Difference between revisions of "Indonesia"

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''by [[Paul Bacsich]] for [[Re.ViCa]]. Updated by [[Cecilia Sianipar]] for [[VISCED]]''
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[[Policies Survey]] notes:
  
''For entities in Indonesia see [[:Category:Indonesia]]''
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: ''Indonesia'' notes that it is developing OER. It has committed to OER as part of its strategy of serving the educational needs of a population of nearly 250 million spread over 17,000 islands and three time zones. Indonesia's National Education Development Strategy 2010–2014 makes reference to the incorporation of OER. At the regulatory level there is a Ministerial Regulation on OER, whilst at the operational level, the [[Indonesian Higher Education Network]] (INHERENT) was established in 2007 for resource-sharing in education and research, in which all development of resources will be based on open source and open access principles. There is also a national repository for publications.
  
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== Overview ==
  
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<!-- copy material from VISCED/Re.ViCa wiki
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Use the style [[Has population::7,600,000]] and [[Has capital::Sofia]] for population and capital. -->
  
== Partners and Experts situated in Indonesia ==
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''Indonesia'' is a republic, with an elected parliament and president. Its population is [[Has population::237,000,000]].
  
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The nation's capital city is [[Has capital::Jakarta]]. The country shares land borders with [[Papua New Guinea]], [[East Timor]] and [[Malaysia]]. Other neighboring countries include [[Singapore]], the [[Philippines]], [[Australia]], and the [[Indian]] territory of the [[Andaman and Nicobar Islands]].
  
== Indonesia in a nutshell  ==
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Administratively, Indonesia consists of 33 provinces, five of which have special status. Each province has its own political legislature and governor. The provinces are subdivided into regencies and cities, which are further subdivided into subdistricts, and again into village groupings. Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in 2001, the regencies and cities have become the key administrative units, responsible for providing most government services. The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life, and handles matters of a village or neighborhood through an elected village chief.
 
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(Sourced from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesia)
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The Republic of ''Indonesia'' (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia), is a country in Southeast Asia. Comprising 17,508 islands, it is the world's largest archipelagic state. With a population of 222 million people in 2006, it is the world's fourth most populous country and the most populous Muslim-majority nation, although officially it is not an Islamic state.
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[[Image:Indonesia.gif|thumb|right|450px|Indonesia.gif]] Indonesia is a republic, with an elected parliament and president.
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The nation's capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with [[Papua New Guinea]], [[East Timor]] and [[Malaysia]]. Other neighboring countries include [[Singapore]], the [[Philippines]], [[Australia]], and the [[Indian]] territory of the [[Andaman and Nicobar Islands]].
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Administratively, Indonesia consists of 33 provinces, five of which have special status. Each province has its own political legislature and governor. The provinces are subdivided into regencies and cities, which are further subdivided into subdistricts, and again into village groupings. Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in 2001, the regencies and cities have become the key administrative units, responsible for providing most government services. The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life, and handles matters of a village or neighborhood through an elected village chief.  
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The provinces of Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua, and West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces.  
 
The provinces of Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua, and West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces.  
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* The Acehnese government, for example, has the right to create an independent legal system; in 2003, it instituted a form of Sharia (Islamic law).
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* Yogyakarta was granted the status of Special Region in recognition of its pivotal role in supporting Indonesian Republicans during the Indonesian Revolution.
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* Papua, formerly known as Irian Jaya, was granted special autonomy status in 2001.
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* Jakarta is the country's special capital region.
  
*The Acehnese government, for example, has the right to create an independent legal system; in 2003, it instituted a form of Sharia (Islamic law).
 
*Yogyakarta was granted the status of Special Region in recognition of its pivotal role in supporting Indonesian Republicans during the Indonesian Revolution.
 
*Papua, formerly known as Irian Jaya, was granted special autonomy status in 2001.
 
*Jakarta is the country's special capital region.
 
  
<br>
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=== Further information ===
  
== Education in Indonesia  ==
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''For further general information see [[Wikipedia:{{PAGENAME}}]].''
  
=== Indonesia education policy  ===
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== Education in {{PAGENAME}} ==
  
(Sourced from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Indonesia)
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''For a general description of education in {{PAGENAME}} see [[Education:{{PAGENAME}}]].''
  
[[Image:Logo tutwurihandayani.jpg|thumb|right|150px]]
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<!-- copy material from VISCED/Re.ViCa wiki -->
  
Education in Indonesia is under the responsibility of the [http://http://kemdikbud.go.id/kemdikbud/ Ministry of Education and Culture] (Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan or Kemdikbud) and the [http://kemenag.go.id/ Ministry of Religious Affairs] (Kementerian Agama or Kemenag). In Indonesia, all citizens must undertake nine years of compulsory education which consists of six years at elementary level and three in secondary level. Islamic schools are under the responsibility of the Ministry of Religious Affairs.
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=== e-learning ===
  
Education is defined as a planned effort to establish a study environment and education process so that the student may actively develop his/her own potential to gain the religious and spiritual level, consciousness, personality, intelligence, behavior and creativity to him/herself, other citizens and for the nation. The Constitution also notes that education in Indonesia is divided into two major parts, formal and non-formal. Formal education is further divided into three levels, primary, secondary and tertiary education.  
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''For a description more focussed to e-learning see [[E-learning:{{PAGENAME}}]].''
  
Schools in Indonesia are run either by the government (negeri) or private sectors (swasta). Some private schools refer to themselves as "national plus schools" which means that they intend to go beyond the minimum government requirements, especially with the use of English as medium of instruction or having an international-based curriculum instead of the national one.  
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<!-- copy material from VISCED/Re.ViCa wiki -->
  
<br> '''History'''
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The major provider of distance learning in the higher education sector is the Universitas Terbuka. UT offers nearly 1,000 courses through 29 study programs. There are four faculties: Economics (FE), Social and Political Sciences (FISIP), Mathematics and Natural Science (FMIPA), Teacher Training and Educational Sciences (FKIP) and three graduate programs. The FE, FISHIP and FMIPA provide education to high school graduates. The FKIP primarily offers in-service training for practising primary and secondary school teachers. UT had 646,467 students in 2010, 83% of which were teachers taking courses through FKIP. Most UT students are expected to study independently and teaching is primarily through correspondence. Printed learning materials are supplemented by radio and TV broadcasts, CD-ROMs and Web-based materials using the Moodle platform. As a national institution, UT collaborates with both public universities and a number of private universities across Indonesia. Universities in the provinces share their facilities with UT to provide fee-based tuition to UT students. In addition, the Distance Learning Program Unit of the Open University (UPBJJ-UT) cooperates with other Indonesian universities to develop new courses in specialised fields. The UT is not the only distance education provider in the higher education sector. There are currently Distance Learning Centres (DLCs) at four other Indonesian universities: Udayana University, Universitas Indonesia, University of Riau and Univeristas Hasanuddin Makassar. These DLCs are part of the Global Development Network funded by the World Bank. (2)
  
Early kingdoms: education system in the era of Hindu-Buddhist civilization is called karsyan. Karsyan is a place of hermitage. This method is highly religious, aimed to draw oneself closer to God.  
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The School of Internet (SOI) Asia works in concert with a number of Indonesian universities in the provision of online distance education. The SOI Asia is an international project utilising satellite-based Internet to distribute live lectures sourced from a number of Japanese higher education institutions. Indonesian universities participating in the SOI Asia project include Brawijaya University Sam Ratulangi University, Hasanuddin University, Institute of Technology Bandung and University of Syiah Kuala. In addition to live lectures, SOI Asia broadcasts the proceedings of workshops, conferences, talks and symposia, as well as providing online access to past lectures and course materials in the fields of ICT, science and environmental studies. (2)
  
Era of Islamic states: the emergence of Islamic state in Indonesia is noted by the acculturation of both Islamic tradition and Hindu-Buddhist tradition. At this time period, pondokpesantren, a type of Islamic boarding school was introduced and several of them were established. The location of pesantren is mostly far away from the hustling crowd of the city, resembling the location of Karsyan.  
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In 2002, the Ministry of National Education launched the Open Senior Secondary Schools project. One aim of the project was to test the feasibility of e-learning as the primary mode of delivery at the secondary school level. Open Senior Secondary Schools were established different parts of  Indonesia: Bogor in West Java Province, Pemalang in Java Province, Benkalis in Riau, Surabaya and Malang in East Java, Samarinda in East Kalimantan, and Pangkep in South Sulawesi. As part of the project, e-learning materials were used to supplement printed materials in modular instruction. In the end, the Open Senior Secondary School initiative failed to move past the pilot stage, although it continued for a number of years. Part of the problem was that the infrastructure to support the wider use of e-learning in Indonesian schools did not yet exist. In 2002, less than 0.3% of the Indonesian population had Internet access. This low rate of Internet penetration was due primarily to two factors: the prohibitively high cost of Internet connections and the rudimentary telecommunications infrastructure in rural areas. In retrospect, the Open Senior Secondary Schools initiative was too ambitious. (2)
  
Colonial era: elementary education was introduced by the Dutch in Indonesia during the colonial era. Initially, it was reserved for the Dutch (and other Europeans) only. In 1870, with the growth of Dutch Ethical Policy formulated by Conrad Theodor van Deventer, some of these Dutch-founded schools opened the doors for bumiputera. They were called Sekolah Rakjat, the embryo of what is called Sekolah Dasar today.
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=== Quality procedures ===
  
The Dutch introduced a system of formal education for the local population of Indonesia, although this was restricted to certain privileged children. The system they introduced was roughly similar to the current structure, with the following levels:
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<!-- there may be material on the VISCED/Re.ViCa wiki -->
  
*ELS (Dutch: Europeesche Lagere School) - Primary School for Europeans
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== Internet in {{PAGENAME}} ==
*HIS (Dutch: Hollandsch-Inlandsche School) - Primary School for Natives
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*MULO (Dutch: Meer Uitgebreid Lager Onderwijs) - Middle School
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*AMS (Dutch: Algeme(e)ne Middelbare School) - High School or College
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*HBS (Dutch: Hogere Burger School) - Pre-University
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The segregation between Dutch and Indonesian in Education pushed several Indonesian figures to start educational institutions for local people. Ahmad Dahlan founded Muhammadiyah in November 1912, and Ki Hajar Dewantara founded Taman Siswa in July 1922. Pesantrens were also mushrooming rapidly during this time period.  
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Internet hosts (2010) - 1.269 million
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Internet users (2008) - 30 million (2)
  
The Dutch colonial government also established a number of universities for native Indonesian on the island of Java, such as:
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=== Internet in Education ===
  
*School tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Artsen or STOVIA, a medical school in Batavia
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== Copyright law in {{PAGENAME}} ==
*Nederland-Indische Artsen School or NIAS, a medical school in Surabaja
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*Rechts Hoge School, a law school in Batavia
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*De Technische Hoges School, or THS, a technic school in Bandoeng
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By the 1930s, the Dutch had introduced limited formal education to nearly every province of the Dutch East Indies.
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<!-- likely to require new material -->
  
<br>
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=== Copyright law in Education ===
=== Indonesia education system overview ===
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The school year is divided into two semesters. The first commences in July and ends in December while the latter commences in January and ends in June.
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== OER Initiatives in {{PAGENAME}} ==
  
{|
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<!-- some initiatives in the VISCED/Re.ViCa wiki may be OER initiatives -->
|-
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| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" | '''Level/Grade'''
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| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" | '''Typical age'''
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|-
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| Preschool
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|
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|-
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| Pre-school playgroup
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| 3/apr
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|-
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| Kindergarten
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| 4/jun
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|-
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| Primary School
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|
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|-
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| 1st Grade
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| 6–7
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|-
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| 2nd Grade
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| 7–8
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|-
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| 3rd Grade
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| 8–9
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|-
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| 4th Grade
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| 9–10
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|-
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| 5th Grade
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| 10–11
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|-
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| 6th Grade
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| 11–12
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|-
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| Middle School
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|
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|-
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| 7th grade
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| dec/13
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|-
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| 8th Grade
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| 13-14
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|-
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| 9th Grade
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| 14-15
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|-
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| High School
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|
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|-
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| 10th Grade
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| 15–16
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|-
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| 11th Grade
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| 16–17
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|-
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| 12th Grade
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| 17–18
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|-
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| Post-secondary education
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|
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|-
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| Tertiary education (College or University)
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| Ages vary (usually four years,
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|-
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|
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| referred to as Freshman,
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|-
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|
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| Sophomore, Junior and
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|-
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| Senior years)
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|-
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| Graduate education
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|-
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| Adult education
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|}
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'''Early education:''' from the age of 2, some children in Indonesia attend pre-school playgroup, known as PAUD (Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini). From the age of 4, they attend kindergarten (Taman Kanak-Kanak). This education is not compulsory for Indonesian citizens, as it is aimed to prepare them for Primary Schooling. Of the 49,000 kindergartens in Indonesia, 99.35% of them are privately operated schools. The kindergarten years are usually divided into "Class A" and "Class B" students spending a year in each class.  
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Aid agencies and NGOs employ radio in the provision of non-formal community and adult education. In recent years, UNESCO has worked with P2PNFI Jayagiri–part of Directorate General of Non-Formal Education and Youth Education–to promote the creation of local content for educational radio. This work has extended to support for Community Multimedia Centres (CMC) as sites for the development of locally-created educational programs. (2)
  
'''Primary School:''' children aged 6–11 attend Sekolah Dasar (SD). This level is compulsory for all Indonesian citizens, according to the Constitution. In contrast to the majority of privately run kindergartens, most elementary schools are government-operated public schools, accounting for nearly 93% of all elementary schools in Indonesia. Similar to education systems in the U.S., students must spend six years to complete this level. Some schools offer an accelerated learning program, where students who perform well can complete the level in five years. Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI) is the Islamic schooling alternative to SD, following a curriculum with more focus on Arabic and Islam.
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[[UNESCO]] has established an e-Learning Site, hosted by the Directorate General of Higher Education. The e-Learning Site hosts a range of free learning materials aimed at school-level courses. Learning materials are available in a range of formats including streamed video lecturers and downloadable course notes. (2)
  
'''Middle School:''' generally known by the abbreviation "SMP" (Sekolah Menengah Pertama) is part of basic education in Indonesia. After graduating from primary school, students attend Middle School for three years from the age of 12 to 14. After three years of schooling and graduation, students may move on to High School. Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) is the Islamic schooling equivalent of SMP.
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The ICDE report on regulatory frameworks for distance education could find no legislation or policies in Indonesia in support of OER. (1)
  
'''High School:''' there are two types of High School. The first is generally known by the abbreviation "SMA" (Sekolah Menengah Atas) and second is SMK (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan). SMA differs from SMK in their studies. The students at SMA are prepared to continue their study to university while students of SMK are prepared to be ready to work after graduation, even sans university education. SMA is the Indonesian equivalent of university-preparatory school while SMK resembles more of a vocational school. Students attending SMA will be divided into three groups of studies in their 11th grade, i.e. Science, Social studies, and Linguistics. According to the Constitution, this level of education is not compulsory. Such a fact is reflected by the lower number of High Schools in Indonesia, which is slightly below 9,000. Madrasah Aliyah (MA) is the Islamic schooling equivalent of SMA while Madrasah Aliyah Kejuruan (MAK) is the equivalent of SMK.
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=== National OER initiatives  ===
  
'''Higher education:''' after graduation from High School, students may attend an institution of higher education of their choice. The higher education institution is categorized into two types: public and private. Both are supervised by the Ministry of National Education. There are four types of higher education institution: Universities, Institutes, Academies, and Polytechnics.  
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The Ministry of National Education sponsors a number of SEAMEO (South-East Asian Ministers of Education Organisation) Centres that provide professional development programs for teachers in specialised fields. In addition to their own distance education courses, SEAMEO centres offer Distance Education Packages for the use of other distance education providers. SEAMEO centres in Indonesia include the SEAMEO Regional Centre for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel in Language (SEAMEO QITEP), SEAMEO Regional Centre for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel in Mathematics (SEAMEO QITEP in Mathematics), the SEAMEO Regional Centre for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel in Science (SEAMEO QITEP in Science). The SEAMEO Regional Open Learning Centre (SEAMEO SEAMOLEC) provides open and distance learning programs to teachers using an integrated e-learning environment. SEAMEO SEAMOLEC also offers a range of educational radio programs. SEAMEO SEAMOLEC is part of the [[SEA EduNET]] project. SEA EduNet includes an online repository of open education resources designed for re-use by teachers in South-East Asia. (2)
  
{|
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=== Regional OER initiatives ===
|-
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| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" | '''Type of Degree'''
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| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" | '''Indonesian Term'''
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| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" | '''Equivalent in English-Speaking Countries'''
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|-
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| Diploma 3 (D3)
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| Ahli Madya
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| Associate's Degree
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|-
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| Diploma 4 (D4)
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| Sarjana
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| Bachelor's Degree
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|-
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| Sarjana 1 (S1)
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| Sarjana
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| Bachelor's Degree
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|-
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| Sarjana 2 (S2)
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| Magister
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| Master's Degree
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|-
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| Sarjana 3 (S3)
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| Doktor
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| Doctoral Degree
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|}
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'''Sekolah Luar Biasa/School for special needs:''' students with disabilities/special needs may alternately opt to be enrolled in a separate school from the mainstream called Sekolah Luar Biasa (SLB).
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=== Institutional OER initiatives ===
  
'''Homeschooling/Distance Education:''' based on law of the republic of Indonesia number 20 of 2003 about national education system, part 10, article 31:
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A number of Indonesian universities have established OCW repositories as part of OpenCourseWare Consortium. These include Universitas Indonesia (UI), Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU) and the Udayana University (UNUD). In 2011, the University of Sumatera Utara OpenCourseWare was named the best new site in the OpenCourseWare Consortium. The site shares materials from 177 courses in 12 disciplines, including materials from 20 textbooks. All of the content is available both in English and Indonesian. (2)
  
#Distance education is organized in lines, levels and types of education.  
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In 2006, the Anti Corruption and Governance Unit from Soegijapranata Catholic University launched an online program which aimed to increase high school students’ awareness of anti-corruption activities. The e-learning program involved case studies, digital comics, interactive games and tuition on information searching and retrieval as well as opportunities for students to post their own content on school Web sites. Overall, the project was a success. Feedback from 150 students indicated that the majority of students responded positively to e-learning experience. Almost 80% found the program beneficial for the development of their critical thinking skills. However, there were some negatives. Some teachers found the challenge of delivering an online program extremely daunting, while a small minority disliked e-learning. Another major problem was connection speeds. Students and teachers were frequently frustrated by the time it took to download digital photographs and images. The program was carried out in partnership with the Indonesian Commission on Corruption Eradication. (2)
#Distance education serves to provide educational services to groups’ people who can not take part in education or regular face to face.  
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#Distance education is organized in various forms, modes, and coverage supported by the facilities and service learning and assessment system guarantee the quality of graduate education in accordance with national standards.
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Form of distance education includes education programs in writing (correspondence), radio, audio / video, TV, and / or network-based computer. Mode of implementation of distance education includes a single organization (Single mode), or with face to face (dual mode). The scope of distance education can be eye-based education program lessons / courses and / or field-based educational program of study.
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== References ==
  
== Schools in Indonesia ==
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2. ICDE Country Profile for Indonesia (http://www.icde.org/projects/regulatory_frameworks_for_distance_education/country_profiles/indonesia/)
  
<!-- cover pre-primary, primary and secondary (all kinds including vocational)  --> <!--- please include an introduction to schools and a list of schools. If there are too many schools in this country, link to an external list of all the schools (on Ministry’s website or Wikipedia) and list the most important ones (well-known school or exemplar) --> <!-- make sure you include private schools (non-profit, e.g. foundations and for-profit) --> <!-- include a section on homeschooling  if applicable -->
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=== Reports ===
  
'''Early education:'''
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<!-- in something approaching author/date referencing, APA style  -->
  
#Taman Kanak kanak Pak Kasur
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# ICDE Report: ''Regulatory frameworks for distance education: A pilot study in the Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region - Final report''. December 2011. Prepared by the Project Team (Team leader, Dr. Rosalind James) (accessed at http://www.icde.org/filestore/Regulatory_Framework/RegulatoryFrameworksforDEfinalreport2.pdf on Friday 13th July 2012)
#Taman Kanak-kanak Al-Muhajirin
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# ''Education in Indonesia: Rising to the Challenge'', OECD, March 2015, http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/education-in-indonesia_9789264230750-en
#Taman Kanak-kanak Priska
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#Taman Kanak-kanak Cikal
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#Taman Kanak-kanak Bhayangkara
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#Taman Kanak-kanak Khoirunnisa
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#Taman Kanak-kanak Boncel
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#Taman kanak-kanak Bina Harapan
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#Taman Kanak-kanak Rempoa
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#Taman Kanak-kanak Budi Luhur
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#Taman Kanak-kanak Santo Vincentius
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#Taman Kanak-kanak Santa Ursula
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#etc
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'''Primary school:'''
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#[http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daftar_sekolah_dasar_negeri_di_Indonesia List of government primary schools]
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#[http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daftar_sekolah_dasar_swasta_di_Indonesia List of private primary schools]
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'''Middle school:'''
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#[http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daftar_sekolah_menengah_pertama_negeri_di_Indonesia List of government middle schools]
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#[http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daftar_sekolah_menengah_pertama_swasta_di_Indonesia List of private middle schools]
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'''High school:'''
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#[http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daftar_sekolah_menengah_atas_negeri_di_Indonesia List of government high schools]
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#[http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daftar_sekolah_menengah_atas_swasta_di_Indonesia List of private high schools]
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'''Homeschooling:'''
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#[http://homeschoolingkakseto.sch.id/ Homeschooling Kak Seto]
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#[http://homeschoolinglogoskelapagading.blogspot.be/ Homeschooling Logos]
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#[http://www.homeschooling-primagama.com/ Homeschooling Primagama]
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#[http://www.homeschoolingindonesia.com/ Homeschooling Indonesia]
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#[http://ms-academy.org/content/index.php Morning Star Academy]
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== Further and Higher education ==
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=== Universities in Indonesia ===
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The Wikipedia [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_universities_in_Indonesia List of universities in Indonesia] lists 84 universities, although the accuracy of the list is not clear, around a third of the entries have further detail or web sites. Some 57 of the universities are public, with 27 being private.
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<br> In e-learning circles, the best known is [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universitas_Terbuka Universitas Terbuka], or [http://www.ut.ac.id/en/ Indonesia Open University].
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(Sourced from http://www.ut.ac.id/en/ut-in-brief.html)
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Universitas Terbuka (UT) or Indonesia Open University is the 45th State University in Indonesia inaugurated on September 4, 1984, by virtue of Decree of the President of the Republic of Indonesia No. 41 of 1984.
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'''UT was established with the objective:'''
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#to provide expansive opportunity for Indonesian citizens and foreigners, wherever their place of residence, to attain higher education;
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#to provide higher education services for those who, because of their work or due to other reasons, are not able to further their studies in face-to-face prominent higher education institutions.  
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#to develop academic and professional programs so far unaddressed by other universities that meet the genuine needs of national development.
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'''Learning system'''
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Applies a distance and open leaning system. The term distance means that learning is not performed face-to-face, but makes use of media, whether printed media (modules) or non-printed (audio/video, computer/Internet, radio and television broadcasts). Open means there is no limitation as to age, year of graduation, period of study, registration time, and frequency of examinations. The only limitation applied is that UT students must have graduated from High School (SMA or equivalent).
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'''Learning method'''
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UT students are expected to learn independently. This self-learning method means that a student learns on his/her own initiative. UT provides learning materials specifically designed for independent learning. Aside from using materials provided by UT, students can also take the initiative to make use of the library, take tutorials, whether face-to-face or through the Internet, use radio or television broadcasts, or use computer-assisted learning materials and audio/video programs. When faced with difficulty in learning, students can request for information or tutorial assistance to the local Learning Program Unit of the Distance Learning Open University (UPBJJ-UT).
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In many instances, independent learning is determined by the ability to learn efficiently which depends on speed reading and the capacity to grasp the materials. UT students who want to learn efficiently need to have self-discipline, initiative, and a strong motivation to learn. Students are also required to use their time effectively so that they can study regularly according to their own schedule. To learn successfully at UT, prospective students must be prepared to learn independently.
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'''The semester credit system'''
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Like other universities, UT applies a semester credit system (scu) to determine the student's study load in each semester. In this system the study load that must be completed in one study program is measured by a semester credit unit. Each subject is given a credit load of 1-6 scu. One semester is one unit of learning period that lasts approximately 16 weeks.
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In Higher Education with a face-to-face learning system, a student taking a study load of one scu must take a one-hour class every week, and one hour for practice class or studying at home so that in one semester a student must allocate 32 hours of study period. In order to complete one subject with a credit load of 3 scu, one semester requires 96 hours of study time.
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In a distance learning system, the student must also allocate the same period of study as a face-to-face student would (2 hours per week per scu). The only difference is that studying would be carried out independently (at home, in study groups, and through tutorials).
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Specifically in the case of UT, one scu is equivalent to three modules of printed teaching material. One module consists of 40-50 pages so that teaching material with a credit load of 3 scu will consist of approximately 360 – 450 pages depending on the type of subject. .Based on a study conducted, an average student's ability to read and understand material is 5 -6 pages per hour so that in order to complete reading teaching material with a credit load of 3 scu, a student will need around 75 hours (360-450 pages divided by 5-6 pages). If a semester has a 16-week period, the time needed to read the teaching material with a credit load of 3 scu will be 75 hours divided by 16 weeks, or approximately 5 hours per week. As an example, if a student takes 15 scu/semester, he/she will have to allocate a study period of 15 scu divided by 3 scu times 5 hours = 25 hours per week or approximately 5 hours per day (1 week is equal to 5 days of study).
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With such a learning system UT students are expected to allocate a study time in accordance with the scu load they take or to take a scu credit load that fits the study time they are able to allocate, and to take into consideration their own academic ability.
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'''Conducting education programs'''
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In conducting education programs, UT works together with all state universities and a number of private universities as well as with relevant government agencies in Indonesia. In every province or regency/municipality where there are state universities, UT provides its services called the UPBJJ-UT (Distance Learning Program Unit of the Open University). The local State Universities function as the UPBJJ-UT's advisor and provides assistance in formulating learning materials, examination material, tutorials, practice classes, and examinations.
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In order to provide maximum education services for students spread across the country and overseas, UT is cooperating with other institutions such as Bank BRI, Bank BTN, Bank Mandiri, Televisi Republik Indonesia (TVRI), Q-Channel, TV-Edukasi, Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI), State Broadcasting Radios, Private Commercial Radio Broadcasting Stations, Provincial and Regency/Municipality Governments, IGTKI (Association of Indonesian Kindergarten Teachers), Education Attaches in Indonesian Embassies abroad, the Indonesian National and Regional Libraries, the National Archives, PT OVIS Sendnsave, Karunika Cooperative, and PT Pos Indonesia.
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UT also works with institutions wishing to improve the quality of their human resources, whether government agencies, state-owned enterprises or private companies. They can use programs available in the UT or request a new study program designed in accordance with their needs. Presently, UT has been entrusted by the government to improve the quality of Elementary School teachers and teachers of Early-Age Children through a program known as Education Program for Teachers of Elementary Education (or Pendas). In addition, UT has also been entrusted with the task of improving the quality of Human Resources at, among others, ANRI, KPN, the Indonesian Army (TNI), Bank BRI, Bank BNI, PT Garuda Indonesia, PT Merpati Nusantara, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Secretariat of the Vice-President's office, Governments at the Regency/Municipality level, Islamic Boarding Schools, and a number of other institutions.
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=== Polytechnics in Indonesia ===
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[http://www.university-directory.eu/Indonesia/Indonesia-Polytechnics.html#.UFnklLLibPY List of Polytechnics in Indonesia]
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<br>
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== Education reform  ==
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<!-- focus on the last 10 years at most -->
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=== Schools  ===
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=== Post-secondary  ===
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== Administration and finance  ==
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=== Schools  ===
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<!-- describe any issues of school fees or other costs if state schools are not free  -->
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<br>
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=== Post-secondary  ===
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<!-- divide into universities, polytechnics and colleges if need be  --> <!-- for colleges, describe the student fees regime if colleges charge student fees -->
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<br>
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== Quality assurance, inspection and accreditation  ==
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=== Schools  ===
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<!-- describe the inspection agencies  -->
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<br>
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=== Post-secondary  ===
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<!-- subdivide as necessary - QA for HE is usually very different from QA for colleges  --> <!-- describe the accreditation regime and the QA agency or agencies  -->
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See [http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/340/774 The Practice of a Quality Assurance System in Open and Distance Learning: A case study at Universitas Terbuka Indonesia (The Indonesia Open University)] for a case study of [[Universitas Terbuka]].  
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== Information society  ==
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== ICT in education initiatives  ==
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=== Virtual initiatives in schools  ===
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<!-- include virtual schools, virtual classes, schools consuming virtual classes, and other initiatives  including not-schools and services for homeschoolers --> <!-- create a separate wiki page per "school" and add here a short introduction and link to the separate school wiki page. -->
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Virtual schools initiatives:
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#[http://homeschoolingkakseto.sch.id/ Homeschooling Kak Seto]
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#[http://homeschoolinglogoskelapagading.blogspot.be/ Homeschooling Logos]
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#[http://www.homeschooling-primagama.com/ Homeschooling Primagama]
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#[http://www.homeschoolingindonesia.com/ Homeschooling Indonesia]
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#[http://ms-academy.org/content/index.php Morning Star Academy]
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=== Virtual initiatives in post-secondary education  ===
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<!-- for important countries you will want to  divide this into universities, polytechnics and colleges --> <!-- include virtual campuses and virtual universities (distance education) as well as on-campus initiatives  -->
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Virtual university initiative:
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#[http://www.ut.ac.id/en/ Indonesia Open University]
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== Lessons learnt ==
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== References  ==
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*E-LEARNING IN INDONESIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM, by Mohammad Ali (Indonesia University of Education) - http://gauge.u-gakugei.ac.jp/apeid/apeid04/country_papers/indonesia.pdf
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*Indonesia – Developing Higher Education Information Network, by Dr Soekartawi (Professor, Brawijaya University) - http://www.digitallearning.in/articles/article-details.asp?articleid=2200&amp;typ=COUNTRY%20FOCUS
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*Indonesian Parents Look to Advantages of Schooling in Home - http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/news/indonesian-parents-look-to-advantages-of-schooling-in-the-home/369113
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*I'm Terrific child! A homeshooling project in Kendari provides a new kind of early learning experience - http://www.insideindonesia.org/current-edition/i-m-a-terrific-child
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*HSLDA (Advocates for Homeschooling since 1983) - http://www.hslda.org/hs/international/Indonesia/default.asp
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*Parents Take Education by the Horns - http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/09/29/parents-take-education-horns.html
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*Celebrate Home School in Jakarta Indonesia - http://www.celebratehomeschool.com/index.htm
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[[Category:Indonesia|Indonesia]]
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[[Category:POERUP content]]

Revision as of 05:18, 31 March 2015

Policies Survey notes:

Indonesia notes that it is developing OER. It has committed to OER as part of its strategy of serving the educational needs of a population of nearly 250 million spread over 17,000 islands and three time zones. Indonesia's National Education Development Strategy 2010–2014 makes reference to the incorporation of OER. At the regulatory level there is a Ministerial Regulation on OER, whilst at the operational level, the Indonesian Higher Education Network (INHERENT) was established in 2007 for resource-sharing in education and research, in which all development of resources will be based on open source and open access principles. There is also a national repository for publications.

Overview

Indonesia is a republic, with an elected parliament and president. Its population is 237,000,000.

The nation's capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor and Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Administratively, Indonesia consists of 33 provinces, five of which have special status. Each province has its own political legislature and governor. The provinces are subdivided into regencies and cities, which are further subdivided into subdistricts, and again into village groupings. Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in 2001, the regencies and cities have become the key administrative units, responsible for providing most government services. The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life, and handles matters of a village or neighborhood through an elected village chief.

The provinces of Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua, and West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces.

  • The Acehnese government, for example, has the right to create an independent legal system; in 2003, it instituted a form of Sharia (Islamic law).
  • Yogyakarta was granted the status of Special Region in recognition of its pivotal role in supporting Indonesian Republicans during the Indonesian Revolution.
  • Papua, formerly known as Irian Jaya, was granted special autonomy status in 2001.
  • Jakarta is the country's special capital region.


Further information

For further general information see Wikipedia:Indonesia.

Education in Indonesia

For a general description of education in Indonesia see Education:Indonesia.


e-learning

For a description more focussed to e-learning see E-learning:Indonesia.


The major provider of distance learning in the higher education sector is the Universitas Terbuka. UT offers nearly 1,000 courses through 29 study programs. There are four faculties: Economics (FE), Social and Political Sciences (FISIP), Mathematics and Natural Science (FMIPA), Teacher Training and Educational Sciences (FKIP) and three graduate programs. The FE, FISHIP and FMIPA provide education to high school graduates. The FKIP primarily offers in-service training for practising primary and secondary school teachers. UT had 646,467 students in 2010, 83% of which were teachers taking courses through FKIP. Most UT students are expected to study independently and teaching is primarily through correspondence. Printed learning materials are supplemented by radio and TV broadcasts, CD-ROMs and Web-based materials using the Moodle platform. As a national institution, UT collaborates with both public universities and a number of private universities across Indonesia. Universities in the provinces share their facilities with UT to provide fee-based tuition to UT students. In addition, the Distance Learning Program Unit of the Open University (UPBJJ-UT) cooperates with other Indonesian universities to develop new courses in specialised fields. The UT is not the only distance education provider in the higher education sector. There are currently Distance Learning Centres (DLCs) at four other Indonesian universities: Udayana University, Universitas Indonesia, University of Riau and Univeristas Hasanuddin Makassar. These DLCs are part of the Global Development Network funded by the World Bank. (2)

The School of Internet (SOI) Asia works in concert with a number of Indonesian universities in the provision of online distance education. The SOI Asia is an international project utilising satellite-based Internet to distribute live lectures sourced from a number of Japanese higher education institutions. Indonesian universities participating in the SOI Asia project include Brawijaya University Sam Ratulangi University, Hasanuddin University, Institute of Technology Bandung and University of Syiah Kuala. In addition to live lectures, SOI Asia broadcasts the proceedings of workshops, conferences, talks and symposia, as well as providing online access to past lectures and course materials in the fields of ICT, science and environmental studies. (2)

In 2002, the Ministry of National Education launched the Open Senior Secondary Schools project. One aim of the project was to test the feasibility of e-learning as the primary mode of delivery at the secondary school level. Open Senior Secondary Schools were established different parts of Indonesia: Bogor in West Java Province, Pemalang in Java Province, Benkalis in Riau, Surabaya and Malang in East Java, Samarinda in East Kalimantan, and Pangkep in South Sulawesi. As part of the project, e-learning materials were used to supplement printed materials in modular instruction. In the end, the Open Senior Secondary School initiative failed to move past the pilot stage, although it continued for a number of years. Part of the problem was that the infrastructure to support the wider use of e-learning in Indonesian schools did not yet exist. In 2002, less than 0.3% of the Indonesian population had Internet access. This low rate of Internet penetration was due primarily to two factors: the prohibitively high cost of Internet connections and the rudimentary telecommunications infrastructure in rural areas. In retrospect, the Open Senior Secondary Schools initiative was too ambitious. (2)

Quality procedures

Internet in Indonesia

Internet hosts (2010) - 1.269 million Internet users (2008) - 30 million (2)

Internet in Education

Copyright law in Indonesia

Copyright law in Education

OER Initiatives in Indonesia

Aid agencies and NGOs employ radio in the provision of non-formal community and adult education. In recent years, UNESCO has worked with P2PNFI Jayagiri–part of Directorate General of Non-Formal Education and Youth Education–to promote the creation of local content for educational radio. This work has extended to support for Community Multimedia Centres (CMC) as sites for the development of locally-created educational programs. (2)

UNESCO has established an e-Learning Site, hosted by the Directorate General of Higher Education. The e-Learning Site hosts a range of free learning materials aimed at school-level courses. Learning materials are available in a range of formats including streamed video lecturers and downloadable course notes. (2)

The ICDE report on regulatory frameworks for distance education could find no legislation or policies in Indonesia in support of OER. (1)

National OER initiatives

The Ministry of National Education sponsors a number of SEAMEO (South-East Asian Ministers of Education Organisation) Centres that provide professional development programs for teachers in specialised fields. In addition to their own distance education courses, SEAMEO centres offer Distance Education Packages for the use of other distance education providers. SEAMEO centres in Indonesia include the SEAMEO Regional Centre for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel in Language (SEAMEO QITEP), SEAMEO Regional Centre for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel in Mathematics (SEAMEO QITEP in Mathematics), the SEAMEO Regional Centre for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel in Science (SEAMEO QITEP in Science). The SEAMEO Regional Open Learning Centre (SEAMEO SEAMOLEC) provides open and distance learning programs to teachers using an integrated e-learning environment. SEAMEO SEAMOLEC also offers a range of educational radio programs. SEAMEO SEAMOLEC is part of the SEA EduNET project. SEA EduNet includes an online repository of open education resources designed for re-use by teachers in South-East Asia. (2)

Regional OER initiatives

Institutional OER initiatives

A number of Indonesian universities have established OCW repositories as part of OpenCourseWare Consortium. These include Universitas Indonesia (UI), Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU) and the Udayana University (UNUD). In 2011, the University of Sumatera Utara OpenCourseWare was named the best new site in the OpenCourseWare Consortium. The site shares materials from 177 courses in 12 disciplines, including materials from 20 textbooks. All of the content is available both in English and Indonesian. (2)

In 2006, the Anti Corruption and Governance Unit from Soegijapranata Catholic University launched an online program which aimed to increase high school students’ awareness of anti-corruption activities. The e-learning program involved case studies, digital comics, interactive games and tuition on information searching and retrieval as well as opportunities for students to post their own content on school Web sites. Overall, the project was a success. Feedback from 150 students indicated that the majority of students responded positively to e-learning experience. Almost 80% found the program beneficial for the development of their critical thinking skills. However, there were some negatives. Some teachers found the challenge of delivering an online program extremely daunting, while a small minority disliked e-learning. Another major problem was connection speeds. Students and teachers were frequently frustrated by the time it took to download digital photographs and images. The program was carried out in partnership with the Indonesian Commission on Corruption Eradication. (2)

References

2. ICDE Country Profile for Indonesia (http://www.icde.org/projects/regulatory_frameworks_for_distance_education/country_profiles/indonesia/)

Reports

  1. ICDE Report: Regulatory frameworks for distance education: A pilot study in the Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region - Final report. December 2011. Prepared by the Project Team (Team leader, Dr. Rosalind James) (accessed at http://www.icde.org/filestore/Regulatory_Framework/RegulatoryFrameworksforDEfinalreport2.pdf on Friday 13th July 2012)
  2. Education in Indonesia: Rising to the Challenge, OECD, March 2015, http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/education-in-indonesia_9789264230750-en

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