Portugal

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Overview

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Located in southwestern Europe, Portugal is the westernmost country of mainland Europe and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east. The Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are also part of Portugal.

Its population is nearly 10,600,000.

Its capital is Has capitalLisbon.


Further information

The land within the borders of the current Portuguese Republic has been continuously settled since prehistoric times. In the 8th century most of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered by Moorish invaders professing Islam, which were later expelled by the Knights Templar. It was integrated into the Roman Republic and colonized by Germanic peoples (as Suevi and Visigoths), giving up in the seventh century the Moors conquest land. During the Christian reconquest it was formed the Portucalense county integrated, in the first in the Kingdom of Galicia and then in the Kingdom of León. In 1139 it was established the Kingdom of Portugal, whose independence was established in 1143. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Portugal expanded western influence as a result of pioneering the Age of Discovery, establishing an important empire with possessions in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South America, becoming the economic power, political and military more important to worldwide, which lasted almost 600 years since the conquest of Ceuta to Macau transference to China in 1999, beginning here its international importance declination in the nineteenth century with the independence of Brazil (its largest colony). In 1910 the monarchy was overthrown and started the First Portuguese Republic which instability culminated in the imposition of an autocratic regime called New State (Estado Novo). In 1974, after the Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos cravos), which ended with the Portuguese Colonial War (which culminated in the independence of the last overseas provinces of Portugal, namely Angola and Mozambique), introduced to Portuguese democracy, prevailing at that time. In 1976 a Democratic Constitution was approved (main law that regulates the Portuguese Republic and all other laws) and set up the local political powers (municipalities) and autonomous regional governments of the Azores and Madeira. Although considered a developed country Portugal has a Human Development Index (HDI) very high, which has been declined in recent years (40 th place among 47 countries in 2010). Of note is the fact that both the health system and the education are public. Considered one of the most globalized and peaceful nations of the World, Portugal was a founding member of the United Nations (UN), European Union (including the Eurozone and the Schengen Area), the Organization of the North Atlantic Treaty (NATO), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP). In 1999 Portugal joined the Eurozone and in 2000 Portugal adopted the the euro (€) currency. The country is presently a democratic republic with a president (currently Aníbal Cavaco Silva) and prime minister (currently Pedro Passos Coelho). [1] Portugal is nowadays going through a big economic and financial crisis. Statistically Its population is 10,561,614, of which 547,631 live in Lisbon, the country's capital and largest city, located in the South, and 237,584 in Porto, also known as Oporto. It has suffered an increase in the aging population in the last decade (about 19% of the population aged 65 or older) and an increase in the educational level of the population - 1,262,449 individuals college degree - (double the figure a decade ago)[2]

Education in Portugal

Administrative Procedures

The education system in Portugal is regulated by the state through the Ministry of Education and Science (MEC) headed by Minister Nuno Crato, becoming his team for four secretaries of state, namely: Higher Education, Science, Education and School Administration and of the Basic and Secondary Education. The MEC defines, coordinates, implements and evaluates policies on education, from primary to higher education, and of science and is also responsible for the qualification and professional training. As for policy priorities of Education and Science it highlight the creation of a culture of rigor and assessment at all levels of education, the granting of autonomy to schools and parents freedom to choose what they want for their children, increased educational achievement and quality of education, the reorganization of higher education institutions and quality of courses and invest in excellence to enhance science. According to Education MEC determines the future of the country and should generate equal opportunities for future generations, assuming Education as a public service and upholding universal principles as the effort, discipline and autonomy. Also believes that higher education is essential for the country's development and that the quality of graduates and research institutions is done in the engine of wealth , cultural and economic creation. The quantitative increase in higher education should be complemented with a qualitative increase, allowing adjust supply to the needs by rationalizing existing the network of institutions and courses. Sets that science is an area where the country has given clear evidence of international competitiveness and the technology is now essentially from scientific origin, and science is the fundamental basis of scientific development. The careful investment in research and training of scientists and technical excellence is an essential pillar of national development. Regarding the evaluation it considers that students, teachers, institutions, courses, researchers and projects should be evaluated regularly.[3] Education policy is the responsibility of:

  • the Ministry of Education and the Science (MEC), and all four secretaries - Higher Education, Science, Education and School Administration and of the Basic and Secondary Education - at national level;
  • the Regional Directorates for Education at regional level;
  • the local authorities at local level (in the 1st cycle of basic education Municipalities are the authorities responsible for the operation of schools and placement of non-teaching staff).

In the Autonomous Regions of the Azores and Madeira, the administration of education is the responsibility of the regional governments, via the respective Regional Secretariats for Education, which adapt national education policy to a regional plan and manage human, material and financial resources. The MEC has to guarantee compulsory schooling, to prevent early school leaving and promote the qualification of the population in general from an equal opportunities, lifelong learning and educational innovation perspective. It is also responsible for the definition, promotion and implementation of education and vocational training policies, and takes part in the coordination of education and vocational training policies with national policies in the field of the promotion and dissemination of the Portuguese language, family support, social inclusion, the promotion of citizenship, environmental protection and health promotion. The ministry performs its responsibilities via direct administration services of the State (central and peripheral services), indirect administration, advisory bodies and other entities.[4] The central services of the Ministry of Education (Decree-Law no. n.º 125/2011 de 29 de Dezembro) are the following:

  • A Secretaria-Geral - SG (General-Secretariat);
  • A Inspecção-Geral da Educação e Ciência - IGEC (Inspectorate-General for Education and science);
  • A Direcção-Geral da Educação - DGE (Directorate-General for Education);
  • A Direcção-Geral do Ensino Superior - DGES (Directorate General of Higher Education);
  • A Direcção-Geral da Administração Escolar - DGAE (Directorate General of School Administration);
  • A Direcção-Geral de Estatísticas da Educação e Ciência - DGEEC (Directorate-General for Education Statistics and Science);
  • A Direcção-Geral de Planeamento e Gestão Financeira - DGPGF (Directorate General of Planning and Financial Management);
  • O Gabinete de Avaliação Educacional - GAVE (Educational Assessment Office).

Under supervision and guardianship of the MEC are their Ministryand the following organizations:

  • A Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I. P (The Foundation for Science and Technology).;
  • O Estádio Universitário de Lisboa, I. P. (Lisbon University Stadium);
  • O Centro Científico e Cultural de Macau, I. P. (Scientific and Cultural Centre of Macau);
  • A Agência Nacional para a Qualificação e o Ensino Profissional, I. P. (National Agency for Qualification and Vocational Education)

They are advisory bodies of the MEC:

  • O Conselho Nacional de Educação (National Council of Education);
  • O Conselho das Escolas (Council of Schools);
  • O Conselho Coordenador do Ensino Superior (Coordinating Board for Higher Education).

The body of indirect administration is the National Agency for Qualification – ANQ, which comes under the Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Labour and Social Solidarity. It is responsible for coordinating and boosting the provision of education and vocational training for young people and adults. It moreover manages the Network for recognition, validation and certification of competences and coordinates the curriculum development and the methodologies and materials for specific interventions. At regional level, in the mainland, there are five Regional Directorates for Education (DRE), which include the peripheral services of direct administration by the State and enjoy administrative autonomy. These are the North Regional Directorate for Education (DREN), the Centre Regional Directorate for Education (DREC), the Lisbon and Tagus Valley Regional Directorate for Education (DRELVT), the Alentejo Regional Directorate for Education (DREALE), and the Algarve Regional Directorate for Education (DREALG) integradas na Direção-Geral da Administração Escolar (DGAE) The following are the main duties of the DGAE:

  • To coordinate, monitor and support the organisation and functioning of schools and the management of their human and material resources, promoting the development and consolidation of their autonomy;
  • To take part in the planning of the school network;
  • To promote the gathering of necessary information for the formulation and implementation of education and training policies;
  • To make available to schools the guidelines from the central services and relevant technical information;
  • To cooperate with other services with a view to carrying out joint actions on education and vocational training, and to provide technical support to municipal initiatives involving school facilities;
  • To monitor the procedures concerning teaching quality control.

Municipal board of education: The municipal board of education coordinates education policy at municipal level, coordinating the actions of education players and social partners, and proposes adequate measures to promote greater efficiency and effectiveness in the educational system.At municipal level, the education chart is the instrument used for the planning and organisation of the education network, with the aim of improving education, teaching, training and culture, promoting school clusters in a context of administrative decentralization, reinforcement of the management models, and enhancement of the role of educational communities and schools’ educational projects. School Autonomy: Decree-Law no. 75/2008 of 22 April approves the autonomy, administration and management of preprimary, compulsory and secondary education in public education institutions. Autonomy is the power granted to schools by the educational authorities to take strategic, pedagogical, administrative, financial and organisational decisions within the scope of their educational project which, together with the internal school regulations and the annual plan of activities, constitute the process of school autonomy. The education project, which sets out the educational direction of the school, is drawn up and approved by the administration bodies for a period of three years and must define the principles, values, goals and strategies according to which the school proposes to fulfil its educational role. The internal regulations define the system under which the school, or school cluster, will operate (together with its administration and management bodies), the school direction, the educational support services and structures, as well as the rights and duties of the school community member.[5] The Ministry of Education funds its central and regional services, non-higher public education institutions as well as social school activity through the State budget. It also provides grants to private and cooperative education and vocational schools. Apart from the Ministry of Education, municipalities also take responsibility for the funding of education, including the construction, maintenance, supply and some operating expenses of pre-primary and 1st cycle institutions. They are also responsible for ensuring the funding of school transports, complementary educational activities and free-time activities. The European Union also co-funds the education sector through the Human Potential Operational Programme (POPH), the main aim of which is to help reduce the qualifications deficit of the Portuguese population. The programme also seeks to encourage job creation and the quality of employment, supporting entrepreneurs as well as youngsters’ progression into working life. It is based on 10 axes covering areas such as Initial Qualification, Lifelong Learning, Professional Management and Improvement, Advanced Training, Citizenship and Social Development.[6] The Decree-Law n. º 137/2012 of July 2 introduces some changes to the previous one in particular with regard to strengthening school autonomy and greater efficiency required to be held, largely "through the conclusion of agreements between the school, the Ministry of Education and other community partners, particularly in areas such as the differentiation of the educational offer, the transfer of skills in the organization of the curriculum, the creation of classes and human resource management. The Government defends the progressive strengthening of the autonomy and greater organizational and pedagogical flexibility of the schools as essential conditions for improving the public education system comprising up the restructuring of the school network, increasing the number of schools with autonomy contracts, the hierarchy in management positions and the consolidation of a culture of evaluation.[7]

Basic and Secondary Education

In the '60s became general idea of the need of having studies increasingly long and ambitious, and then, although we live in an authoritarian regime that thought school in a directive way, it was extending, now, the scholarity for six years . In 1964, establishing The Center for the Study of Education Audiovisual, aiming an intense cultural dissemination through radio and television, but it was in the beginning of the following school year, in October 1965, which was formally School by TV (Telescola) in the air, broadcasting from the studios of Mount Virgin in Vila Nova de Gaia. Emissions from Telescola mark an important step in the life of Portuguese Television Radio (RTP - Rádio Televisão Portuguesa) and especially in the panorama of education in Portugal, being a joint implementation between RTP and the Ministry of National Education. Knowing little of the culture that had then been installed televisions in the country not only in schools but also in factories, houses and many other local people, because the television was on assignment for the clarification of thought and freedom of the individual (http://www.rtp.pt/web/historiartp/1960/telescola.htm.). In post April 25 - 1974 - (time when Portuguese Democarcia has established) the TV preparatory education becomes one of the three branches of the 5th and 6th years of compulsory education. In 1986 it was published the Law of the Education System which bringing changes that still prevail making primary education universal, compulsory and free and with a duration of nine years comprising three sequential cycles (the 7th, 8th and 9th grades shall become third cycle of this instruction preceded by the 5th and 6th grade constituting the 2nd cycle of primary and 1st cycle consists in four years, and succeeded by 3 years - 10, 11 and 12 years - forming secondary education). There are enshrined in this law the right to education and culture for all children, ensuring the training of all young people for working life, the right to a fair and effective equal opportunities, freedom of learning and teaching as well as training of youth and adults who have left the system (recurrent education) and educational improvement of the entire population. The same act created a new organization of the education system, which includes the pre-school education, school education and extracurricular education (covering activities in literacy, basic education and in the initiation and professional improvement ). The Education Act establishes a broad set of general principles, recognizing the right to education for all, equal opportunity seeking success and personal fulfillment of individuals. It also establishes a non denominational public education and the right to establish nonpublic schools (including private, cooperatives and religious). The law 85/2009 amends the regime of compulsory education setting it now in the 12th grade (or 18 years) for children and young and devotes the universality of preschool education for children as young as 5 years old.[8] The XXI century is full of reforms and programs aimed at improving the education system (primary and secondary), literacy levels in the country and the integration of new information technologies and communication in people's lives, walking alongside Portugal its European partners. Thus in 2001 came the reorganization of basic education curriculum, as well as the creation of Recognition, Validation and Certification of Competencies (RVCC) - Member States, the Commission, the EEA-EFTA and accession countries and the social partners at European level, following the Copenhagen Declaration, the resolution of the Council considered that the identification and validation of non-formal and informal serve the needs of the learner. They support social integration, employability and the development and utilization of human resources in civic, social and economic context. They also meet the specific needs of individuals who seek integration or (re) integrate into the education and training, in labor market and in society[9] -; in 2004 there is a new Reform of Secondary Education, in 2005 the principle of school at full time in the 1st cycle establishes itself and English becomes an integrated subject in this cycle of education (and in 2006/2007 are released other Extra Curricular Activities - AECs - seeking to consolidate the idea of full-time school); in 2006 appears the inicitaiva "New Opportunities" which aims to extend the minimum training reference to 12th grade whose strategy rests on two pillars: making vocational education an option for young people and effectively raise the basic training of the workforce. It is also integrated in this year in Primary and Secondary National Reading Plan (Plano Nacional de Leitura)[10] (in a phased manner- 1st phase from 2007 to 2011; 2nd phase from 2012[11] that has as its central objective to raise literacy levels of the Portuguese and put the country abreast of our European partners. In 2007 arises the Technological Plan for Education (PTE), which emerged as the largest program of technological modernization of Portuguese schools and it was intended to interconnect an integrated manner and coherent effort unique in the technological infra-structure of schools, in providing content and services online and in strengthening ICT skills of students and teachers. With the ambition to put Portugal among the five most advanced European countries in terms of technological modernization of schools by 2010, PTE has emerged as an opportunity to transform Portuguese schools into interactivity spaces and sharing without barriers, preparing new generations for challenges of the knowledge society[12]. Presently the Ministry of Education and Science (MEC) through the Directorate General of Education (DGE) has, Among the several duties, to coordinate, monitor and provide direction in terms scientific-pedagogical and didactic activities for education pre-school and school, covering the arrangements for special education and distance learning, including Portuguese schools overseas and Portuguese teaching abroad, in conjunction with the service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs responsible for managing the respective network emerging promoter as well as a panoply of activities and projects at the level of basic and secondary[13] , both nationally and internationally.

Projects and Programs

  • National Programme for the Teaching of Portuguese (PNEP): it was created in 2006-7, to meet the challenge and the need to improve the teaching of Portuguese in the first cycle of basic education, particularly in reading comprehension and oral and written expression. Within this programme and to promote integration, the MoE has drawn up an action plan to meet the needs of about 80,000 students of other nationalities who attend Portuguese schools. The first step was to establish a new system of equivalences for foreign qualifications: the second measure requires the development of activities of effective support for students who have Portuguese as a second language. Students with Portuguese as a second language will be included in three groups of language proficiency –beginner, intermediate and advanced – depending on the result of a diagnosis, and will follow individualized paths.[14]
  • National Reading Plan (Plano Nacional de Leitura - PNL -) An initiative in action since 2007 that has as its central objective to raise literacy levels of the Portuguese and put the country alongside of our European partners. It is an initiative of the Government, the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, in coordination with the Ministry of Culture and the Office of the Minister of Parliamentary Affairs, being taken be a political priority. It aims to create conditions for the Portuguese can reach reading levels where they feel fully able to deal with the written word, in any circumstance of life, can interpret the information provided by the media, access to knowledge of science and enjoy the great works of literature.[15]
  • Mathematics Program of Basic Education: The Readjustment Program Mathematics Primary School is one of the actions outlined in the Action Plan for Mathematics resulting from a restructuring program in place since 1991, to suit the National Curriculum for Teaching basic. The implementation of this measure involved an invitation to a team of experts and researchers in the areas of Mathematics and Mathematics Education. This readjustment, now called New Math Program for Primary Education, was to draw up a single document that includes for each cycle of basic education objectives, mathematical topics, methodological guidelines and aspects of curriculum management and assessment .[16]
  • Mathematics Action Plan: In June 2006, taking into account the assessment made by teachers of mathematics and reflection on the results of the Mathematics 9th grade in 2005, the MoE set out an action plan for mathematics. This plan aims mainly at improving the teaching of mathematics through six actions, namely: 1) to implement the Mathematics Programme: teams for success (consists in supporting specific school projects aimed at improving mathematics results); 2) To promote in-service training in mathematics for all teachers from primary to lower secondary school level (1st to 9th grade); 3) To set new conditions for initial teacher training and access to teaching; 4) To carry out adjustment of the mathematics curriculum and specifications and teacher training;5) To create a database of educational resources for mathematics: 6) Assessing the textbooks of Mathematics for Basic Education.[17]
  • Plan of implementation Program New Math: the implementation of this measure, in addition to experience with pilot classes in the school year 2008/9, were supporting materials to the new math program (5 brochures to support the work of teachers about: Numbers, Álgebra, Geometry, Organization and data processing transversal capabilities; materials intended for use in the classroom, with proposed tasks for the three cycles of basic education; a Website that includes support materials (texts, lesson plans, assignments, reports experiences in the classroom, etc ...) and an online support for teachers.)[18]
  • Experimental Science in Elementary Education: This program, initiated in 2006, involved a training plan, nationwide, and the production and availability of educational resources for Teacher Trainers and the Teachers of the 1st Cycle, based on the recognition of the Experimental Science Education in the early years of schooling, it is essential for the development of students' scientific literacy and the development of skills necessary to carry on an informed citizenship. All materials produced under this program are available to the entire educational community in Directorate General for Innovation and Curriculum Development (Direção Geral de Inovação e Desenvolvimento Curricular - DGIDC) page and can be used in teacher training and in classroom practice of teachers this level of education.[19]
  • Experimental Science in Secondary Education: demands the implementation of a new teaching of the sciences. This project has some publicationsand materials.
  • Science Olympiad European Union (EUSO)
  • Project Electron SCHOOL: is an initiative of Amb3E (Portuguese Association of Waste Management of Electronic Equipment), supported by the Directorate-General for Innovation and Curriculum Development and the Portuguese Environment Agency, which aims to sensitize students, the school community and the surrounding community for the correct routing Waste Electrical and Electronic (WEEE, REEE in portuguese), by combined effect of dissemination actions and the involvement in a competition among schools.[20]
  • Experimental Science – Training Teachers Programme: The purpose of Education in Science, as part of the overall educational experience of all young people, is to prepare them for a full and satisfying life in the world of the twenty-first century. More specifically, the science curriculum should: a) Encourage enthusiasm for and interest in science so that young people feel confident and competent to engage with scientific and technical subject; b) Help young people to acquire a broad general understanding of important ideas and explanatory foundations of science and procedures of scientific inquiry which have the greatest impact on our environment and our culture in general; c) Facilitate the deepening of knowledge when it is necessary either for the personal interest of the students or to motivate them for a professional career The following were also defined as priority areas for teacher training: Mathematics, Portuguese Experimental Science Education, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Special Education and English in the 1st grade.[21]
  • Common European Framework of Reference for Languages​​: Learning, teaching, assessment: The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages​​: Learning, teaching, assessment (CEFR, QECR in portuguese), 2001, is a document of the Board European, prepared under the Project Linguistic Policies for a Plurilingual and Multicultural Europe. Besides presenting the political context and educational conception of the document it define guidelines and methodological approach adopted, the CEFR defines six common reference levels for three major types of user: the basic user, the user independent and proficient user.[22]
  • Technological Plan for Education (PTE): Since 2005 there has been a national strategy to modernise Portuguese schools technologically and the Government has made this one of its main goals. The Plano Tecnológico da Educação (Technological Plan for Education – PTE) intends to place Portugal among the five most advanced European countries in terms of school’s technological modernization (see the section below on ICT initiatives in Education).[23]
  • BloguesEDU: The Educational Catalog Blogs is in Portal of Schools and it aims to provide technical and pedagogical support to the use of blogs in educational contexts as well as to perform validation and dissemination of good practices.[24]
  • Learn and innovate with ICT: The iniciative "Learn and Innovate with ICT" aims to promote the educational use of ICT to improve student learning through the profitability of equipment available in schools. The initiative will support innovative projects that promote the educational use of ICT and its use in favor 1st Primary School, the use of learning management platforms for the educational community and the production and sharing of digital educational resources.[25]
  • eTwinning is a collaborative project between schools in Europe, the main action of the Lifelong Learning Programme of the European Union. It promotes the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in schools. Teachers and students use the Internet to work together across borders. Cooperate, exchange information and share teaching materials.[26]
  • Tell us a story: promoted under the Technological Plan for Education (PTE), through the Directorate-General for Innovation and Curriculum Development (DGIDC), of the Office of School Libraries Network (EBN, RBE in portuguese) and the National Reading Plan (NLP, PNL in portuguese) 'Tell us a history 'aims to promote the implementation of projects developed by schools of Preschool Education and 1 st Primary School to encourage the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), including recording digital audio and video.[27]
  • PTE Teams: The Team Resources and Educational Technologies from DGIDC is responsible for boosting the PTE Teams Schools and school groups. It was proceed to the relaunch of an area in Moodle DGIDC to support teams PTE in the use of ICT in teaching-learning processes.[28]
  • Seguranet: this project comes under the Safer Internet Plus Programme and Network Insafe to promote Internet safety in Portuguese schools, from the 1st cycle to secondary education under the slogan "You Decide for Where You'll".[29]
  • Webinars: The initiative "Webinars - from information to the Knowledge" aims to promote online seminars with regular emissions video-broadcasting, giving voice to experts in certain areas of Education.[31]
  • Project Go: In partnership with the Center of Competence ‘Between Mar and Sierra’ (Entre o Mar e a Serra) (http://www.ccems.pt/), this project develops and evaluates initiatives mobilizing and integrating the field of the use of mobile technologies and geo-referencing in schools in teaching and learning.
  • eduSCRATCH: Project around the tool Scratch. Creating educational community (portal Sctrach) and promoting the dissemination, training, support and sharing experiences using Scratch in educational contexts.
  • My Class: Project that aims to provide students and teachers Magalhães users an Environment Learning Collaborative, leaving the functionality of networking preexisting on this computer, adapting them to the Environment and quoted on these developing a set of digital educational content_ Note that the operation of My Class is not dependent on having an internet connection or network pre-existing classroom, making their ability to use virtually universal in all the classes of the 1st cycle.
  • eLAB: The project eLab is an online laboratory (remote access), developed in partnership with the Instituto Superior Técnico, which allows control of experiences in the areas of Natural Sciences and Mathematics. The goal is to promote the improvement of science teaching and the motivation of young people to this area. The eLab is intended to be another tool to serve the educational community, contributing to the reinforcement of activities from scientific experimentation
  • Kidsmart: KidSmart is a program that is a partnership between IBM and the Ministry of Education which has the objective facilitate the development of children between 3 and 6 years. This company, in partnership with the Ministry of Education, and has been donating workstations to Portuguese Kindergartens.
  • GeoRed: GEORED result of a collaborative project between the Association of Geography Teachers and the Department of Geography at the Institute of Geography and Spatial Planning (IGOT) from Lisbon University and is funded by DGIDC. This is a portal where digital resources are made available under a Creative Commons license, a series of educational resources for the development of geographic skills in the use of digital maps and Geographic Information Systems (GIS, SIG in portuguese).
  • CertRED/SACAUSEF: CertRED evaluates, certifies, publishes and streamlines the use of digital educational resources, support for CD-ROM and DVD, or dematerialized, such as the resources with virtual existence in the network (sacausef@dgidc.min-edu.pt)
  • PING: This is an online game that has the objective act as a starting point to discuss the theme of "Poverty" and what it means to be poor. PING is aimed at students of the 3rd cycle of basic education and secondary education. The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation and DGIDC established a protocol to disseminate the use of this game in Portuguese schools.
  • ASPECT – Adopting standards and specifications for educational content: Project involving 22 European partners from education ministries and publishers of digital learning resources to enhance the adoption of standards and specifications in the context of learning technologies.
  • eQNet - Quality Network for a European Learning Resource Exchange: The project aims to identify criteria that define what is a resource "travel well", ie, it can be used by teachers of nationalities and educational contexts, language and culture distinct.
  • ITEC - Innovative Technologies for an Engaging Classroom: Project that brings together policy makers, researchers, technology providers, other experts in advanced technology learning and innovative teachers in order to design, build and test scenarios in a comprehensive teaching and learning in the classroom of the future.
  • LINKED – Leveraging Innovation for a Network of Knowledge on Education: Building a platform for sharing knowledge and expertise on digital games. The aim is to provide information, research based, that may serve to support both decision makers as researchers, teachers, trainers and other community education.
  • Spice - Science Pedagogy Innovation Center in Europe: European project that aims to create a panel of 24 teachers in the area of ​​Mathematics and Sciences for identification, validation and subsequent dissemination of good practice in these disciplines. The DGIDC is a partner in this project and Portugal, the Czech Republic and European Schoolnet works with a team of 5 teachers who integrate the European panel.
  • inGenious: The ingenious project aims to establish an European group of coordination (European Coordinating Body) partnership schools / businesses in the areas of Mathematics, Science and Technology (MST). The goal is, initially, the characterization of good practice in collaboration between schools and businesses.
  • e-Skills: European Commission initiative that seeks to promote expertise in the area of technology and alert the public to the opportunities and benefits of Technical Education and ICT use in employment.
  • CPDLab: O CPDLab, Continuing Professional Development Laboratory is a 3 year project, which began in October 2011 with the goal of promoting lifelong training available for teachers, principals and other education professionals in the field of Information Technologies and Communication. Intends to support schools to transform themselves into effective learning environments by providing a portfolio of training courses focused on the needs of teachers in the classroom of the future and focusing on areas such as interactive whiteboards, Internet security and innovative learning scenarios.
  • Projeto Piloto de Computadores Tablet or Pilot Project of tablet computers: An initiative by European Schoolnet and ACER, the pilot project of Tablet PCs further explores the use of new technologies in schools and the emerging trend of individualized pedagogy, based on experience gained from the pilot project Netbooks. Are goals of this project to identify best practices in eight countries on the use of tablets in school and presenting examples of learning scenarios. The pilot activities will be conducted in eight European countries: Germany, Spain, Estonia, France, Italy, Portugal, the UK and Turkey.
  • Selo de Segurança Digital para as escolas or Digital Security Seal for schools: it’s a new initiative the European Schoolnet, functioning as service support and accreditation at European level, is an important step forward in the development and maintenance of high standards of safety for children and digital the young. In Portugal, the project includes six schools, public and private, and is coordinated by the General Directorate of Education.

As we see it there are a range of projects proposed by the Ministry of Education of Portugal for basic and secondary education, many of which are mentioned here are initiatives OER (Open or access) or intend to encourage open and free sharing of education resources. The most important will be mentioned when when examining OER.

Higher Education

Above the school education comes higher education (integrated in public - maintained by the state, including institutions of higher education university, higher education public polytechnic and higher education military and policial - or private - includes educational institutions private and cooperative maintained by private companies or cooperative education and institutions of higher education concordat maintained by the Catholic Church -) is one of the components of school education beyond basic and secondary education comprising university and polytechnic education. The first (university) is driven by a constant perspective of research and knowledge creation, in order to ensure solid scientific and cultural preparation and provide technical training to the exercise of professional activities and promotes the cultural and design capabilities, of innovation and critical analysis (this education takes place in universities and university colleges or other university schools not integrated), the second (polytechnic education) is directed by a constant perspective applied to research and development directed to the understanding and solving concrete problems, seeking to provide a solid cultural education and with technical level, develop the capacity of innovation and critical analysis and scientific knowledge of theoretical and practical nature and its applications in order to pursue professional activities. Polytechnic education takes place in universities or in other polytechnic schools - who may join in polytechnic institutes or become integrated into universities. The university offers degrees that with the adjustment to the Bologna Declaration, are degree courses (1st cycle of higher education, with a duration of three years. Degree conferred by the university and polytechnic.), MSc (courses 2nd cycle of higher education, usually lasting two years, conducted after the completion of a 1st cycle course. Alternatively, Masters courses integrated with the normal period of five years. Degree conferred by the university and polytechnic) and PhD (3rd cycle studies in higher education, after obtaining the master's degree.This degree is only conferred by the university). Besides these institutions of higher education also teach other kinds of courses (as we can see here) such as: technological specialization courses (CET) courses postgraduate of specialization; complement training courses in nursing; Courses of complement to scientific and pedagogical training for teachers and educators; qualification courses for the exercise of other educational functions ; in elearning courses and distance learning (in which the Open University stands as a priority in this area).[34]

Projects and Programs

The Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) has the mission of promoting the continued advancement of scientific and technological knowledge in Portugal. In this sense it aims to explore opportunities that become available in all fields of science and technology to achieve the highest international standards of knowledge creation; still looking to stimulate their diffusion and contribution towards the improvement of education, health and the environment, quality life and welfare of the general public. So their investments in Research and Development (R & D) are significant including through the provision of funding following merit evaluation of proposed institutions, research teams and individuals presented in open, and also through cooperation agreements and other forms of support in partnership with universities and other public and private institutions in Portugal and abroad. Portuguese universities also integrate several international partnerships programmes and international conventions or agreements in higher education include (information taken from):

  • Portugal is a signatory of the Bologna process and therefore belongs to the European Higher Education Area. )
  • Portugal is an active member of Socrates programme and Erasmus programme exchange scheme.
  • Programa MIT-Portugal (see MIT-Portugal official site): is a partnership in graduate education and research in advanced systems engineering, bioengineering, energy and transportation systems, and also in management, involving the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (U.S.A.), Portuguese universities, other research institutions, and companies. Mariano Gago an old Portuguese Minister of Science Technology and Higher Education said, in his perspective, about MIT-Portugal programme: "The worst (higher education institutions) should learn and the best should be ready to face the challenges". The institutions in this programme include: the Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa (only in management), Minho University, New University of Lisbon, Catholic University of Portugal (only in management), Technical University of Lisbon, University of Coimbra, and the University of Porto. The program includes companies like Volkswagen's AutoEuropa, Amorim, and Simoldes, among others. The project is financed by the Government of Portugal and participants were selected by the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education based on multicriteria MIT's evaluation of the Portuguese institutions.
  • Programa CMU-Portugal (see CMU-Portugal official site): is a partnership in information technology and Telecommunication|communications, part of the national policy for the hi-tech boom, involving the Carnegie Mellon University (U.S.A.) and several Portuguese institutions including companies, such as Portugal Telecom, Siemens AG|Siemens, Novabase and Critical Software, the eight faculties and colleges that integrate various research centres involved in the CMU-Portugal Program: Faculty of Sciences of Lisbon University, School of Engineering of Minho University, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the New University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of Coimbra, Faculty of Economical and Enterprise Sciences of the Catholic University of Portugal, Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto (Polytechnic Institute of Porto|IPP), and Instituto Superior Técnico (Technical University of Lisbon|UTL). It also includes several other higher education institutions, such as the universities of University of Aveiro|Aveiro, University of Beira Interior|Beira Interior and University of the Algarve|Algarve. This project will be financed by the national government and major hi-tech companies.
  • Programa UTAustin-Portugal (see UTAustin-Portugal official site): is a partnership in graduate education and research involving the University of Texas at Austin (U.S.A.), several Portuguese universities, other research institutions and companies, including: the Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Instituto Pedro Nunes, University of Porto, New University of Lisbon, University of Aveiro, University of Coimbra, University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa, and the Instituto Superior Técnico of the Technical University of Lisbon.
  • Portuguese higher education students may be eligible to benefit from agreements with a number of other noted foreign universities and research organizations like the Harvard University, the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), the ITER, and the European Southern Observatory (ESO).
  • The Lisbon MBA, an International MBA program offered in tie up of two leading Portuguese universities (UNL and UCP) in colloboration with the MIT Sloan School of Management gained lot of attention among the international students and received positive feedback.
  • Harvard Medical School-Portugal, a program that facilitates new translational and clinical research, and will launch and streamline post-graduate medical training, and produce and publish quality medical and health information in Portugal.


e-learning

Before 1988 (the year of the formation of Portuguese Open University) in vocational education by correspondence prevailed training courses that included technical services and general education courses. For this was used sciptum, sometimes accompanied by audiograms and subsequently videograms. In 1964 the Ministry of Education created the IMAVE (Institute of Audiovisual Teaching) which produced, bought, diffused and managed educational programs through radio and television broadcasting. In 1988 was formally established the the Open University distance learning paradigm that was based on educational materials in writing and audiovisual created by renowned authors and designed with the help of teams of this university. The materials were given to a situation of self-learning and was intended the interaction between students and materials. Emissions by broadcasting and television were also part of EaD's initial Open University which were designed to help the self-study; these emissions were subsequently transformed into cassettes to assist the study asynchronous. In 2006 with the entry of Professor Carlos Reis as Rector of this University it was approved the new strategic plan for the Open University, from which was made ​​the transition to the Bologna model and at the same time, operated a deep remodeling of the model that led to EaD known as Pedagogical Model Virtual of Open University[35]The Open University is now preparing to integrate a new stage of the distance education, the m-learning. From these experiences into EaD several universities (from public and private network and even Polytechnic Institutes) followed in the implementation of regime even or in blearning or in elearning regime, by considering the Open University as the most advanced methodology in this field. Universities operate this system of education through the use of virtual learning platforms like Moodle or Blackboard must be pointed out the fact that all structures of Higher Education has a Learning platform. The same happens in primary and secondary education in Portugal since, every school from 5th to 12th grade owns a learning platform, Moodle. This platform is used as a means of communication to the school community and a workplace for students and teachers. Some learning platforms that are important in the education system are:

  • The Escola virtual (Virtual School) is an elearning platform owned by the publishing group Porto Editora, Portuguese private company. In the EV program the disciplines from 1st to 12th school year is transformed into interactive lessons where text, animations, videos, phrases and exercises are combines and make learning simple and effective. EV works with two different options: - Particular - service subscribed by students, teachers and parents who are individually self-study learners. - Institutional - the EV operates as a service to the school and all content can be used by teachers and students in their classrooms.[36]
  • Escola Móvel (Mobile School) now called Ensino a Distância para a Itinerância has emerged as a project of distance learning, using a technology platform (LMS Moodle) to support learning for students of the 3rd cycle of basic education, children of occupational travelers, in order to meet the specific needs of this community in terms basic education. The curriculum of the Escola Móvel was initially constituted by the disciplines that make up the National Curriculum for Basic Education 3rd Cycle, with the exception of Physical Education. The Escola Móvel project was extending its educational provision and implementation of distance education, ensuring the integration of different public and school providing compulsory schooling, with the possibility of continuing studies in secondary education. In addition to the children of occupational travelers and students, this project was expanded to include other children and youth who are at risk of failure, early school leaving and social exclusion, especially young people supported by the institution Ajuda de Mãe (Help young Mother) and students over 15 years, for various reasons had not completed compulsory education. The work aimed to provide differentiated learning contexts and individualized tutoring in conjunction with each educational area. The project is now called Ensino a Distância para a Itinerância (distance learning project for itinerant students) and it is now based on the partnership with a physical school (but they are going to be more than one in the future) which hosts the virtual school in its premises and offer its organizational and financial infrastructures. In the 2011/2012 year, 120 students are covered by the project and 23 teachers are working in the school. Students are grouped in classroom and they have to be online according to a traditional school time-table based on subjects and - at the end of compusory schooling - they are submitted to the portuguese school leaving exam in normal schools. [37]

Quality procedures

Basic and Secondary Education

Higer Education

(taken from Re.ViCa)

A major review of the accreditation and quality assurance practices of Portuguese higher education is being performed by an international review committee formed through the European Network for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, ENQA, following a request made by the Government in November 2005. The review committee provides advice on the current legal framework supporting accreditation and quality assurance methodologies, as ,well as on appropriate structures for implementing a national accreditation and evaluation agency following current best quality assurance and accreditation practices in Europe.

http://www.enqa.eu/files/EPHEreport.pdf The article of the twente University gives an overview how the recommendations of the ENQUa review are translated into the education policies;

Law 38/2007 of 16 August sets out the legal framework for the evaluation of higher education institutions and study programmes.

http://www.utwente.nl/cheps/research/higher_education_monitor/2008%20countryreportportugal.pdf

Quality assurance of higher education in Portugal has been based on the Higher Education Evaluation Act 1994. This act was closely developed in cooperation with the Conference of Rectors of Public Universities (CRUP) and forms the backbone of what is widely termed “the contractual model”. The act resulted in the establishment of CNAVES as a national agency for quality assurance of higher education. The act was highly inspired by the Dutch model and retains many characteristics from this, including, above all, placing responsibility for the quality assurance system with an organisation representing the institutions of higher education. The contractual model, which reflects the large extent of institutional representation through the representative entities and evaluation councils, has created a strong sense of ownership and commitment to the quality assurance processes, which would otherwise have been extremely difficult to achieve. The model was fit for purpose at the time of its establishment, but was from the early days also associated with a number of weaknesses, which are analysed in this review. Ten years of CNAVES’s evaluations have, however, also accumulated a number of positive experiences that should be considered carried over into a new quality assurance system.

Source: [[1]]


The Agência de Avaliação e Acreditação do Ensino Superior or the Agency for Assessment and Accreditation of Higher Education (A3ES)

The Portuguese state created this private law foundation, by means of Decree-Law no. 369/2007, of 5th November, aiming at promoting and ensuring the quality of higher education. The Agency is a private law foundation, established for an indeterminate period of time, with legal status and recognised as being of public utility. The Agency is independent in its decisions, without prejudice of the guidelines fixed by the State. Its web site is: http://www.a3es.pt

Internet in Portugal

Internet in Education

The Plano Tecnológico da Educação (Technological Plan for Education – PTE) intends to place Portugal among the five most advanced European countries in terms of school’s technological modernisation. The main areas of intervention of the PTE are Technology, Contents and teacher Training. These areas integrate in a transversal way every domain related to the modernisation of the Portuguese school system. Within the PTE several initiatives have been launched, including:

High-speed broadband Internet – to ensure high-speed broadband Internet access among schools;
Internet in the classroom / local area networks – to ensure Internet access in all classrooms and all school spaces;
Programme e.escola 2.0 – following the previous programme (e-escola) this new programme, designed to meet the Digital Agenda's objectives, focus on three main aims: to guarantee the continuity of access to laptops and Internet connection, with special conditions for the educative community; to promote the creation and use of digital content; and, to foster the use of next-generation networks (1)

Copyright law in Portugal

Copyright law in Education

OER Initiatives in Portugal

In its response to the OECD questionnaire, Portugal reported that it has chosen to focus its OER efforts on young children (ISCED sectors 1 to 3). (2)

National OER initiatives

Portal das Escolas

Within the PTE a repository of digital contents for teachers and students called Portal das Escolas (Schools’ Portal), has been created. In the Schools’ Portal it is possible to find relevant information about the schools and their educational communities and a repository that offers over a thousand digital educational resources that can be used in teaching. This repository of digital educational resources can include text, images, videos or music. Registered users can also upload resources. All schools in the country are represented on the website and may disseminate educational initiatives and information of interest to the general public. Schools’ Portal is a new digital platform of reference for schools in Portugal, and was built with a modular logic and services will be available gradually. In the first phase, the portal is aimed at teachers and focuses on a key objective of the Technological Plan for Education, which is the use of digital educational resources in education. It is possible for teachers to access the existing contents, but also contribute as authors to the enrichment of the content repository. After being duly registered in the Schools’ Portal, with data validated by the Ministry of Education (MoE), teachers in public education up to 12th grade can upload educational resources into this repository. To ensure that the Schools’ Portal is a space in which each user can see material and information that will be useful for their school, professional and academic life, the MoE will adopt mechanisms for validation of these user-provided educational resources before they are made available. The Schools’ Portal is the largest collaborative network of education in Portugal, stimulating the production, sharing and use of digital content for the teachers’ community. (1)

e-Escolinha

The e-Escolinha programme aimed at all pupils in the first years of state and private schools. Its goal is to guarantee the general use of computers and the internet, in order to promote access to knowledge. In this context the Government distributed the personal computer Magalhães1 to these children. This computer is specifically designed for children in this age range. It is shock and liquid proof, light and small and yet can be used by the whole family. Magalhães is supplied with educational contents which are specially selected for these children and equipped for internet access (www.eescolinha.gov.pt). (1)

Regional OER initiatives

Institutional OER initiatives

References

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portugal
  2. INE, Censos 2011, preliminary results in http://censos.ine.pt/xportal/xmain?xpid=CENSOS&xpgid=ine_censos_publicacao_det&menuBOUI=13707294&contexto=pu&PUBLICACOESpub_boui=122073978&PUBLICACOESmodo=2&selTab=tab1
  3. Ministério da Educação, Sobre o Ministério da Educação e da Ciência, Governo de Portugal in http://www.portugal.gov.pt/pt/os-ministerios/ministerio-da-educacao-e-ciencia/sobre-o-ministerio-da-educacao-e-ciencia.aspx
  4. http://www.virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/Portugal#Schools_2
  5. http://www.virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/Portugal#Schools_2
  6. http://www.virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/Portugal#Schools_2
  7. Educare, Regime de autonomia escolar, Lusa in http://www.educare.pt/educare/Atualidade.Noticia.aspx?contentid=C30C4034D022C7CDE0400A0AB80001B8&channelid&opsel=1
  8. S/autor, Breve Evolução Histórica do Sistema Educativo, Ministério da Educação in http://www.oei.es/quipu/portugal/historia.pdf
  9. Conselho da União Europeia, Projecto de conclusões do Conselho e dos representantes dos Governos dos Estados-Membros reunidos no Conselho sobre princípios comuns europeus de identificação e de validação da aprendizagem não-formal e informal, 10 Maio de 2004 in http://www.iefp.pt/formacao/RVCC/Documents/PRINCPIOS%20COMUNS%202004_PT.pdf
  10. Onde estão os números, micro rede do Economia & Finanças in http://estatisticasenumeros.economiafinancas.com/2010/01/estatisticas-da-educacao-em-portugal-1961-a-2008/
  11. PLano Nacional de Leitura, Ministério da Educação, Governo de Portugal http://www.planonacionaldeleitura.gov.pt/pnltv/apresentacao.php?idDoc=7
  12. Plano Tecnológico da Educação, Governo de Portugal in http://www.pte.gov.pt/pte/PT/OPTE/index.htm
  13. Direção Geral da Educação, Programas e Projetos nas Escolas - Outros Projetos da DGE, Ministério da Educação e Ciência, in http://www.dgidc.min-edu.pt/outrosprojetos/index.php
  14. http://www.virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/Portugal#Education_in_Portugal
  15. Plano Nacional de Leitura, Ministério da Educação, Governo de Portugal in http://www.planonacionaldeleitura.gov.pt/pnltv/apresentacao.php?idDoc=1
  16. http://www.virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/Portugal#Education_in_Portugal
  17. http://www.virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/Portugal#Education_in_Portugal
  18. Direção Geral de Educação, Programas e Projetos nas Escolas - Outros Projetos da DGE, Ministério da Educação in http://www.dgidc.min-edu.pt/outrosprojetos/index.php?s=directorio&pid=53
  19. Direção Geral de Educação, Programas e Projetos nas Escolas - Outros Projetos da DGE, Ministério da Educação in http://www.dgidc.min-edu.pt/outrosprojetos/index.php?s=directorio&pid=4
  20. Direção Geral de Educação, Programas e Projetos nas Escolas - Outros Projetos da DGE, Ministério da Educação in http://www.dgidc.min-edu.pt/outrosprojetos/index.php?s=directorio&pid=4
  21. http://www.virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/Portugal#Education_in_Portugal
  22. Direção Geral de Educação, Programas e Projetos nas Escolas - Outros Projetos da DGE, Ministério da Educação in http://www.dgidc.min-edu.pt/outrosprojetos/index.php?s=directorio&pid=70
  23. http://www.virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/Portugal#Education_in_Portugal
  24. Direção Geral de Educação, Programas e Projetos nas Escolas - Outros Projetos da DGE, Ministério da Educação in http://www.dgidc.min-edu.pt/outrosprojetos/index.php?s=directorio&pid=7
  25. Direção Geral de Educação, Programas e Projetos nas Escolas - Outros Projetos da DGE, Ministério da Educação in http://www.dgidc.min-edu.pt/outrosprojetos/index.php?s=directorio&pid=7
  26. Direção Geral de Educação, Programas e Projetos nas Escolas - Outros Projetos da DGE, Ministério da Educação in http://www.dgidc.min-edu.pt/outrosprojetos/index.php?s=directorio&pid=7
  27. ERTE, Conta-nos uma História - Podcast na Educação, Direção Geral da Educação, Ministério da Educação in Direção Geral de Educação, Programas e Projetos nas Escolas - Outros Projetos da DGE, Ministério da Educação in http://www.dgidc.min-edu.pt/outrosprojetos/index.php?s=directorio&pid=4
  28. Direção Geral de Educação, Programas e Projetos nas Escolas - Outros Projetos da DGE, Ministério da Educação in http://www.dgidc.min-edu.pt/outrosprojetos/index.php?s=directorio&pid=7
  29. Direção Geral de Educação, Programas e Projetos nas Escolas - Outros Projetos da DGE, Ministério da Educação in http://www.dgidc.min-edu.pt/outrosprojetos/index.php?s=directorio&pid=7
  30. Direção Geral de Educação, Programas e Projetos nas Escolas - Outros Projetos da DGE, Ministério da Educação in http://www.dgidc.min-edu.pt/outrosprojetos/index.php?s=directorio&pid=7
  31. Direção Geral de Educação, Programas e Projetos nas Escolas - Outros Projetos da DGE, Ministério da Educação in http://www.dgidc.min-edu.pt/outrosprojetos/index.php?s=directorio&pid=7
  32. ERTE, Dinamização e Projetos, Ministério da Educação in http://erte.dgidc.min-edu.pt/index.php?section=13
  33. ERTE, Dinamização e Projetos, Ministério da Educação in http://erte.dgidc.min-edu.pt/index.php?section=13
  34. For further information you can see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Portugal#Higher_education
  35. Universidade Aberta, http://www.univ-ab.pt/emissoes/emissoes.php?emissao=37
  36. http://www.virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/Portugal#Learning_platforms
  37. http://www.virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/Portugal#Learning_platforms

1. ReVica/VISCED page for Portugal (http://virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/Portugal)

Reports

2. Hylén, J. et al. (2012), “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing. http://oer.unescochair-ou.nl/?wpfb_dl=38


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