two-year Bachillerato (form 16 to 18), and intermediate vocational training ciclos formativos, the duration of which varies between one and a half or two years. Secondary education also includes artistic professional Music and Dance education, intermediate professional Sports and Plastic Arts and Design education, which belong to enseñanzas de régimen especial. This also covers language education.

The vocational training is also a common possibility after ESO or after the Spanish Baccalaureate. There are two different types of programs: Middle Grade Training Cycles (Ciclos Formativos de Grado Medio), which have the ESO diploma as a requirement, and Superior-level Training Cycles (Ciclos Formativos de grado Superior), which have the Spanish Baccalaureate as the principal requirement. After completion of the Superior-level Training Cycle, students are entitled to direct entrance to several related University degrees (source wikipedia)

University education: Once students have finished their Bachillerato, they can take their University Entrance Exam (Pruebas de Acceso a la Universidad, popularly called Selectividad) which differs greatly from region to region. University in Spain is organised into three cycles, namely Bachelor, Masters and Doctorate, with variable duration and a minimum required number of ECTS credits.


Schools in Spain

Mainstream education comprises:

Pre-primary education

(Educación Infantil): it is the first stage in the education system and it is non-compulsory. It is divided into two stages: the first one, up to the age of 3, and the second, from 3 to 6 years of age

Primary education

(Educación Primaria): it is the first compulsory stage of the system. It covers six years of instruction, divided into three two-year cycles. It is normally completed between the ages of 6 and 12.

Secondary education

In the Spanish education system, secondary education is comprised of compulsory secondary and post-compulsory secondary. The former - Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO) it is divided into four courses and it is ordinarily completed from the ages of 12 to 16, it covers four school years and must be completed after finishing primary education. Successful students are awarded a Secondary Education Certificate, which is necessary for entering further optional education as is Bachillerato for their University or Formacion Professional (Vocational Studies).

Post-compulsory secondary education

This includes two options: the two-year Bachillerato (form 16 to 18), and intermediate vocational training ciclos formativos, the duration of which varies between one and a half or two years.

Secondary education also includes artistic professional Music and Dance education, intermediate professional Sports and Plastic Arts and Design education, which belong to enseñanzas de régimen especial.

This also covers language education. This provision, although not regarded as part of secondary education, belongs to Enseñanzas de Régimen Especial, which may be started at the age of 16 or 14 if the language to be studied is different from the one studied during ESO.

Enseñanzas de Régimen Especial are non-compulsory and structured into different levels and degrees leading to different qualifications and certificates.

Qualifications

The Certificate of Secondary Education is awarded at the end of compulsory secondary education after passing every subject but 2, and a student who achieves appropriate grades graduates from Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) and can apply for one of the different types of (Spanish) Bachillerato.

The modalities of Bachillerato depend on each region, but are commonly, Arts & Letters (Bachillerato de Humanidades), Natural and Health Sciences (Bachillerato de Ciencias de la Naturaleza y la Salud), Technology (Bachillerato Tecnológico), Social Sciences (Bachillerato de Ciencias Sociales) and Arts (Bachillerato de Arte), having 3 different thematic subjects each, and several common subjects such as Spanish, Foreign Language, Philosophy, History, etc.

Middle or Superior Vocational training is also a common possibility after ESO or after Bachillerato, they are called Ciclos Formativos de Grado Medio for middle or Ciclos Formativos de grado Superior for Superior getting a Technician Degree, or it can be taken after Bachillerato, getting a Superior Technician diploma and direct entrance to several related University degrees, there are more than 200 different specialities.

Students with appropriate qualifications and wishing to enroll in University in Spain must usually take an entrance exam called Selectividad, that consists in 6 tests, 3 for each subject and a test for each History or Philosophy, Foreign Language (commonly English) and Spanish grammar and literature (Autonomous communities that have a co-official language, have also another test about co-official language grammar and literature), after passing their Bachillerato. The Spanish School Leaving Certificate is equivalent to a number of GCSEs. The Bachillerato is equivalent to A levels. Therefore, Spanish students obtaining the appropriate grades required for entrance into universities in Europe, including England, are not precluded.

Further and Higher education

Higher education includes university studies as well as higher vocational education and training. Universities are the main institutions that provide university studies, while higher vocational education is usually linked to secondary schools and to special vocational institutions. Vocational education and training can be delivered in both public and private schools. The latter can be subsidized. This educational level can also be delivered through distance courses.

Over the past three decades, the number of students and universities has increased three-fold, attaining one of the highest rates of university education in Europe: 30% of women and 22% of men between 24 and 34 years of age have graduated from university. The process of decentralising the university system in physical terms has been accompanied by political and administrative decentralisation: powers have been handed over to the autonomous regions in the area of tertiary education. Moreover, in the last years university research has developed and research output indicators have increased dramatically. Another outstanding fact is the increase in the international mobility of academic staff and students. In the last two decades, the number of universities in Spain has doubled. At present Spain has 50 public universities. Two are special universities focused on continuing education and summer courses. One is a distance learning institution. There are 23 private universities; one of them is a distance learning university. Seven of the private institutions belong to the Catholic Church.

Universities in Spain

There are 50 public and 23 private universities in Spain. They are distributed throughout the country but the cities with the highest number of universities are Madrid (13), Barcelona (8) and Valencia (4).

According to the legal form the typography of Spanish universities is the following one: • Public University. - It grants university official and accredited titles. It is financed by the State.

• Private University. - It grants official and accredited titles. It is financed by the registered students themselves. It is ruled by its norms of organization and operation.

• University of the Church. - It grants official and accredited titles. It is financed by the registered students themselves and the Church. It is ruled by its norms of organization and operation.In addition to the official degrees, they grant ecclesiastical titles.

Madrid has the highest number of private universities located there. These universities are very interested in the admission of foreign students to a wide range of undergraduate and graduate programs.

There are four different types of university establishments in Spain:

  • university schools (escuelas universitarias), where ‘short-term’ three-year courses are offered;
  • university colleges (colegios universitarios) where the first three years of study leading to a licenciado is completed;
  • faculties (facultades) where long-term courses are offered in all academic disciplines (except technical courses) and
  • higher technical schools of engineering and architecture (escuela superior de ingeniería y arquitectura) where long-term technical courses are completed.

The Spanish university system is rigidly structured and students must choose a fixed curriculum and aren’t permitted to change universities during their studies.

Undergraduate university studies are divided into different stages known as cycles. There are three types of programs:

  • Single-cycle programs (or short-cycle studies): These studies do not continue to the second cycle and degrees awarded are the Diplomatura (Bachelor degree). These are normally three-year programs.
  • Two-cycle studies with an intermediate diploma: The first cycle leads to the award of the Diplomatura (Bachelor), or Arquitectura Técnica and Ingeniería Técnica (Bachelor degree in Architecture or Engineering), and students have the option of continuing to the second cycle for the award of the degree of Licenciatura (Masters degree), or Arquitecto and Ingeniero (Architect and Engineer). These are five or six-year programs.
  • Two-cycle studies without an intermediate diploma (or long-cycle studies): These studies are divided into two cycles but it is necessary to complete both to be eligible for the award of the Licenciatura(Masters Degree). These are four or five-year programs.

In addition to these official degrees or diplomas, each university offers a wide range of unofficial degrees (Maestrias) as well as graduate programs in a wide range of subjects that qualify for the award of the degree of Doctor (Ph.D.). The unofficial degrees are typically one or two years and usually require having attained an undergraduate or graduate degree and are widely recognized for their labour market value, as these qualifications are highly practical in scope and geared to specialized sectors of the different professions. Spanish universities' offer of doctoral degree programs typically require four years of study and research.

The universities cover the whole spectrum of official degrees offered in Spain with the official recognition of its Ministry of Education, as well as a wide variety of non-official degrees in a large number of professional fields.


Polytechnics in Spain

Colleges in Spain

Advanced vocational training studies constitute non-university post-secondary level of education. These studies can be provided either in compulsory secondary education and Bachillerato institutions, which are called secondary education institutes, the so-called national reference centres, or vocational training integrated institutions.

Access to advanced vocational training may be obtained in the following ways:

  • Through direct access, for which it is necessary to hold the Bachiller certificate.
  • Through an entrance examination when candidates do not hold the Bachiller certificate. The examination is regulated by the Autonomous Communities and its objective is to prove that the candidate’s maturity is appropriate to the objectives of Bachillerato and to assess his/her skills for the advanced ciclo formativo of the relevant professional field.

In the event that there are not sufficient places, admission will be prioritised according to the following criteria:

  • Having followed any of the types of Bachillerato determined for each ciclo formativo.
  • The academic record of the student, taking into account, firstly, the average mark and, secondly, having passed the Bachillerato subjects related to the ciclo formativo being applied for.

Education reform

Schools

Mainly sourced from Eurydice and European Schoolnet

The latest law reform in the Spanish System is the Ley Orgánica de Educación (LOE), dating from 2006, and it builds on the previous law, named Ley Orgánica de Ordenación General del Sistema Educativo (LOGSE), from 1990. The LOGSE radically restructured the Spanish educational system prior to University education, as it raised the school-leaving age from 14 to 16, among other things. The LOE retains the system introduced by the LOGSE but tries to establish the legal framework for improving the quality of the system by addressing the new challenges facing Spanish society. In particular, it addresses the challenges of a more heterogeneous student population and more developed regional control in all autonomous communities, which by 2000 had all been given full responsibilities in education. It also strives to align the national educational objectives with those established by the European Union, which aims to achieve a leading position for Europe in our present international knowledge society.

The following points are priorities for education:

  1. A National Political Agreement on Education among all political parties to guarantee the legal stability of the system in the long run as well as across the territories of different Autonomous Communities.
  2. To lower the drop-out rates in the compulsory educational levels (pupils under the age of 16).
  3. To promote quality in education while preserving an inclusive system with a strong emphasis on economic aid to compensate for social inequalities.
  4. To promote vocational training through an increase in quality and social recognition and through flexible schemes that allow students to enter the system and transfer credits easily.
  5. To enhance the use of ICT in schools by means of the plan Escuela 2.0 http://www.ite.educacion.es/es/escuela-20) which is aimed at transforming the way we teach and learn.

The LOE and the royal decrees which develop it have being gradually implemented, starting in the academic year 2006/07 and finishing in 2009/10.

Within the LOE framework, it bears mentioning that the Ministry of Education and the Autonomous Communities approved in 2008 the 'Plan para Reducir el Abandono Escolar' (Plan for the reduction of early school leaving), aimed at reducing the still high early school leaving rates to half between school years 2008/09 and 2012/13. The following measures are among the ones approved by this plan:

  • To increase the offer of places in initial vocational qualification programmes (PCPI)
  • To increase the offer of intermediate vocational training, Plastic Arts and Design and Sports Education, in order to fully meet the demand of this education.
  • To offer PCPI students who do not hold the Graduado en Educación Secundaria Obligatoria certificate the possibility of taking a personal aptitude test to access intermediate vocational training.
  • Likewise, to offer intermediate vocational training graduates the possibility of enrolling in advanced vocational training.
  • To promote reinforcement programmes, such as the reinforcement, guidance and support programmes, in order to increase the number of ESO graduates. Likewise, measures will be launched for young people between 16 and 22 years of age to take reinforcement and extra classes in order to obtain the Graduado en Educación Secundaria Obligatoria certificate in the minimum possible time.
  • To extend and reinforce counselling departments, in order to give students advice on the decisions they have to make at post compulsory levels. Moreover, guidance and monitoring services will be promoted for young people who left the education system with no qualification.
  • To develop teacher training programmes on techniques to make the most of pupils’ potential, as well as techniques for early diagnosing difficulties, educational attention and monitoring students at risk of early school leaving.
  • To create support resources for teachers and other stuff involved in the educational attention of low achievers at risk of early school leaving.
  • To promote measures that enable parents’ attendance at meetings with their children’s teachers.
  • To create family support centres, or 'schools for parents', to promote a higher involvement and monitoring in children’s education, as well as the cooperation of the administrations with the parents’ associations.
  • To promote new technologies in all spheres of the education system, especially for unqualified people under 25, in order to promote the offer of distance and part-attendance courses.
  • To promote an education-work culture in which holding at least the Graduado en Educación Secundaria Obligatoria or an initial vocational qualification prevails for the access of young people to employment.

Some other new aspects which should be mentioned are the implementation of the ‘School 2.0 Programme’ and the ‘Social and Political Pact for Education’. In September 2009, the Cabinet passed the ‘School 2.0 Programme’, an educational innovation initiative aimed at implementing the digital classrooms of the 21st century. The plan envisages that, for the 2009/10 academic year, 392,000 students and 20,000 teachers in more than 14,400 fully digitalised classrooms in all Spain would have a laptop they can use to be better educated. This programme will be developed through agreements between the Autonomous Communities and the Ministry of Education. Its objective is the transformation, in the next four years, of the traditional classrooms of the 5th and 6th years of primary education and the 1st and 2nd years of secondary education into digital classrooms equipped with interactive whiteboards and wireless Internet connection, where teachers will have laptops and each student will also work with his/her own laptop. The ‘School 2.0 Programme’ is based on the following principles:

  • Digital classrooms. Equip students and educational institutions with ICT resources: laptops for both students and teachers and digital classrooms with standardized efficient equipments.
  • Guarantee Internet connectivity and interconnectivity in the classroom regarding all equipments and facilitate Internet access from students’ homes during special hours.
  • Ensure teacher training in technological, as well as in the methodological and social aspects of the integration of these resources into daily teaching practice.
  • Involve students and their families in the acquisition, custody and use of these resources.

As regards the ‘Social and Political Pact for Education’, from the beginning of the 2009/10 academic year, the Ministry of Education has held a series of conversations and meetings with the Autonomous Communities, the educational community, social and political groups, as well as the Sectorial Committee, with the main aim of providing the education system with stability regarding regulations. The Ministry of Education has drawn up a document with 104 specific proposals for action which constitutes the basis upon which work is to be continued. The following proposals should be mentioned:

  • The Pact has a clear and determining horizon: 2015-20. It is not only a pact for 2020, but there must also be an explicit commitment on the immediate measures to be taken. There must be an annual proposal which includes the specific measures to be taken, so that they are also linked to a report and an economic commitment.
  • The commitment to citizens that possible present and future changes on regulations which might be adopted regarding different questions which might be agreed will require a parliamentary majority of two thirds.
  • An improvement in the funding of Spanish education
  • The objective that all the population between 0 and 18 is receiving education.
  • A greater flexibility in the education system. A greater permeability between the different educational levels, both vertically and horizontally. One of the key elements where this rigidity is to be eradicated is the last stage of compulsory education.

The preparation of specific measures for vocational training to constitute a comprehensive training and a key instrument in order to move towards a new sustainable economic model.

Post-secondary

Universities - and the Bologna Process

Since 1999, Spain has been immersed in a transformation of its higher education system, along with more than 30 European countries, with the aim of creating a European Higher Education Space (EHES). This process will culminate in 2010 and its objectives are to harmonize qualification frameworks and the credit system (units for measuring academic achievement), as well as to guarantee the standards and recognition of qualifications, in order to increase student mobility and facilitate the integration of graduates into the European labor market.

Spain is implementing legal measures for the adoption of the European credit and qualifications system, as well as the European qualification supplements. This facilitates the recognition of official Spanish qualifications in over 30 countries participating in the EHES project, as well as the official recognition of Spanish qualifications in other countries outside the European framework, such as the United States, Asia and Latin America.

The recent past of Spanish universities has taken place within the framework of university reforms, the first of these under the University Reform Law (LRU), which came into force n 1983, and the second under the Organic Law of Universities (LOU), which was introduced in 2001. The first of these focused on universities‘ social embeddedness, democratic organisation and scientific modernisation. The LOU‘s main concerns were the instrumentalisation of quality assurance policies and preparations for the Spanish university system‘s entry into the EHEA. Other measures envisaged in this law, such as regulations governing the functioning of universities, have been the centre of debate on education. The organic law that amends the LOU was approved in April of the current year.

One of the main challenges faced by the Spanish higher education system is its full integration into the European Higher Education Area. It is hoped that this process will improve coordination and make the system more competitive and allow it to improve quality, without detriment to the measures already in place aimed at fostering closer links with the social environment and guaranteeing equity in access.

The participation of Spanish students in mobility programmes such as Socrates/Erasmus is increasingly high. Between 1994-1995 and 2004-2005, the number of students from Spanish universities on this programme rose from 8,537 to 21,350. The main destination countries were Italy (4,250), France (3,412), the United Kingdom (2,974) and Germany (2,553). The number of Socrates/Erasmus students studying in Spain in the 2003-2004 academic year was 24,076 - 83% more than five years earlier. Italy (5,688), France (5,115) and Germany (4,325) sent the greatest numbers of students. Mobility is very low in Spain. Most students do not move to another region to study (or to another city if they can study their desired choice of degree in their own city). In this sense, all Spanish universities have a strong regional dimension, something which is not necessarily positive. The same situation can be applied to vocational education and training, as theses studies are strongly linked to the place of residence.

Administration and finance

Schools

Mainly sourced from Eurydice

Schools in Spain may be owned by an education administration or by a private party, either a person or a legal entity (mostly catholic organisations). Non-university publicly-funded schools provide the second cycle of Pre-primary education (3-6 years of age) and compulsory education free of charge. Private non-university schools may be financially independent or government dependent (centros concertados) and may offer any level of education. Publicly funded private schools are funded via educational agreements, which are signed with the education administration of the corresponding Autonomous Community. Schools may sign these agreements provided that the requirements laid down in the educational legislation are met.

In Spain, the education administration decentralized model distributes the education responsibilities among the State, the Autonomous Communities, local administrations and schools. The responsibilities corresponding to each of these levels are set out below:

Distribution of responsibilities in Education (Non University education)

Central government


General organization of the education system, minimum requirements for schools, minimum core curriculum, international cooperation in education, policies to encourage and coordinate research. The central government also organizes the general planning of education and regulation of academic and professional qualifications, core curricula guaranteeing the right and duty to know the Spanish language (notwithstanding the Autonomous Communities’ competence regarding the establishment of regulations to guarantee citizens’ rights to use and know their own languages), High Inspectorate (whose duty is to monitor the observance of minimum requirements for education set by the State for the entirety of the national territory), state-wide general diagnostic evaluations, policies on financial aids for studies, ownership and administration of public schools abroad, establishment of the legal basis for foreign schools in Spain, education statistics for State purposes, etc.

Autonomous Communities

Administrative responsibility within their territories; schools creation, authorization and management; development of State regulations regarding syllabuses and regulation of levels, branches, grades and specializations; guidance and support for pupils; staff management; educational inspection; supervision of textbooks and other materials; diagnostic assessment in schools within their territory; facilitating information exchange and the promotion of good educational or management practices; providing the necessary data to the State to elaborate national and international educational statistics; publishing data and indicators contributing to facilitate transparency, good educational management and educational research; negotiation and awarding of subsidies to private schools; administration of scholarships and aids; regulation of the relevant Autonomous Community’s School Council composition and functions, etc.

Local Administrations

Provision of sites for building public schools; maintenance and refurbishment of Pre-primary, Primary and special education schools; planning extra-curricular and supplementary activities, monitoring compulsory schooling; creation of School Councils within their municipality, representation at the Autonomous Communities’ School Councils and at the schools’ School Councils, etc.

Schools

Schools are autonomous in organizational, educational and financial matters, within the framework of current regulations, with the aim of achieving a better adequacy and use of the assigned resources, as well as the adjustment of the pedagogic action to pupils’ specific needs and to the characteristics of the school environment.

Costs

All non-university state education is free in Spain, but parents have to buy all of their children's books and materials. There also are private schools for all the range of compulsory education, and also Bachillerato. At them, parents must pay a monthly/termly/yearly fee. Most of these schools are run by religious orders, and include single-sex schools.

Schools supply a list of what is required at the start of each school year and which will include art and craft materials as well as text and exercise books. Expect to spend a minimum of around ninety pounds (GBP) per child,[citation needed] but in some regions, the autonomous government is giving tokens to exchange them in book shops for free, this is being adapted in 2006 in regions, such as Andalucia, where kids from 3 to 10 will get the books for free, on the following years it is expected for all compulsory years. School uniform is not normally worn in state schools but is usually worn in private schools.

Post-secondary

Universities

This information is out of date

The scholarship system is regulated by the MEC. It establishes a maximum limit of family per capita income, above which students are not entitled to the established benefits and also quantifies the required academic performance. There is a minimum threshold of academic performance, expressed in the form of average marks, below which students are not entitled to receive grants. The norm establishes that the selection process for grant-holders should benefit the students with the highest academic performance. The autonomous communities also offer study grants and scholarships that are generally complementary to those offered by MEC or aimed at promoting certain areas of study.

The total amount of money spent on tertiary education in Spain increased by 47% from 1995 to 2001. This was the highest growth rate in the EU, where the average was 26%.

The Spanish public university system has four main sources of funding:

Regional government subsidies. Each autonomous region is responsible for the general funding and investments of the public universities in its region.

Student aid. The central government is responsible for most grants and scholarships. The student aid system only represents 0.09% of GDP.

Tuition fees. Student fees are not particularly high (on average, 631€ per academic year) and they represent around 18% of total costs.

Revenue from research activities and other services. These funds come mainly from knowledge transfer, continuing education, contracts, patents, collaboration agreements with other institutions or individuals and the creation of foundations and other entities. Central government and the European Union, through their competitive Call for Proposals are an important part of these sources.

Public funds are the main source of funding for university R&D&I, and accounted for 71% of the total funds in 2003. There are two types of public funding: general university funds, and funds allocated to specific R&D&I projects.

Quality assurance

Schools

Mainly sourced from Eurydice

In Spain, the evaluation of the education system is viewed as an essential element in order to improve the quality of education, since it constitutes a valuable instrument for the monitoring and assessment of both the functioning and the results of the education system, as well as for the improvement of processes delivering these results. This is evidenced by the fact that the legal framework stresses the need to evaluate all the elements making up the education system: pupils' learning processes, educational results, curriculum, teachers' performance, teaching processes, the managerial function, the running of schools, educational inspection and education authorities themselves. The collection of objective data and their rigorous analysis facilitates the knowledge and appraisal of the achievements and deficiencies present in both the entire system and all its levels and elements. Thus, the necessary foundations are laid for an effective decision-making, which should have an effect on the process for the improvement of the education system.

The 2006 Ley Orgánica de Educación, LOE (Act on Education), devotes titles VI and VII to educational evaluation and inspection, respectively, and considers both to be key aspects to improve the education system. Thus, evaluation is an essential element to increase the education system’s transparency, which must be applied to all its areas, including inspection. In turn, with the aim of ensuring the compliance with regulations on education, the educational inspection takes part in the evaluation of the education system and its elements. Evaluation procedures of all areas and elements of the education system have been established, which has committed the relevant authorities and the different agents of the system to account for the current situation and its evolution. All these evaluation tasks are aimed at improving the quality of the education system.

The general evaluation of the education system at the non-university levels is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, through the Institute of Evaluation (IE) (http://www.institutodeevaluacion.mec.es/). This body, reporting to the State Secretariat for Education and Vocational Training, works in collaboration with the relevant evaluation institutions of the different Autonomous Communities. The latter are responsible for the evaluation of the education system within their respective territory.

As far as ICT use in school is concerned, there are periodic national and regional surveys that estimate how many teachers use ICTs and what they use them for. All schools entering pilot plans are closely monitored and they have detailed evaluation plans.


Post-secondary

Universities

In the area of quality assurance, the main strength is that Spain already has a multifaceted array of quality assurance (QA) schemes and agencies in place at the national, regional and institutional levels. They deal only with teaching activities of universities, since the evaluation of research is the responsibility of specialised agencies (which are currently being merged into a single one responsible for the evaluation of the National Plan for Research ,and Development). A separate set of QA mechanisms are also developed for higher vocational education.

In 2001, after 10 years' experience in quality assurance, the LOU formally introduced external quality assessment mechanisms based on objective criteria and transparent procedures. Degree courses and qualifications were to be regulated by guaranteeing the quality of recognised degrees and syllabuses. Article 13 of the LOU states that assessment and accreditation are the responsibility of the National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation (ANECA) and such other higher education quality-assurance bodies as may be established by regional legislation. In 2002, in compliance with the LOU, the government created the National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation (ANECA). Since 1996, 11 autonomous regions have created their own quality assurance agencies.

As regards quality, the public Administration shall guarantee the quality of training offers and cooperate in the definition and implementation of the evaluation process of the National Qualification and Vocational Education and Training System after consultation with the General Council on Vocational Education, and taking into account the responsibilities of the Autonomous Communities. The Ministry of Education and Science is coordinating the establishment of a quality network with the participation of the administrations of the Autonomous Communities.

Information society

http://www.giswatch.org/reports/country/Spain

Towards the information society

We were at crucial moments for the taking off of an wide application of the TIC in the university education, that reaches the critical volume able to initiate a true process of change.the Conference of Directors of Spanish Universities (www.crue.org) indicated a series of important processes for the Spanish universities:

• An increasing tendency to bring the academic world closer to society (as the proliferation of the number and relevance of the University-Enterprise foundations shows), including the general concern towards the need of an improvement of linguistic, communicational and computer-related competences within the university community;

• A clear invitation to shift the traditional teaching-oriented paradigm to a more flexible learning-oriented one;

• A determined will to reform the system of postgraduate studies and foster its importance in the education and better qualification of the professionals;

• The stress on the role that virtual education is to play according to the prospects of a lifelong learning kind of society. The three wide areas of the university environment where the impact of ICT was to be perceived were:

• the production and distribution of contents, both in education and in research,

• the teaching/learning models, and

• the organisational model.


Among the most symptomatic issues and observations raised by this text, we would like to underline the following:

• The ‘pressure’ or competition from the non-academic providers of ICT in higher education,become increasingly intensive in these organisations;

• The many actions taken by traditional universities concerning the integration of ICT, are not well supported by explicit and clear institutional general policies. In this sense, it is very much recommended to have a clear educational policy, based on the screening of addressees and the identification of the goals and the choice of the kind of technology to be used;

• The strong resistance of teaching and administrative staff to the introduction of ICT in the academic pedagogical and organisational model;

• The recommendation of the search for models combining traditional face-to-face teaching with distance learning modules (blended formulas);

• The prospects of future growth for higher education will emerge from the continuous professional education needs;

• In order to maximise the investments needed in this process of innovation, the engagement of universities in larger networks or consortiums with other universities in an international framework, and/or with public institutions and/or with private organisations was promoted. ICT is perceived as a means to facilitate the organisation and implementation of international ICT based courses. The idea of a virtual Erasmus is already into motion and one of the major challenges in this process.

ICT in education initiatives

Virtual initiatives in schools

Mainly sourced from EUN

All autonomous communities are fully responsible for the schools in their territory and that includes the promotion of ICT in schools. ICT policies vary in emphasis and depth among the seventeen Autonomous Communities and the two Autonomous Cities (Ceuta and Melilla), although all plans address the common challenges that the adoption of ICT in school entails within that range of variation. It is worth mentioning, for instance, that Extremadura has become known worldwide for its commitment to open software and its excellent rates of computers per pupil, and that all communities have their own plan to promote connectivity and hardware deployment, although open software may not play such a relevant role. For instance, Aragon has pilot plans for introducing tablet PCs and Interactive White Boards, and Catalonia for introducing netbooks in schools.

The Spanish Ministry of Education still coordinates some initiatives at a national level in collaboration with the autonomous communities, like the National repository for digital resources, federating content from nodes in each Autonomous Community, and the project ESCUELA 2.0.

Whilst there are relatively few fully virtual schools, an increasing number of schools offer the Bachillerato online, often with other online courses which may be targeted at adults, but are available for young people also. The Autonomous Region of Murcia, in particular, includes several of these.

ESCUELA 2.0

Escuela 2.0 is a nationwide ICT plan for school building on the developments already achieved in each region and going further, trying to generalize the access to hardware and digital content in school in order to pedagogically integrate ICT into school life. The program had a budget of 200 million euros for the 2009-2010 academic year, co-funded in equal parts by the Central Government of Spain and the various Autonomous Regions (2010/2011??’).

The goal of the program is to transform the traditional fifth- and sixth-year Primary Education and first- and second-year Secondary Education classrooms into digital classrooms equipped with digital blackboards and wireless Internet connection, where the teacher will have a laptop computer and where each student will work with an ultra-mobile personal computer.

To that end, the Escuela 2.0 project is based on the following fundamental principles:

  1. Providing ICT resources to the students and the centres.
  2. Guaranteeing Internet connectivity in classrooms and homes.
  3. Ensuring the proper training for teaching staff.
  4. Generating and facilitating access to digital materials for teachers, students and families.

Proyecto Agrega

The Agrega project (Agrega is the Spanish word for "add") is a federation of learning Digital repository which is to be used by 19 educational authorities in Spain. Each educational authority will have its own repository loaded with curricular learning objects created according to standards, and each single repository will be able to integrate and interoperate with other learning systems locally and worldwide. The Agrega project has a clear focus on integration and interoperability between Agrega learning repositories and the rest of the world. Moreover, it is open to collaborative evolution based on a generic GPL licensing. It is the first step towards providing a nation-wide access to content generated by the education community in a consistent and interoperable way. Curricular content for Agrega is being developed under Creative Commons licensing schemes, can be experimented directly from a web site, offline or by an LMS, and all the contents and application will be localised in Spanish, Euskera, Catalan, Valencian, Gallego and English.

RTE-Extremadura.org

http://www.unesco-ci.org/cgi-bin/portals/information-society/search.cgi?d=1&type=phrase&query=Spain

The Educational Technological Network represents the access of Extremadura (a region in Western Spain) School System (kindergarten, primary, secondary and high school) to the Information Society. This access includes the development of infrastructures (software, hardware and Intranet) and the establishment of an area where research, capacity building and innovation will be promoted in the domain of ICT. This will guarantee to all the citizens of the region the use of information resources and the access to opportunities.


Catalan Blog project "Escoles en Xarxa"

The idea of the Catalan project "Escoles en Xarxa" (Schools on the Net), originates from an initiative of a secondary school in Barcelona willing to establish a blog for their news service. Adapting journalism practices in high schools from printed newsletters to the web and then to blogs has been a logical evolution and a constant demand from Catalan schools. The project received support by the Catalan Department of education in charge of the coordination of ICT educational projects with two goals in mind. Firstly, to create a community based on the Catalan language in secondary schools, and secondly to spread social values using ICT. Fifty three schools are now connected to the project in the Catalan speaking Community (Andorra, Balearic Islands, French Eastern Pyrenees, Catalonia and Valencia). Escoles en Xarxa permitted the establishment of a community and network to promote a minority language.


Use of learning platform in teaching/learning

Moodle is widely used for online teacher training, but only a limited number of schools have also adopted it for their own purposes. Most Autonomous Communities provide their teachers with a virtual learning environment to upload and share resources with their pupils; they are hosted centrally, not at school, and often happen to be custom-made by software companies. They have been the most successful solutions for VLE since they are centrally administered and in this way schools do not have to devote resources (people and machines) to maintaining them. There is also regional support for schools in order to have a school portal and intranet; in those cases central servers host the school web sites, which the school manages through a pre-installed content management system. Sometimes, an open software solution like Joomla! is used, as in the case of the community of Castilla la Mancha.


Epysteme

Epysteme is a virtual school offering support for homeschooling, from primary to secondary education for those who needs a qualification but cannot obtain it through attending school in presence. It is linked to US qualifications.

CIDEAD

A distance learning education centre which offers an online Bachillerato, online courses for primary and secondary pupils and some online vocational training.

CEAC

A private education centre, which offers an online Bachillerato and other online courses. It is a founder member of the National Association of Distance Education Centres.

Aula Aragon

A distance learning project of the Aragon government, this centre offers an online Bachillerato, online informal courses, some online vocational education and online teacher training through its Moodle virtual campus.

Bachillerato a Distancia Colegio de Madrid

Although this organisation is linked to the National Autonomous University of Mexico and has a Mexican website address, it has a centre in Madrid which offers an online Bachillerato.

IES Francisco Salinas

A public secondary school in Salamanca offering an online Bachillerato through its Moodle virtual campus.

Secondary Schools in Murcia

At least five public secondary schools in the Murcia region offer an online Bachillerato: IES Isaac Peral, IES J. Ibanez Martin, IES Juan Carlos I de Murcia, IES Jose L. Castillo Puche de Yecla and IES San Juan de la Cruz - Caravaca de la Cruz.

Escuela Virtual de Padres

The Virtual school of Fathers is a Spanish web portal for parents, aimed at supporting them in their role through useful documents and spaces for dialogue around the issues of children education and related problems. The portal include a specific session called “Escuela Virtual”, where materials can be downloaded and a forum is available.

Virtual initiatives in post-secondary education

Re.ViCa Case-study - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid

See Universidad Politécnica de Madrid - case study

Interesting Virtual Campus Initiatives

The eLearning in Higher Education education can be constituted more as a complement of the traditionalforms of education or as a strategic pillar of the university. According to the academic director of the UOC, A Sangrá, there are five forms of application of e-learning in the universities:

  • Current University that introduces virtual elements in its educational dynamics. Examples of this model is the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), the Complutensian University of Madrid (UCM), University of Oviedo (UNIOVI), Pompeu-Fabra University (UPF) or the University Carlos III of Madrid (UC3M)
  • Current University with virtual university extension: a widely extended model at universities.
  • Virtual University based on the traditional university: The incorporation in a traditional university of a virtual university working along with the traditional one. It can be the case of the University Ramon-Llull (URL), with masters exclusively online or the MBAs of universities like Stanford or Harvard.
  • Common interuniversity virtual Spaces are based on having an unique virtual point of contact to several universities. According to Auna Foundation, examples in Spain are:
    • G9 Group: It is a virtual space located in the north of Spain.
    • ADA Madrid: This virtual Campus is related to the region of Madrid.
    • Intercampus: Is located in Barcelona and other cities around Barcelona.
    • “Instituto universitario de postgrado”: Are included three important universities and Santillana group.
    • Universia: This is very important because in this site are included more than 750 universities from Spain and Portugal.
  • Virtual University as virtual organization the representative model is the distant learning Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) or universities like the Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia.

In Spain, the distant educational offer is concentrated in two institutions: the National University of remote Education, UNED, a public university with more than thirty years of existence, and the most modern one “Universitat Oberta de Catalunya” (UOC). They are two forms to understand remote education, the relation with the student and the use of the Network.

Reference: http://www.fnm-austria.at/stategie/Dateiablage/view/nml-nib/11-nml-nib-international-laenderbericht-spanien.pdf

Universitat Oberta de Catalunya

The prime objective of the UOC is to enable people to achieve their learning needs with maximum access to knowledge. To this end, the University employs the intensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and offers an educational model based on the personalization and constant accompaniment of the student, beyond the limitations of time and space.

The UOC leads the emergence of the new model of online education of the knowledge society.

The educational model of the UOC facilitates access to learning resources from any place and at any time, in a way that permits education to be integrated in people's lives.

The educational model of the UOC revolves around society's needs and is based on:

  • the quality of academic activity
  • research surrounding the ICT
  • the dissemination of knowledge

The UOC has received international awards in recognition of its educational model and the quality of its academic activity.


Educational model

At the UOC, the student is the protagonist of an educational process, which, thanks to the use of new technologies, is unlimited in both time and space. The student manages their own time, plans how long they take to complete the studies and builds their own academic itinerary.

  • The counsellor guides the student through their learning process in a personalised way.
  • The tutor supervises the student's progress in each of their subjects.
  • The course plan of each subject defines the learning process, the method of working and the evaluation criteria.
  • The continuous assessment guarantees the academic process and the development of the course.
  • The Virtual Campus is the support and learning area from where the student can access resources and interact with the university community.
  • The multimedia didactic materials complement the specific material for each subject.
  • The virtual library gives access to all of the information resources.
  • The university community services include resources, activities and advantages to assist with the student's integration into the UOC.
  • The support centres personalised attention, study resources and a place to meet with other students.

Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia =

The Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED) is the public Spanish Open University, based in Madrid, Spain. It was founded in 1972 following the idea of the UK's Open University to provide quality higher and continuing education opportunities to all through the distance education system.

UNED is similar to other Spanish public Universities. It awards the same qualifications, which are equally valid and it is run under the same general legislation. However, the special features of UNED make it different from most other Spanish Universities. This is due to the fact that it is nationwide in scope, uses different methodology, and has a wide social influence.

The University Reform Law in Spain ensures UNED the same degree of autonomy as the rest of Spanish universities. The law states that UNED is to provide distance education throughout the country.

It is UNED's teaching methodology, what actually makes it special within the spectrum of Spanish higher education. The keystones of this methodology are printed and audiovisual teaching material, tutorial teaching, and an ever-increasing use of new information and communications technologies.

UNED’s mission is to be present as a centre of excellence throughout the world. In line with a policy of quality growth based on coexistence and cooperation with local universities and institutions, it now has centres in the following countries:Argentina (Rosario and Buenos Aires), Belgium (Brussels),Brazil (Sao Paulo), Ecuatorial Guinea (Bata and Malabo), France (Paris), Germany (Bonn), México (México D.F.), Morroco (Tangiers), Portugal (Lisbon), Switzerland (Bern), Venezuela (Caracas), United Kingdom (London), United States (Miami and Washington, D.C.)

All of these UNED centres are in constant communication with the central headquarters in Madrid, so that students can make full use of UNED’s logistic and academic network. From these centres, the students have easy access to a network of tutors, in depth administrative support, counselling, enormous library collections, meeting places for professors and students, and examination and consultation points, in short, a complete university environment.

UNED is also fully committed with the creation of an Ibero-American university space, which allows for the growing international relevance of the teaching and scientific research that is carried out in Spanish and Portuguese.

More examples

See also http://www.usal.es/grial/

More initiatives are collected in the MEGATRENDS project: http://nettskolen.nki.no/in_english/megatrends/Spain.pdf

The book "Buenas Prácticas de e-learning" by Ana Landeta Etxeberrí gives an overview of interesting e-learning and distance learning initiatives and projects in Spain (and some other countries). Available in Spanish at http://www.buenaspracticas-elearning.com/

A paper on "The conditions and challenges of e-learning in Spain" is available at http://www.easy-elearning.net/downloads/e-learning_in_Spain.pdf

A "country brief on e-learning in Spain" of the eUSER project is available on http://euser-eu.org/eUSER_eLearningCountryBrief.asp?CaseID=2243&CaseTitleID=1084&MenuID=117

Lessons learnt

General lessons

Notable practices

References

Schools and colleges

Universities

Bricall, J. Informe Universidad 2000. (Report commissioned by the CRUE, Conferencia de Rectores de las Universidades Españolas). Available at http://www.crue.org/informeuniv2000.htm.

Sánchez-Mesa Martínez D.,Virtual Education and the European Accreditation System. In: Boonen A. & W. Van Petegem (eds.). European Networking and Learning for the Future. The EuroPACE Approach. 2007, Garant, Antwerp-Apeldoorn. p. 137-146.

Landeta Etxeberría A., Buenas Prácticas de e-learning. 2007, @nced, Spain.

http://www.tostudyinspain.com/

http://www.expatica.com/es/survival/education/higher-education-in-spain-1896.html

elearning country report: http://www.fnm-austria.at/stategie/Dateiablage/view/nml-nib/11-nml-nib-international-laenderbericht-spanien.pdf

OECD Country Report: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/18/46/41014632.pdf

NML-NIB im internationalen Kontext Länderbericht: Spanien (PDF - EN) by FNM-Austria

http://www.eenovate.info/documents/Developing%20e-learning_Spain.pdf



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