Difference between revisions of "Portugal"

From POERUP - Policies for OER Uptake
Jump to: navigation, search
(Further information)
Line 13: Line 13:
 
=== Further information ===
 
=== Further information ===
  
Portugal was integrated into the Roman Republic and colonized by Germanic peoples (as Suevi and Visigoths), giving up in the seventh century the Moors conquest land. During the Christian reconquest it was formed the Portucalense county integrated, in the first in the Kingdom of Galicia and then in the Kingdom of León. In 1139 it was established the Kingdom of Portugal, whose independence was established in 1143.
+
The land within the borders of the current Portuguese Republic has been continuously settled since prehistoric times. In the 8th century most of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered by Moorish invaders professing Islam, which were later expelled by the Knights Templar. It was integrated into the Roman Republic and colonized by Germanic peoples (as Suevi and Visigoths), giving up in the seventh century the Moors conquest land. During the Christian reconquest it was formed the Portucalense county integrated, in the first in the Kingdom of Galicia and then in the Kingdom of León. In 1139 it was established the Kingdom of Portugal, whose independence was established in 1143.
 
In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Portugal expanded western influence as a result of pioneering the Age of Discovery, establishing an important empire with possessions in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South America, becoming the economic power, political and military more important to worldwide, which lasted almost 600 years since the conquest of Ceuta to Macau transference  to China in 1999, beginning here its international importance declination in the nineteenth century with the independence of Brazil (its largest colony).
 
In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Portugal expanded western influence as a result of pioneering the Age of Discovery, establishing an important empire with possessions in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South America, becoming the economic power, political and military more important to worldwide, which lasted almost 600 years since the conquest of Ceuta to Macau transference  to China in 1999, beginning here its international importance declination in the nineteenth century with the independence of Brazil (its largest colony).
 
In 1910 the monarchy was overthrown and started the First Portuguese Republic which instability culminated in the imposition of an autocratic regime called New State (Estado Novo). In 1974, after the Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos cravos), which ended with the Portuguese Colonial War (which culminated in the independence of the last overseas provinces of Portugal, namely Angola and Mozambique), introduced to Portuguese democracy, prevailing at that time. In 1976 a Democratic Constitution was approved (main law that regulates the Portuguese Republic and all other laws) and set up the local political powers (municipalities) and autonomous regional governments of the Azores and Madeira.
 
In 1910 the monarchy was overthrown and started the First Portuguese Republic which instability culminated in the imposition of an autocratic regime called New State (Estado Novo). In 1974, after the Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos cravos), which ended with the Portuguese Colonial War (which culminated in the independence of the last overseas provinces of Portugal, namely Angola and Mozambique), introduced to Portuguese democracy, prevailing at that time. In 1976 a Democratic Constitution was approved (main law that regulates the Portuguese Republic and all other laws) and set up the local political powers (municipalities) and autonomous regional governments of the Azores and Madeira.
 
Although considered a developed country Portugal has a Human Development Index (HDI) very high, which has been declined in recent years (40 th place among 47 countries in 2010). Of note is the fact that both the health system and the education are public.
 
Although considered a developed country Portugal has a Human Development Index (HDI) very high, which has been declined in recent years (40 th place among 47 countries in 2010). Of note is the fact that both the health system and the education are public.
Considered one of the most globalized and peaceful nations of the World, Portugal was a founding member of the United Nations (UN), European Union (including the Eurozone and the Schengen Area), the Organization of the North Atlantic Treaty (NATO), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP). In 1999 Portugal joined the Euro Zone <ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portugal</ref> and currently is going through a big economic and financial crisis.
+
Considered one of the most globalized and peaceful nations of the World, Portugal was a founding member of the United Nations (UN), European Union (including the Eurozone and the Schengen Area), the Organization of the North Atlantic Treaty (NATO), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP). In 1999 Portugal joined the Eurozone and in 2000 Portugal adopted the the euro (€) currency. The country is presently a democratic republic with a president (currently Aníbal Cavaco Silva) and prime minister (currently Pedro Passos Coelho). <ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portugal</ref> Portugal is nowadays going through a big economic and financial crisis.
Statistically Its population is nearly 10, 600,000 having suffered an increase in the aging population in the last decade (about 19% of the population aged 65 or older) and an increase in the educational level of the population - 1,262,449 individuals college degree - (double the figure a decade ago)<ref>INE, Censos 2011, preliminary results in http://censos.ine.pt/xportal/xmain?xpid=CENSOS&xpgid=ine_censos_publicacao_det&menuBOUI=13707294&contexto=pu&PUBLICACOESpub_boui=122073978&PUBLICACOESmodo=2&selTab=tab1</ref>
+
Statistically Its population is 10,561,614, of which 547,631 live in Lisbon, the country's capital and largest city, located in the South, and 237,584 in Porto, also known as Oporto. It has suffered an increase in the aging population in the last decade (about 19% of the population aged 65 or older) and an increase in the educational level of the population - 1,262,449 individuals college degree - (double the figure a decade ago)<ref>INE, Censos 2011, preliminary results in http://censos.ine.pt/xportal/xmain?xpid=CENSOS&xpgid=ine_censos_publicacao_det&menuBOUI=13707294&contexto=pu&PUBLICACOESpub_boui=122073978&PUBLICACOESmodo=2&selTab=tab1</ref>
  
 
== Education in {{PAGENAME}} ==
 
== Education in {{PAGENAME}} ==

Revision as of 08:06, 27 October 2012

Overview

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Located in southwestern Europe, Portugal is the westernmost country of mainland Europe and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east. The Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are also part of Portugal.

Its population is nearly 10,600,000.

Its capital is Lisbon.


Further information

The land within the borders of the current Portuguese Republic has been continuously settled since prehistoric times. In the 8th century most of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered by Moorish invaders professing Islam, which were later expelled by the Knights Templar. It was integrated into the Roman Republic and colonized by Germanic peoples (as Suevi and Visigoths), giving up in the seventh century the Moors conquest land. During the Christian reconquest it was formed the Portucalense county integrated, in the first in the Kingdom of Galicia and then in the Kingdom of León. In 1139 it was established the Kingdom of Portugal, whose independence was established in 1143. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Portugal expanded western influence as a result of pioneering the Age of Discovery, establishing an important empire with possessions in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South America, becoming the economic power, political and military more important to worldwide, which lasted almost 600 years since the conquest of Ceuta to Macau transference to China in 1999, beginning here its international importance declination in the nineteenth century with the independence of Brazil (its largest colony). In 1910 the monarchy was overthrown and started the First Portuguese Republic which instability culminated in the imposition of an autocratic regime called New State (Estado Novo). In 1974, after the Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos cravos), which ended with the Portuguese Colonial War (which culminated in the independence of the last overseas provinces of Portugal, namely Angola and Mozambique), introduced to Portuguese democracy, prevailing at that time. In 1976 a Democratic Constitution was approved (main law that regulates the Portuguese Republic and all other laws) and set up the local political powers (municipalities) and autonomous regional governments of the Azores and Madeira. Although considered a developed country Portugal has a Human Development Index (HDI) very high, which has been declined in recent years (40 th place among 47 countries in 2010). Of note is the fact that both the health system and the education are public. Considered one of the most globalized and peaceful nations of the World, Portugal was a founding member of the United Nations (UN), European Union (including the Eurozone and the Schengen Area), the Organization of the North Atlantic Treaty (NATO), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP). In 1999 Portugal joined the Eurozone and in 2000 Portugal adopted the the euro (€) currency. The country is presently a democratic republic with a president (currently Aníbal Cavaco Silva) and prime minister (currently Pedro Passos Coelho). [1] Portugal is nowadays going through a big economic and financial crisis. Statistically Its population is 10,561,614, of which 547,631 live in Lisbon, the country's capital and largest city, located in the South, and 237,584 in Porto, also known as Oporto. It has suffered an increase in the aging population in the last decade (about 19% of the population aged 65 or older) and an increase in the educational level of the population - 1,262,449 individuals college degree - (double the figure a decade ago)[2]

Education in Portugal

For a general description of education in Portugal see Education:Portugal.


e-learning

For a description more focussed to e-learning see E-learning:Portugal.


Quality procedures

Universities

(taken from Re.ViCa)

A major review of the accreditation and quality assurance practices of Portuguese higher education is being performed by an international review committee formed through the European Network for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, ENQA, following a request made by the Government in November 2005. The review committee provides advice on the current legal framework supporting accreditation and quality assurance methodologies, as ,well as on appropriate structures for implementing a national accreditation and evaluation agency following current best quality assurance and accreditation practices in Europe.

http://www.enqa.eu/files/EPHEreport.pdf The article of the twente University gives an overview how the recommendations of the ENQUa review are translated into the education policies;

Law 38/2007 of 16 August sets out the legal framework for the evaluation of higher education institutions and study programmes.

http://www.utwente.nl/cheps/research/higher_education_monitor/2008%20countryreportportugal.pdf

Quality assurance of higher education in Portugal has been based on the Higher Education Evaluation Act 1994. This act was closely developed in cooperation with the Conference of Rectors of Public Universities (CRUP) and forms the backbone of what is widely termed “the contractual model”. The act resulted in the establishment of CNAVES as a national agency for quality assurance of higher education. The act was highly inspired by the Dutch model and retains many characteristics from this, including, above all, placing responsibility for the quality assurance system with an organisation representing the institutions of higher education. The contractual model, which reflects the large extent of institutional representation through the representative entities and evaluation councils, has created a strong sense of ownership and commitment to the quality assurance processes, which would otherwise have been extremely difficult to achieve. The model was fit for purpose at the time of its establishment, but was from the early days also associated with a number of weaknesses, which are analysed in this review. Ten years of CNAVES’s evaluations have, however, also accumulated a number of positive experiences that should be considered carried over into a new quality assurance system.

Source: [[1]]


The Agência de Avaliação e Acreditação do Ensino Superior or the Agency for Assessment and Accreditation of Higher Education (A3ES)

The Portuguese state created this private law foundation, by means of Decree-Law no. 369/2007, of 5th November, aiming at promoting and ensuring the quality of higher education. The Agency is a private law foundation, established for an indeterminate period of time, with legal status and recognised as being of public utility. The Agency is independent in its decisions, without prejudice of the guidelines fixed by the State. Its web site is: http://www.a3es.pt

Schools

(taken from VISCED)

School inspection is an autonomous activity, and the body responsible for assessing the quality of the education system is the Inspectorate-General for Education (IGE) www.ige.min-edu.pt/_PT. It looks at the administrative/financial level and pedagogical level and produces reports on the situation. Another central department, GEPE (Education Planning and Statistics Office, www.gepe.min-edu.pt), is in charge of the educational statistics; it collects data every year on many issues. One of the statistical tools focuses specifically on ICT – equipment, infrastructure, connectivity, software, and online services. With the cooperation of Higher Education institutions an Observatory for the Technological Plan for Education has also been created. The last major ICT in school survey in our country in the last 12 months was a diagnostic study of the technological modernisation of the school system in Portugal (Estudo de Diagnóstico: a modernização tecnológica do sistema de ensino em Portugal)


Internet in Portugal

Internet in Education

The Plano Tecnológico da Educação (Technological Plan for Education – PTE) intends to place Portugal among the five most advanced European countries in terms of school’s technological modernisation. The main areas of intervention of the PTE are Technology, Contents and teacher Training. These areas integrate in a transversal way every domain related to the modernisation of the Portuguese school system. Within the PTE several initiatives have been launched, including:

High-speed broadband Internet – to ensure high-speed broadband Internet access among schools;
Internet in the classroom / local area networks – to ensure Internet access in all classrooms and all school spaces;
Programme e.escola 2.0 – following the previous programme (e-escola) this new programme, designed to meet the Digital Agenda's objectives, focus on three main aims: to guarantee the continuity of access to laptops and Internet connection, with special conditions for the educative community; to promote the creation and use of digital content; and, to foster the use of next-generation networks (1)

Copyright law in Portugal

Copyright law in Education

OER Initiatives in Portugal

In its response to the OECD questionnaire, Portugal reported that it has chosen to focus its OER efforts on young children (ISCED sectors 1 to 3). (2)

National OER initiatives

Portal das Escolas

Within the PTE a repository of digital contents for teachers and students called Portal das Escolas (Schools’ Portal), has been created. In the Schools’ Portal it is possible to find relevant information about the schools and their educational communities and a repository that offers over a thousand digital educational resources that can be used in teaching. This repository of digital educational resources can include text, images, videos or music. Registered users can also upload resources. All schools in the country are represented on the website and may disseminate educational initiatives and information of interest to the general public. Schools’ Portal is a new digital platform of reference for schools in Portugal, and was built with a modular logic and services will be available gradually. In the first phase, the portal is aimed at teachers and focuses on a key objective of the Technological Plan for Education, which is the use of digital educational resources in education. It is possible for teachers to access the existing contents, but also contribute as authors to the enrichment of the content repository. After being duly registered in the Schools’ Portal, with data validated by the Ministry of Education (MoE), teachers in public education up to 12th grade can upload educational resources into this repository. To ensure that the Schools’ Portal is a space in which each user can see material and information that will be useful for their school, professional and academic life, the MoE will adopt mechanisms for validation of these user-provided educational resources before they are made available. The Schools’ Portal is the largest collaborative network of education in Portugal, stimulating the production, sharing and use of digital content for the teachers’ community. (1)

e-Escolinha

The e-Escolinha programme aimed at all pupils in the first years of state and private schools. Its goal is to guarantee the general use of computers and the internet, in order to promote access to knowledge. In this context the Government distributed the personal computer Magalhães1 to these children. This computer is specifically designed for children in this age range. It is shock and liquid proof, light and small and yet can be used by the whole family. Magalhães is supplied with educational contents which are specially selected for these children and equipped for internet access (www.eescolinha.gov.pt). (1)

Regional OER initiatives

Institutional OER initiatives

References

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portugal
  2. INE, Censos 2011, preliminary results in http://censos.ine.pt/xportal/xmain?xpid=CENSOS&xpgid=ine_censos_publicacao_det&menuBOUI=13707294&contexto=pu&PUBLICACOESpub_boui=122073978&PUBLICACOESmodo=2&selTab=tab1

1. ReVica/VISCED page for Portugal (http://virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/Portugal)

Reports

2. Hylén, J. et al. (2012), “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing. http://oer.unescochair-ou.nl/?wpfb_dl=38


> Countries
> POERUP

>> Main Page